Posted by: chefkscookingschool | April 14, 2011

Chicken, Duck, Turkey and other Poultry

POULTRY DISHES INTRODUCTION

First the Facts:

  1. All chicken grown in Canada is grain fed
  2. No hormones or steroids are fed to chicken
  3. Chickens have free access to feed and water
  4. Chicken farmers do not set retail or wholesale prices
  5. The Canadian chicken industry is responsible for 49,700 jobs
  6. The Canadian chicken industry contributes close to $9.5 billion to the Canadian Economy
  7. The Canadian chicken industry is supply managed
  8. Most chicken farms in Canada are family owned and operated
  9. Chicken manure is a great fertilizer

10.  Canadian chicken barns are thoroughly cleaned between each flock

11.  Chicken is Canada’s favourite meal

12.  Hormone and steroid use has been illegal in chicken production since the 1960s

13.  Chicks are vaccinated to prevent common diseases

14.  The average Canadian eats 30kgs of chicken a year

Nutritional Value of chicken based on portions of 100 grams trimmed of skin and visible fat.

    Fat (in grams) Protein (in grams) Calories
  Breast, Meat Only 2.1 33 159
  Leg, Meat only 6.9 25 170
  Lean Ground Chicken 12.4 22 207

Source: Chicken Data: Moncton University Food Research Centre, 1996
Percentage of the recommended daily allowance of nutrients contained in 100g of cooked skinless chicken breast:

  Niacin 86%  
  Thiamin 5%  
  Riboflavin 7%  
  Pantothenic acid 14%  
  Vitamin B6 33%  
  Vitamin B12 17%  
  Vitamin A 5%  
  Zinc 11%  
  Iron 7%  
  Phosphorous 21%  

Source: Canadian Nutrient File, 1981

Improper food handling and preparation causes over 80% of food borne illness.  Here are four easy steps to follow when cooking with chicken:

Always wash your hands with hot soapy water after handling raw meat.  Thoroughly clean all kitchen surfaces and utensils using a mild bleach and water solution.

Keep raw meat and fish away from other foods.  At the grocery store, keep separate from other foods.  At home, store on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator.  When cooking, use a designated meat only cutting board, preferably glass or acrylic as bacteria can survive in the crevices of wooden cutting boards.

Cook chicken thoroughly until there is no trace of pink and it is cooked to the right temperature.  Never partially cook meat and finish cooking it later.
All chicken pieces, with or without skin and bone, must be cooked to an internal temperature of 165°F (74°C) and whole chickens, stuffed or un-stuffed, must be cooked to an internal temperature of 185°F (85°C).

Always put your prepared food or leftovers in the refrigerator or freezer within two hours after cooking.

  • Whole chickens can be stored in the refrigerator for 2-3 days or in the freezer for up to one year.
  • Chicken Pieces can be stored in the refrigerator for 2-3 days or in the freezer for up to six months.
  • Cooked Chicken can be stored in the refrigerator for 3-4 days or in the freezer for up to three months.
  • Ground Chicken can be stored in the refrigerator for 1-2 days or in the freezer for up to three months.
  • Never thaw poultry at room temperature.  Poultry can be thawed in the microwave, refrigerator or a cold water bath where the water is changed numerous times.
  • Always cook thawed chicken with 48 hours

Chickens raised for meat – called broilers – are raised in climate-controlled barns where they are free to roam and are protected from hot summers, cold winters, predators and disease.

Chickens have unlimited access to clean water and nutritious feed 24 hours a day.

Chickens eat a healthy balanced diet consisting primarily of grains (corn, soya, wheat) and a protein-mineral supplement. All ingredients are government approved.

Chickens are not given hormones. In fact, hormones are not available in Canada and their use is illegal.

Chickens are full grown in about six to eight weeks and farmers produce five or six flocks a year

DUCK

Rich and full of flavour, duck meat is extremely nutritious, with high levels of protein, B vitamins and minerals such as zinc, potassium, magnesium and iron. Weight for weight, it has less meat than chicken and turkey but, because its flavour is strong, a little goes a long way. If you’re cooking duck breast its comparatively high fat content can be reduced by removing the skin, and the layer of fat that sits beneath it, before cooking.

Farmed duck, domesticated from the wild mallard, is the most commonly available, but wild duck is also available in season. Duck is popular in Chinese and Thai cuisine, as well as in European cookery, which often pairs it with fruits such as oranges, raspberries, cherries, cranberries and blueberries.

As is the case with all meat, duck should be bought from a source that you trust – a good supermarket, local butcher, farmers’ market or shop, or a website mail order company.

Whole ducks are good for roasting. Other portions are also available (either skin on or off, on the bone or boneless), including breasts (dry fry, sauté, grill or roast) and legs (use in casseroles or stews). You can also buy smoked duck breast, sliced and ready to eat (it is edged with fat, which can be removed), as well as confit de canard, duck legs that have been cooked and preserved in their own fat – all it needs is to be reheated.

Whichever breed, type or cut of duck you choose, look for birds or cuts that have clear, soft skin, without bruising, blemishing or tears.

As farmed duck meat is so richly flavoured, with a fattier texture than other poultry, cuts such as breasts don’t need to be marinated. However, wild duck breasts, while having just as a strong flavour, can be dry, so will benefit from being marinated for between 4-24 hours; slash the skin a couple of times to help the marinade penetrate further.

Before it goes in the oven, both whole and cuts of duck should be at room temperature, so take it out of the fridge (1 hour for a whole duck; 30 minutes for a cut) before cooking. Keep it covered, in a cool place.

Duck should be stored in the fridge as soon as you get it home. Take off all the wrappings, then wipe it all over (and inside the cavities) with kitchen paper. Put the duck on a tray or a plate wide and deep enough to contain any blood or juice that might seep out. Cover loosely with foil.

Make sure the duck doesn’t touch any over food in the fridge that’s to be eaten raw, or meat that is already cooked. Whole birds and pieces of duck will keep for up to 2 days. As with all poultry follow the same storage, handling and preparation as with chicken.

Roast (whole duck: 2 ¼ hours for ducks weighing 1.75-2 kg, 2 ¾ hours for ducks weighing 2.5-3 kg; breasts, 30 minutes). Dry fry, grill or barbecue (3-4 minutes on each side). Stir fry (cubes or strips, 5-7 minutes).

TURKEY

Producers and retailers adhere to strict standards to assure consumers receive safe turkey products. But there are four critical points when improper handling by consumers could cause the development of bacterial problems which can lead to foodborne illness. They are thawing, preparation, stuffing and cooking.

Thawing

NEVER THAW FROZEN TURKEY AT ROOM TEMPERATURE which falls in the Danger Zone between 4°C (40°F) and 60°C (140°F) where bacteria thrive. Instead leave turkey in the original leak-proof package and use one of the following methods:

  • The preferred method for defrosting whole turkey is to place it on a tray to prevent raw juices dripping onto other foods and thaw completely in the refrigerator. Allow 10 hours per kilogram (5 hours per pound).
  • When time is short, place turkey in a large container or the sink and completely cover with cold water. Change the water every 45 minutes to an hour. Allow 2 hours per kilogram (1 hour per pound). Once thawed, refrigerate immediately and cook within 48 hours.
  • Turkey parts and ground turkey may be thawed in the microwave following manufacturer’s directions. But they must be cooked immediately after thawing.

It’s important that turkey is completely defrosted before cooking so it cooks evenly to destroy any bacteria which might be present. Never refreeze thawed turkey without cooking it first.

Do not thaw a frozen pre-stuffed turkey. It should be cooked from the frozen state.

Preparation

Be careful when handling raw turkey because any surface which comes in contact with it or its juices can be contaminated with bacteria. Wash your hands well in hot soapy water before and after handling raw turkey. Remove plastic wrap from turkey, being careful that raw juices don’t drip on areas where ready-to-eat foods are prepared. Remove neck and giblets from the body cavity of whole turkey; rinse in cold water and cook, if desired, or discard. Rinse turkey inside and out with cold water. Pat dry with paper towels and discard them.

After preparing raw turkey, wash all counters and cutting boards, trays, pans and utensils with hot soapy water. Then sanitize with a mixture of 1 teaspoon (5 mL) bleach for each 4 cups (1 L) of water. Thoroughly rinse with hot water and let air dry.

Stuffing

The safest and easiest way to handle stuffing is to prepare it separately and place it in a covered baking dish to cook during the last half hour of the roasting. The flavour may be enhanced by basting with broth made by cooking the neck and giblets or cooked juices from the roasting pan.

Baking stuffing separately is safer because it can take over two hours for the heat of the oven to penetrate a large stuffed bird. This provides time and temperature for bacteria which might be present in the stuffing to multiply. These bacteria may produce toxins which will not be destroyed by cooking. If you still prefer to cook stuffing in the turkey, it’s safer to use smaller birds. Turkey should be stuffed loosely, about 3/4 cup of stuffing per pound of turkey.

Warm stuffing is an ideal environment for bacterial growth. So whether stuffing is cooked in the turkey or in a baking dish, extra care must be taken during its preparation and cooking. Wet and dry ingredients can be prepared ahead of time and chilled. But they should not be mixed until just before placing the stuffing into the turkey or into a casserole. Never stuff your turkey the night before.

Fresh Young Turkey

Approximate cooking time in hours and minutes.

  Fresh Young Turkey*
(10-16 pounds)
Fresh Young Turkey*
(16-24 pounds)
Roasting/ Baking (325°F) 3-4 hrs.
15-20 min./lb.
(325°F) 4-5 hrs.
12-15 min./lb.
Braising/ Sautéing Not recommended Not recommended
Poaching/ Simmering Not recommended Not recommended
Deep-Frying (365-375°F) About 40 minutes.
3-4 min./lb.
About 60 minutes.
2-3 min./lb.
Oven-Frying (425°F) Not recommended Not recommended
Broiling/ Direct Grilling Not recommended Not recommended
Smoking/ Indirect Grilling 12-20 min./lb. 12-15 min./lb.
MICROWAVE COOKING
Microwave Setting (high) 10 min./lb.
(med) remaining time
Not recommended
Cooking/Standing Time
(for combined total weight
12-15 min./lb.
standing time 20 min.
Not recommended

* If frozen, defrost in refrigerator, allowing 24 hours for every 5 pounds.

Ground Turkey, Burgers and Sausages:

Approximate cooking time in hours and minutes.

  Ground Turkey Turkey Burgers
Roasting/ Baking (in loaf) 375°F uncovered 45-50 min. Not recommended
Braising/ Sautéing (in burgers)
(med-high) 1 min./side
(med-low) 3-4 min./side
(med-high) 1-1 1/2 min./side
(med-low) 1 1/2 -2 1/2 min./side
Poaching/ Simmering Not recommended Not recommended
Deep-Frying (350-365°F) Not recommended Not recommended
Oven-Frying (425°F) Not recommended Not recommended
Broiling/ Direct Grilling (in burgers) 5-6 min./side 2 1/2 -3 min./side
Smoking/ Indirect Grilling Not recommended Not recommended
MICROWAVE COOKING
Microwave Setting (high) Not recommended
Cooking/ Standing Time (for combined total weight) 6 min./lb.
standing time 5 min.
Not recommended
 
  Turkey Sausage Breakfast Sausage Links
Roasting/ Baking (375°F) uncovered 25-30 min. (375°F) 5-6 min./side
Braising/ Sautéing 10-12 min. (med-high) 4-7 min.
Poaching/ Simmering Not recommended Not recommended
Deep-Frying (350-365°F) Not recommended Not recommended
Oven-Frying (425°F) Not recommended Not recommended
Broiling/ Direct Grilling 15 min. turn often Not recommended
Smoking/ Indirect Grilling Not recommended Not recommended
MICROWAVE COOKING
Microwave Setting (high) (high)
Cooking/ Standing Time (for combined total weight) 7-8 min./lb. standing time 5 min. 6-9 min./lb. standing time 5 min.

Turkey Parts (With Bone):

Approximate cooking time in hours and minutes.

  Half Breast Whole Breast
Roasting/ Baking (350°F) 50-60 min.
18-25 min./lb.
(350°F) 1 1/4 -1 3/4 hrs.
15-20 min./lb.
Braising/ Sautéing (med-high) 10-15 min.
(med-low) add liquid cover, simmer 40-50 min.
(med-high) 15-20 min.
(med-low) add liquid cover, simmer 1-1 1/2 hrs.
Poaching/ Simmering Not Recommended Not Recommended
Deep-Frying (350-365°F) Not Recommended Not Recommended
Oven-Frying (425°F) Not Recommended Not Recommended
Broiling/ Direct Grilling Not Recommended Not Recommended
Smoking/ Indirect Grilling 15-25 min./lb. 12-20 min./lb.
MICROWAVE COOKING
Microwave Setting (high) 10 min.
(med) remaining time
(high) 10 min.
(med) remaining time
Cooking/Standing Time
(for combined total weight)
11 min./lb.
standing time 20 min.
12-15 min./lb.
standing time 15 min.
 
  Wing* Wing Drummettes*
Roasting/ Baking (350°F) for 1 hr.
or until internal temperature reaches 180°F
(350°F) for 45 minutes
or until internal temperature reaches 180°F
Braising/ Sautéing (med-high) 15-20 min.
(med-low) add liquid cover, simmer 75-90 min.
(med-high) 15 min.
(med-low) add liquid cover, simmer 65-70 min.
Poaching/ Simmering uncovered
1 1/2 -1 3/4 hrs.
uncovered
1 1/2 -1 3/4 hrs.
Deep-Frying (350-365°F) Not Recommended Not Recommended
Oven-Frying (425°F) Not Recommended Not Recommended
Broiling/ Direct Grilling precook 1 hrs.
8-10 min./side
precook 1 hr.
8-10 min./side
Smoking/ Indirect Grilling ¼ – 1 ½ hrs. 1 1/2-1 3/4 hrs.
MICROWAVE COOKING
     
Microwave Setting (high) 5 min.
(med) remaining time
(high) 5 min.
(med) remaining time
Cooking/Standing Time (for combined total weight) 14 min./lb.
standing time 10 min.
14 min./lb.
standing time 10 min.
 
  Drumsticks* Thighs*
Roasting/ Baking (350°F) for 1 hr. 10 minutes
or until internal temperature reaches 180°F
(350°F) for 1 hr. 10 minutes
or until internal temperature reaches 180°F
Braising/ Sautéing (med-high) 20 min.
(med-low) add liquid cover, simmer 70-80 min.
(med-high) 15 min.
(med-low) add liquid cover, simmer 40-50 min.
Poaching/ Simmering uncovered 1 1/2-1 3/4 hrs. uncovered 1 ½ – 1 ¾ hrs.
Deep-Frying (350-365°F) Not Recommended Not Recommended
Oven-Frying (425°F) Not Recommended Not Recommended
Broiling/ Direct Grilling precook 1 hr.
8-10 min./side
precook 3/4 hr.
8-10 min./side
Smoking/ Indirect Grilling 1 ¾ – 2 hrs. 1 ½ – 1 ¾ hrs.
MICROWAVE COOKING
Microwave Setting (high) 5 min.
(med) remaining time
(high) 5 min.
(med) remaining time
Cooking/Standing Time (for combined total weight) 14 min./lb.
standing time 10 min.
16 min./lb.
standing time 10 min

Turkey Parts (Boneless):

Approximate cooking time in hours and minutes.

  Breast* Breast Fillets*
Roasting/ Baking (325°F) 3-4 hrs.
15-20 min./lb.
(350°F) for 15-20 minutes
or until internal temperature
reaches 170°F
Braising/ Sautéing (med-high) brown 4 min./side
(med-low) simmer 20-30 min.
med-high 7-8 min./side
until internal temperature reaches 170°F
Poaching/ Simmering uncovered 30-40 min. Not recommended
Deep-Frying (350-365°F) Not recommended Not recommended
Oven-Frying (425°F) Not recommended Not recommended
Broiling/ Direct Grilling Not recommended 9-10 minutes turning
occasionally until internal
temperature reaches 170°F
Smoking/ Indirect Grilling 15-20 min./lb. Not recommended
MICROWAVE COOKING
Microwave Setting (high) 3 min.
(med-high) remaining time
(med)
Cooking/ Standing Time (for combined total weight) 10 min./lb.
standing time 10 min.
12 min./lb.
standing time 5 min.
 
  Breast Tenderloins* Thin-Sliced Breast Cutlets*
Roasting/ Baking (350°F) for 35 minutes or
until internal temperature reaches 170°F
(375°F) 10-15 min.
Braising/ Sautéing (med-high) 12-14 minutes
turning occasionally until
internal temperature reaches 170°F
(med-high) 1 1/2 -2 min./side
Poaching/ Simmering uncovered 20-30 min. Not recommended
Deep-Frying (350-365°F) Not recommended 1-2 min.
Oven-Frying (425°F) Not recommended (breaded) 1 1/2 -2 1/2 min./side
Broiling/ Direct Grilling 30-35 minutes turning
occasionally until internal
temperature reaches 170°F
1 1/2-2 min./side
Smoking/ Indirect Grilling 12-15 min./side Not recommended
MICROWAVE COOKING
Microwave Setting (med-high) (med-high)
Cooking/ Standing Time (for combined total weight) 12 min./lb.
standing time 5 min.
9 min./lb.
standing time 5 min.

*To keep skinless parts (especially breasts) moist, brush lightly with oil before baking.

Chicken famers thoroughly clean out their barns between each flock. Disinfection of the barns is an important element of the food safety program. It gives our farmers the distinction of having one of the highest cleanliness standards in the world.

More than chicken alone, poultry on today’s menu represents creativity and tastefulness at their best. The limitless ways of preparing the bird can range from traditional stuffed birds to the all new never before seen dishes such as a strawberry Italian wine cream chicken. This chapter in itself does not concentrate completely on chicken, it is but one of the fabulous poultry dishes discovered or rediscovered within it’s pages.

International in scope, local in flavor the recipes here are easily prepared and a  pleasure to serve. No recipes can be preferred over another, for they all are to good not to try. However when considering something different for the special function, consider this chapter first. My dishes like duck lasagna are sure to be a pleasure with any group. Or, perhaps it’s more of a formal affair then plan the roast guinea fowl with blueberry hollandaise and fly away with the praise you receive.

The ideas for poultry are endless, from grilling, and roasting to sauteeing just let your creativity flow, and enjoy.

No longer is the lowly chicken lowly, it has reached new pinnacles of success and unfortunately, so too has it’s price as purveyors drive the price ever higher. What is exciting however, is that what-ever could be done with chicken can also be accomplished with any other type of bird. Turkey for example has come into it’s own, no longer just the holiday meal center piece, many and new turkey dishes are showing a renewed love for an old friend, with such dishes as turkey fillets creole or smoked turkey in cherry sauce.

APRICOT CHICKEN

1 cup   boiling water

10 oz  preserved dry apricots

2/3 cup safflower oil

1/3 cup  lemon juice

1 tsp  each of garlic powder, onion powder, basil, thyme leaves, oregano leaves, salt, white pepper

1/3 cup minced onion

1/4 cup  minced sweet red bell pepper

2 tbsp butter

1 sliced Spanish onion

1 cup chicken broth

2  lbs chicken pieces

Pour the boiling water over the apricots and soak for 10 minutes. Drain and place into a food processor with the oil, lemon juice, and seasonings. Process for 1 minute.  Pour into a mixing bowl and stir in the minced onion and pepper.

Heat the butter in a skillet and sauté the onion. Add the broth, bring to a boil reducing the stock to 1/3 cup. Add the apricot mixture.

Place the chicken pieces in a large casserole dish. Pour sauce over, cover and bake in a preheated 350F oven for 45 minutes. Uncover and continue to bake for 15 additional minutes.  Serve with rice pilaff.

SERVES 8

AUSTRIAN STUFFED CHICKEN

3 oz  sliced mushrooms

1 fine diced medium onion

1 tbsp safflower oil

2 1/ 2 cup cooked rice, cold

2 cups peas

1  tsp each of salt, pepper, thyme leaves, basil

1/3 tsp cinnamon

1 egg

1‑5 lbs chicken

2 cup  tomato sauce

Sauté the mushrooms and onions in a large skillet with the oil until all the liquid has evaporated. Cool to room temperature. Blend into the cooked rice along with the peas, seasonings and egg.

Stuff this mixture into the chicken, truss the chicken. Place the chicken into a roaster and roast into a 325F  oven for 2 1/2 hours. Check for doneness. Remove chicken from oven. Scoop the stuffing into a serving dish, carve the chicken and serve with tomato sauce on the side.

SERVES 6

BEER BATTERED CHICKEN

1 1/2 lb chicken boneless breasts

2 eggs

1 1/ 2 cup flour

1 cup ice cold beer

1 tsp baking powder

3 cups  safflower oil

Cut the chicken into 1″ strips. Whip the eggs, 1 cup (250 ml) flour, beer, and baking powder together.

Heat the oil to 375F .

Dust the chicken with remaining flour. Dip into the batter then deep fry in small batches to golden brown, reserve hot. Once all the chicken has been cooked, serve.

SERVES 6

BLANQUETTE DE POULET

1 1/2 lb  boneless chicken meat

3 cup chicken stock

1 tsp  salt

3 tsp   thyme leaves

1  bay leaf

20  pearl onions

4  carrots julienned cut

2 tbsp  butter

2 tbsp flour

2 tbsp  lemon juice

2  egg yolks

pinch cayenne pepper

1 tbsp chopped parsley

In a Dutch oven or a large kettle put the chicken, stock, salt, thyme, and bay leaf,  cover and simmer for 45 minutes. Add the onions and carrots continue to simmer for an additional 10 minutes.

Remove 2 cups of liquid. Melt the butter in a small sauce pan, add the flour and cook for 2 minutes over low heat, (do not brown it). Slowly add the 2 cups of liquid stirring until thicken.

Whisk the lemon juice in the egg yolks. Blend into the sauce.  Reheat but do not boil the sauce as this will curdle the eggs. Blend the sauce with the chicken. Stir in the cayenne.  Pour into a serving bowl.

Sprinkle with parsley and serve over noodles or rice.

SERVES 6

CHICKEN FLORENTINE TWIST

6‑4 oz  chicken breasts

10 oz   spinach leaves

6 oz  havarti cheese

6 oz  smoked salmon

2 tbsp melted butter

2 cup chicken velouté

Pound the chicken breasts flat with a meat mallet.

Chop the spinach fine.

Place 2 oz spinach, 1 oz cheese, and 1 oz of salmon on each breast. Roll chicken and secure with toothpicks.

Brush with melted butter place on a baking sheet. Bake for 20 minutes in a preheated 350F oven.

Place on serving dished with the velouté poured over them. Serve.

SERVES 6

CHICKEN IN CHAMPAGNE SAUCE

6‑4oz boneless, skinless chicken breasts

1 2 cup champagne

1 2 cup chicken stock

1 tsp thyme leaves

3 tsp salt

2 tsp green peppercorns

2 tbsp  butter

2 tbsp flour

2 cup light cream

Place the chicken breasts in a sauce pan. Cover with the champagne, stock and the seasonings and simmer gently for 20 minutes. Remove and reserve hot. Increase the temperature under the sauce pan and bring the broth to a boil, reduce to 1 cup. Strain through a cheese cloth.

Heat the butter in a 2nd sauce pan and add the flour, cook for 2 minutes over low heat. Add the strained broth along with the cream. Simmer for 5 minutes.

Place the chicken on serving plates, pour the sauce over the chicken and serve.

SERVES 6

CHICKEN MEATBALL CURRY

2 lbs chicken

1/3 cup fine diced  onion

1/3 cup fine bread crumbs

1 egg

1/2 tsp each of, cayenne, turmeric, ginger powder, black pepper, basil, thyme leaves, oregano, paprika

1 tsp salt

1 minced garlic clove

3 tbsp safflower oil

2 tbsp butter

2 tbsp flour

1 tsp curry powder

1 2 cup chicken stock

1 cup light cream

In a food processor coarse chopped the chicken. Add the onion, bread crumbs, egg, seasonings and garlic. Process into a fine mix. Remove and shape into small balls.

Heat the oil in a large skillet and brown the meat balls. Drain all oil. Transfer the meatballs to a casserole dish.

Heat the butter in a sauce pan add the flour and curry powder cook for 2 minutes over low heat. Add the stock and cream, simmer for 5 minutes. Pour the sauce over the meatballs.

Cover the dish and bake in a preheated 350F oven for 45 minutes.  Serve with rice.

SERVES 6

CHICKEN N CHESTNUTS

4 tbsp safflower oil

1 1/2 lbs boneless chicken meat

1  finely diced Spanish onion

1 finely diced red bell pepper

1 fine diced green bell pepper

3 oz sliced mushrooms

3 oz chestnuts, peeled, diced

4 tbsp flour

1 tbsp curry powder

2 cup chicken stock

1 cup heavy cream

Heat the oil in a large Dutch oven. Add the chicken, vegetables and chestnuts. Sauté until chicken browns. Sprinkle with flour and curry powder, reduce heat and cook for 2 minutes. Pour in stock and cream and simmer for 35‑45 minutes.

Serve over noodles or rice.

SERVES 6

CHICKEN PISTACHIO

6‑4oz boneless chicken breasts

2 oz suet

1 lb ground chicken meat

3 tbsp gated onion

3 tbsp minced carrot

3 tbsp minced celery

3 tsp each of, basil, thyme leaves, marjoram, salt, pepper

1 cup shelled pistachio nuts

1 egg

2 tbsp melted butter

Pound the chicken breast flat with a meat mallet.

Blend the suet, ground chicken, vegetables, seasonings, nuts and egg together in a large mixing bowl. Divide the mixture evenly over the chicken breasts. Roll the chicken breasts to enfold the filling. Fasten together with toothpicks or tie.

Brush with melted butter and place on a baking tray. Bake for 35‑40 minutes in a preheated 350F oven. Serve with a wild mushroom sauce (see sauces).

SERVES 6

CHICKEN PROVENÇALE

3 tbsp olive oil

1 minced garlic clove

1 1/2 lb boneless chicken strips

3 oz button mushrooms

20 pearl onions

1/2 lb julienne cut zucchini

2 cup  crushed tomatoes

3 tbsp lemon juice

1/3 tsp each of thyme leaves, basil, paprika, salt

2 tsp cracked black pepper

Heat the oil in a Dutch oven, add the garlic, chicken, mushrooms and onions, sauté until chicken is cooked thoroughly. Add the zucchini and continue cooking 5 minutes. Add the tomatoes, lemon juice and seasonings, reduce heat and simmer for 30 minutes.

Serve with rice.

SERVES 6

CHICKEN VELVET

1 1/2 lb boneless chicken breast

3 oz mushrooms

3 tbsp safflower oil

3 tbsp flour

1 1/2 cups chicken stock

2/3 cup heavy cream

1/3 tsp salt

1/3 tsp white pepper

8 oz grated cheddar cheese

Cut the chicken breasts into strips.

Fry with the mushrooms in the oil in a large skillets. Sprinkle with flour, reduce heat and continue to cook for 2 minutes. Pour in the chicken stock and cream. Add the seasonings and continue simmering for 35 minutes.

Stir in the cheese and simmer an additional 5 minutes longer. Serve over rice or noodles.

SERVES 6

CHICKEN WALNUT

1 lb boneless chicken strips

3 tbsp sherry

2/3 cup chicken stock

2 tbsp soy sauce

1 tbsp cornstarch

3 tbsp safflower oil

1 1/2 cups snow peas

4 oz button mushrooms

1 cup sliced celery

1 sliced onion

1 sliced green bell pepper

2/3 cup walnut pieces

Toss the chicken with the sherry and marinate for 30 minutes.

Blend the chicken stock, soya sauce and cornstarch together in a mixing bowl. Heat 2 tbsp (30 ml) of oil in a wok, add the chicken, and fry thoroughly. Remove the meat, add the remaining oil and fry the vegetables.

Return the chicken and add the broth. Simmer for 2 minutes. Stir in the walnuts and serve with steamed rice.

SERVES 6

CORNISH HENS CATALANE

3‑18oz  Cornish game hens

1 tbsp safflower oil

3 tbsp butter

1 finely diced Spanish onion

3 oz sliced mushrooms

2 tbsp flour

1 1/2 cup tomatoes peeled, seeded, chopped

1 oz grated bittersweet chocolate

1 1/2 cup 375 ml espagnole sauce (see sauces)

Split the hens in half. Brush with oil. Place on a baking sheet. Roast for 45 minutes in preheated 350F oven.

While the hens roast, heat the butter in a sauce pan, add the onion and mushrooms and sauté until all the liquid has evaporated. Sprinkle with flour and cook for 2 minutes longer. Add the tomatoes, chocolate and espangnole sauce. Reduce heat and  simmer for 30 minutes.

Remove hens from the oven, place on a serving platter cover with sauce and serve.

SERVES 6

CORNISH HENS WITH PEPPERCORN SAUCE

3‑l lb  Cornish game hens

3 tsp  each of, salt, basil, oregano, pepper, paprika

1  garlic clove

1 tbsp olive oil

2 tbsp butter

2 tbsp flour

1 cup  chicken stock

1/2 cup  light cream

1 tbsp green peppercorns

1 tsp Dijon mustard

1 tbsp chopped chives

1 tbsp chopped parsley

Split the hens in half.

Blend the seasonings together. Rub the hens with the garlic clove. Brush the hens with the olive oil and sprinkle them with the seasonings. Place on a broiling pan and bake in a preheated 350F oven for 45 minutes.

While hens bake, heat the butter in a sauce pan and add the flour, cook for 2 minutes over low heat. Whip in the stock, cream, peppercorns, mustard and chives. Simmer for 10 minutes.

Transfer the hens to a serving platter, cover with sauce, sprinkle with parsley and serve.

SERVES 6

DUCK LASAGNA

2 lbs boneless duck meat

1 large Spanish onion

1 red bell pepper

1 green bell pepper

3 celery stalks

1 minced garlic clove

1/3 cup olive oil

3 cups crushed tomatoes

1/2 tsp each of salt, basil, marjoram

3 tsp each of pepper, paprika

1 tsp  Worcestershire sauce

1 1/3 lbs mafalda noodles (a 1″ wide pasta)

3/4 lb grated mozzarella cheese

Cut the duck meat into 2″ cubes.

Medium dice the vegetables.

Heat the oil in a Dutch oven. Add the duck and vegetables and sauté until the duck has cooked through. Add the tomato, seasonings and Worcestershire. Reduce the heat and simmer for 1 1/2 ‑ 2 hours until sauce is very thick.  Skim any grease from sauce as it floats to the top.

Cook the noodles in a large Dutch oven with plenty of salted water until they are al dente, drain and cool.

Alternate layers of noodles and sauce in a large grease casserole dish. Cover with cheese. Bake in a preheated 350F oven for 15 minutes or until cheese is golden brown.  Serve.

SERVES 8

FLORENCE DEVILED CHICKEN

6‑6oz chicken breast boneless wing attached (aka supreme or airline)

1/3 cup olive oil

1 minced garlic clove

2 tsp minced ginger root

1 tbsp lemon juice

Flatten the chicken breasts leaving the bones in and place in a shallow baking pan.

Blend the remaining ingredients together, pour over the chicken and marinate for 6 hours.

Broil the chicken over a charcoal or gas barbecue for 7 minutes per side on medium heat. Serve very hot.

SERVES 6

JENNIFER’S CHICKEN

6‑6oz  boneless chicken breasts

1 cup green seedless grapes

6 oz rindless brie cheese

1 cup baby shrimp

2 eggs

1/3 cup milk

1/3 cup ground pinenuts

2 cup fine seasoned bread crumbs

1/3 cup freshly grated Romano cheese

2 cup flour

1/3 cup safflower oil

Pound the chicken flat with a meat mallet between two sheets of plastic wrap.

Cut the grapes in half and place a few grapes on the chicken along with 1 oz of cheese and a sprinkling of shrimp. Roll the chicken to enfold the filling inside.  Place on a baking pan and refrigerate for 1 hour.

Blend the eggs and milk together. Mix the nuts with the bread crumbs and cheese. Dust the rolled chicken with flour. Dip the chicken into the egg wash then roll in the bread crumbs.

In a large skillet heat the oil, fry the chicken to golden brown on each side. Transfer to the baking sheet and bake in a preheated 350F oven for 15‑18 minutes.

Serve with a blackberry brandy sauce.

SERVES 6

POULET A’ LA SARASATE

6‑4oz boneless chicken breasts

8 oz finely diced lean veal

8 oz finely diced ham

4 oz finely diced mushrooms

1 finely  diced small onion

2 tbsp safflower oil

1/3 tsp each of salt, pepper, paprika, basil, nutmeg

6 bread rusks

1 1/2 cups wild mushroom sherry sauce

Pound the chicken breast flat with a meat mallet between two sheets of plastic wrap.

Blend the veal, ham, mushrooms and onion together.

Heat 1 tbsp (15 ml) oil in a skillet. Add the mixture and seasonings and sauté until mixture is cooked thoroughly, cool to room temperature.

Divide the filling equally over the chicken. Roll the chicken to enfold the mixture. Place on a broiling pan and refrigerate for 1 hour. Brush with the remaining oil and  bake in a preheated 350F oven for 20 minutes or until golden brown.

Place on a bread rusk on a serving platter, and smother with sauce and serve.

SERVES 6

POULET FARCI EN COCOTTE

1‑3 lb chicken

1/3 lb chicken livers

2 shallots

2 tbsp chopped parsley

1/4 cup butter

2 cups bread crusts

1/3 cup milk

1/3 tsp each of thyme leaves, basil, oregano, salt, pepper

Wash the chicken. Clean the livers of any membranes then fine dice them. Fine dice the shallots and mix with the parsley.

Heat 1 tbsp of butter in a skillet, sauté the livers and shallots for 10 minutes, cool to room temperature.

In a mixing bowl blend the bread crumbs, milk, seasonings and livers together. Stuff into the chicken. Heat the remaining butter in a earthenware cocotte (casserole dish) add the chicken browning it on all sides. Place the lid on the cocotte and bake in a preheated 350F oven for 1 2 hours.

Carve the chicken and serve in the cocotte.

SERVES 6

ROAST CHICKEN AIOLI

1‑5 lb chicken

1 garlic clove

1/3 tsp salt

2 lemons

2/3 cup aioli sauce

Truss the chicken.

Rub the chicken all over with the garlic clove. Sprinkle with salt and the juice of the lemon. Place in a roasting pan and roast in a preheated 325F oven for 1 1/2- 2 hours or until thoroughly cooked.

Remove chicken and carve. Place on a serving platter with aioli sauce to the side.

SERVES 6

ROAST CHRISTMAS GOOSE

3 apples pared, cored, diced

2 grated carrots

1 finely diced Spanish onion

2 finely diced celery stalks

1 cup seedless raisins

1 cup blanched and peeled walnuts

1/2 cup milk

1/2 tsp each of salt, pepper

1 tsp  marjoram

3 cups cubed stale bread

1‑9 lb goose

1 garlic clove

1 tbsp safflower oil

1/2 tsp paprika

1 tsp cornstarch

Mix the apples, carrots, onion, celery, raisins, walnuts, bread, milk and seasonings together. Stuff the mixture into the goose, truss the goose.

Place in a large roaster. Rub goose with garlic and brush with the oil. Sprinkle with paprika.

Place in a preheated 350F oven for 3 1/2 ‑ 4 hours. Baste several times during cooking. When the goose is cooked remove from the roaster, place on a serving platter and keep warm.

Deglaze the pan juices, mix the cornstarch with 2 tbsp (30 ml) of water. Pour into pans juices. Bring to a boil. Strain into a sauce boat and serve with the goose.

ROAST GUINEA FOWL WITH BLUEBERRY HOLLANDAISE

2‑1 1/2 lb guinea hens

6 slices bacon

1/3 tsp each of rosemary, thyme, salt, pepper

2 cup blueberries

2 egg yolks

1/2 cup  very hot butter

Split the guinea fowl in half and place them on a baking sheet. Layer the bacon over the birds, and sprinkle with seasonings. Roast them in a preheated 350F oven for 45 minutes. Remove from oven and remove the bones while hot.

While birds roast puree the blueberries in a food processor, strain to remove pulp and seeds. Place the juice in a sauce pan and heat to a boil reducing to 2 tbsp of thick liquid. Cool.

Place the egg yolks in a double boiler, whisk in the blueberry syrup, slowly whisk in the hot butter forming a thick sauce.

Serve the guinea fowl on a large serving platter with the sauce on the side.

SERVES 4

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