Posted by: chefkscookingschool | April 2, 2013

GO THE EXTRA MILE

Go The Extra Mile

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When it comes to service and serving we have all heard and perhaps quoted the expression, “go the extra mile” but can we understand what exactly this means? As it is with most common expressions this one too means differing things to different people. The person offering the service understands it with one meaning well the person receiving the service may see entirely different.

Those offering service understands it to mean that they have given absolutely all they have, reaching deep within and giving completely beyond what is required and at times even able to do so.

Those receiving service believe this to mean that all they require, want or need is met to their satisfaction regardless of the demand. When the service provider fails to have gone the extra mile then the customer becomes upset, unhappy and depending upon their mood at the time irate.  “Why should I pay for what I did not get?” Then within the exchange of money for service becomes the area of conflict.

“Go the extra mile” becomes bad advise to give a co-worker if the co-workers perception of service differs. Service is the art of precisely meeting the expectation of the client. In cooking we meet the demand by giving the customer exactly what they ask for, (ie: a medium rare steak should be just that) any variances and we have failed both the customer and the ability to preform the service. The extra mile is not met and we have not preformed a service.

The first key to our expression then is found in the first word. GO! Having an understanding of this word will allow us to proceed with service. Without it we come to a complete stop. For you are at a stop when you cannot go.

One definiation of go is: an attempt or a trial to perform something. We have failed right there. Service is not attempting to perform it is rather performance in itself. We are servicing a client when are simply trying to do so. We must be successful at servicing for in a trial the client will always judge us as lacking therefore failing them.

Go can also mean to traverse, as in “to go the entire distance.” Certainly service will take one from beginning to an end, but is it the desired end.  When we preform a service we have a set goal we desired to see gained when we are complete. However the client may have a differing goal in what they are seeking for the service they are requesting. Without each have a clear understanding of the service being provided conflict is sure to arise.

We have all heard another service expression, “the customer is always right” this falls short when the customers has not defined what they want or has not communicated what they desire is. Therefore, without having a clear understanding what the customer wants, becomes a cloudy mess, in seeing the finish and therefore understanding how right the customer truly is. This maxim also gives the customer a false sense of entitlement which is often expressed in verbal (or worse) abuse of the one providing the service.

Originally coined by Harry Gordon Selfridge, the founder of Selfridge’s department store in London in 1909, his goal was to give the customer the assurance that their demands would be clearly met, therefore service would be given at the highest standard. The opposite happened, the more demanding the customer the less the service provider became willing or just unable to meet the demand. The service went down, demands went higher, were not met and service went down, demands went higher, a seemingly unbreakable circle. The result, both client and provider became unsatisfied. The clients went elsewhere as did  the employees.

Question, if the abusive customers get’s his or her way by unreasonable demands does this means the nice customer is therefore not right and also needs to become abusive as well.  Who will return to the service offered the abusive customer or the nice one, focus on the one most likely to return. Unhappy abusive customers who believe they are right are not coming back so focus on the happy one who really believes they are right because they are satisfied. Perhaps the expression should be, “the satisfied customer is always right.”

How is the customer satisfied, by a happy service provider (employee). If keeping the employee happy is the key to keeping the customer happy then we must rethink and see our way to satisfying our employees. Bad customers are bad for business great employees are great for business.

Recently we saw and example of this posted on the internet. A customers with “literally” a holy than thou attitude took great service and belittles with a crude note on tipping, invoking (more likely provoking) God and leaving the service provider with nothing. The server posted the nasty note and the company terminated the server instead of siding with the server they apologized to the nasty preacher. They gained a nasty customer, lost a good server, lost nice customers who sided with the server and lost reputation with the public who saw the injustice of their “customer is always right” position. While the customer claimed that the posting “soiled her reputation” it clearly showed who the pastor is and that she demands far more than she herself is willing to give. The result is the restaurant chain will most likely not suffer much for the retention of the nasty over the nice but some will think twice about supporting them, some other servers will think twice about continuing or beginning employment with them.  The only winner is the pastor who will have to answer to the God she invoked.

We also have a problem with if the customer is “always” right then the service provider is “always” wrong.  If we (or our employees) see ourselves as providing a service in which we cannot complete believe in then we are apt not give the service that our product deserves therefore not providing the service our customers expect. If we are the ones that are wrong we cannot defend our service when the customer is wrong, and believe it or not, the customer can be wrong from time to time. The customer who throws a temper tantrum only get his or her way (at the expense of other customers or the service provider) is not right. A great service provider will stand their ground when they are right, to take away the right of the service provider from being right will reduce the employee’s pride in doing their job, and their pride in working for a company who will not defend what is truly right.

In one of my restaurant we had a special dining offer with a condo sales company where when you viewed the sales offer you were given a dinner for two at our restaurant, you simply had to pay for beverages, taxes and tip the server, we served hundreds of these a month.  It was a good deal for our clients. A fifty dollar meal and you could walk out by paying ten. One evening we had a guest who raved about his meal, his server, the view (we were on the top floor of a hotel) we went on and on about how good everything was…..until he got his bill. Then he went into a well rehearsed  temper tantrum, all day long he would do this when he didn’t get what he wanted, regardless of what others with him and around him thought. Suddenly his great server became the worse, he berated her into tears, the dining room manager could get no where with him, the only way to calm him down was to take the takes off his bill (he was not going to pay the tax of 3.65). He threw such a fit he was ejected from the restaurant. After his departure the manager, server and myself were given a standing ovation by the guest of our full dining room many of which were the companions of this customer who had enough of him and his abusive behavior.  When you believe in your product and your service there comes a time when you are right and you need to defend the product and your service provider because it is the right thing to do.

There is an expression “do what’s right, do it because it is right, then do it right” if you have done so then there is no reason to back away from.

Proceed Without Delay

Another definition of go is: to proceed without delay. Delay is a huge enemy of service, yet it is one of the most common mistakes committed by the service provider. There is a song “Make Someone Happy” by Jimmy Durante, the last verse is:

“Make someone happy, 
Make just one someone happy,
And you will be happy, too.”

This is  the goal of service, to make the client happy. Happiness is not found in delay. Delay causes the client to feel their request is not important to the one offering service. That the need is secondary to all else, that the procrastination of the service provider means there is little or no value in the one requesting the service. Therefore there is no opportunity for happiness.

Consider the church “service” the advertising announces that the service begins at 10 AM but many people arrive late is the service is delayed to 10:15 to accommodate the late comers. The delay disrupts the flow of the service, worship is rushed, the sermon is cut in order not to go long and ministry to the needs of the congregation comes under pressure. Those who arrived on time did so in respect of the needs of others, those who arrived late will have an excuse but all will be centered upon self needs and no consideration of serving others. The same ones late are generally late each and every week, the delay they cause is not an issue to them. 10 AM is never 10:15 and to serve one correctly means beginning on time.

Delay of course disintegrates trust, do I really trust anything else the church may say or do if a simple service time is not trustworthy? This may seem a minor point but the small actions carry forward and reflect the attitude of what the service being offered could be. In a restaurant for example, can you trust what the menu state’s to be true if the service offered is not trustworthy, should you actually trust that the food is going to be at the highest standard if that trust has been broken? Possibly not.

Jimmy wrote”Make someone happy” the very goal of service. As go indicates we “proceed” forward. Delay of course is not forward going but actually causes us to go backward instead of forward. The service, when done right, always accomplishes the same results, to make someone happy. So then service is the “the art of accomplishment” or achieving our goal successfully. An unhappy churchgoer can cause the restaurant server grief later on and not even realize that they are unhappy because of the actions of the church and not those of the server. A happy churchgoer may in fact serve the restaurant server by giving him or her a larger tip than required to do so. So then the happy service becomes contagious, happy churchgoer, happy server, happy family, all connected to one simple action.

When we view a person who is excellent at what they do we say they are accomplished. Service then, when given in excellence, is therefore accomplished successfully. Accomplished servers are those who have skills in seeing the needs of the clients and then filling those needs in the most effective manner without any delay. One becomes accomplished through practice and skill.

Making mistakes is a huge part of becoming an accomplished server. For every mistake one makes, a lesson one learns. Remember “how do you get to Carnegie Hall, practice son, practice.” In one of my restaurant I had a baby grand piano in the center of the dining room, we had to put a sign on it to prevent anyone and everyone from playing it. The sign read, “please do not play the piano without the permission of the chef, the chef never gives permission.” One day a gentleman came in, he looked rumpled and had a club foot, he asked if he could play the piano. I judged him on his appearance (very wrong) and asked if he knew how? He answered, “I’ve played in a few halls” then I thought, oh brother, but he quickly said, “Massey Hall, Carnegie Hall to name a few.” I gave my permission and  he served myself and our dining guests to one of the finest concerts I have ever heard. A more accomplished pianist I have never heard. I think of the mistakes he must have made to become so accomplished, yet what pleasure he gave in playing, this was a service well worth hearing.

He could not proceed without gaining an understanding of what I expected from him. I did not want someone playing the piano who would only serve my customers with noise, he understood service is to make someone happy, first me as the one responsible for my guests then to the guests themselves. To proceed you must have a plan as to what the final result is to be. The client has a request you are the one responsible to fulfill that request.

You may have to be creative in fulfilling the desired goal, being the source of an answer is great, serving is the ability to use all sources available to fulfill the request. Usually we begin small but as we become more accomplished we tend to take on more and therefore serve even more. All great servers begin small. Look at the Mississippi the greatest river in North America and how it serves the life blood of the country. Its source is Lake Itasca is a small glacial lake, approximately 1.8 square miles in area, in north central Minnesota, yet from it the mighty river derives the force serving the country. Our beginnings are the same,  we start by serving one or two but as we do so we become more accomplished and therefore serve many more, passing on our knowledge to others who serve and so on and so on, becoming a mighty force in service.

At times, some, look at those who serve as less than they are, inferior. Yet all serve. A waiter or waitress is often considered inferior, less intelligent, by many who do similar work in differing fields, we all serve, some are more visible than others. Your sense of service is found within you not from what others want to put upon you. I once drove 1275 miles one way to serve a dinner for 10 people, not for money (I didn’t charge) not for praise, but simply because I wanted to do something nice for a friend. He loved it as did his guests but his wife made both my wife and myself feel as if we were servants. Here lies a huge difference.

To serve is making someone happy, to be of assistance or promote the interests of another. To be a servant is one who performs duties of the master. We have but one master and to Him and for Him we may be a servant. Scripture tells us to become great in the kingdom of God we must become the servant of all.

 Mark 9:35. New King James Version (NKJV)

35 And He sat down, called the twelve, and said to them, “If anyone desires to be first, he shall be last of all and servant of all.”

Here we Jesus explaining that the servants do not carry a high standard those who are high minded and feel they are greater than others become servants. Yet there was no greater example of serving as His, after He gave His very life in service to your living.

Serving is an infection, it infects life, the finer the service the more we desire to have. One of my sisters works for a company that makes clothes that protect first responders. Firemen and women, police officers and many others depend on the uniforms she supplies to keep them protected, needless to say she takes that very seriously. Her service to them keeps their lives, so should all service be. A bank teller, a restaurant server, a mechanic or the president of a company all should serve as if life depends upon it. If I am infected with service then I am giving the very highest service I can, this means those who receive my service have a better life, even if it is just a momentary event. I serve to make someone happy.

Look at the last line of the song, “and you will be happy too.” There is your reward for giving great service. So don’t delay give great service today.

Extra, Extra, Extra

Good service is doing your job correctly, no delay,  no mistakes, completing the task and making someone happy. But there is so much more one can offer their clients by moving from good service to great service without a lot of extra effort.

Extra service does not hinge on the freebies or give away’s that may be part of the marketing of the business (done too often the clients begin to expect these). A freebie given with poor service places something in the client’s hand to degrade the business. A free key chain given away at a sporting event where the home team loses reminds the guest of the loss, then produces negative speech against the team. When they win the guests looks at the key chain only as something they got for free, but they don’t talk about the win based on the freebie. Service in this case was left lacking, it is the team’s job to win and therefore serve the paying fans. Even diehard fans of continually losing teams speak negative of their team which in turn affects the player performance, the circle begins.

Free food given in exchange for poor service in a restaurant never produces a return customer nor does it negate the customers’ feelings of being cheated by the poor service, whether it was the server or the kitchen, an unhappy customer becomes a non customer, they speak with their absence from the establishment.

So what is the answer to exception service? The simple answer is “go the extra mile” but simple as it may sound many who serve do not understand its simplicity. “Why, it’s just common sense, isn’t it?” Perhaps, but the problem lies in what is common to you and It may not be so to another. Someone who has had 20 years of experience knows more than someone with just one year experience. So there must be a way to give that knowledge to those who need it. The answer is simple, train.

No-one who serves should ever be placed in a position of service without being taught to do so. Teaching the fundamentals of the industry you serve in should be the first and most important gift you can give an employee. Without knowledge of what they are doing they fail themselves, their employer and most importantly the client.

I have always considered myself a pretty good sales person and over my years have had a few sales jobs which I have received high awards for performance, happy customers mean’s a happy employer mean’s a bonus for me. However in each job they trained me in the way I should do my job then I went beyond my training to satisfy my client. A few years ago I thought I could become a car sales person, what a miserable failure I was. I stayed for four months and sold only one car. Why? No training. The dealership gave a couple of hours on the paperwork required and then said go for it. I needed a far more knowledge than that. I am not inclined to understand how cars work (in fact I am terrible at it). So because of my lack of knowledge I failed my employer, myself, my clients and most importantly the family.  I needed to be trained.

This however is so so very common in many industries. Waiters with little experience are placed in positions of serving without knowledge of the menu. They do not know what ingredients make up a dish. Do not know the wines available or how to serve them and so on. What is the problem? The employer and not the server, the employer did not train the server. He should never have been placed in the service of the business without a solid knowledge of the job. The lack of knowledge produces poor service in that there may be allergy issues, dietary issues, or just effective service. If the server as to constantly excuse himself to check with the kitchen then he is providing a service of delay and therefore very displeasing to the client. How often do you receive service from a server who does not know the soup of the day or the daily special, equate poor service. With today’s POS system’s many simple training exercises could be complete when the employee checks in.

Every business who offers service should have an established training system. This means going through each area of the business in detail and why we do what we do in addition as to how. Educate each employee to the highest level of the company’s standards. Education leads to knowledge, knowledge when applied is wisdom, wisdom in operation is common sense. All begin with education.

Once one is educated it doesn’t stop there, everyone performing a service should be encouraged to improve themselves. Giving extra comes a heart filled with a positive attitude toward self. Any employee who believes they can, will in fact do. Those believing they cannot will find a way to avoid doing. Every employer should encourage their  employee to go beyond the training and learn more to improve on self and their service.

Training gives the employee self confidence. An employee who knows what they are doing serves at a much higher standard than those who question their ability. Customers are the reason for business but when my customer feels they are not getting the service they want they simply go elsewhere. The customer is not the problem, they may have a problem and serve to correct it. Thus we build a relationship, a problem fixed, a happy customer and they tells others who can resolve their problem, therefore more customers, more business and the need to expand. It all began by training.

Large stores have a customer service department to handle returns and complaints but most of these stores realize that the more training they give the front line employee the less likely the customer service department will hear from an unhappy customer. After receiving exceptional service I will often tell the supervisor or owner of a company about it and encourage the employer to give that employee a raise. I will rarely complain about poor service but I never return, this is the employers fault for not training properly.

Ask yourself, I am as good as the next or I am the same? If you answered yes, check your training as being as good as the next is not exceptional, training coupled with self improvement brings you out of the common and the same into something exceptional.

If you’re an employer and you are not training then your business will fail. If you’re an employee and you’re not learning then you are prepared to be unemployed.

Training will reverse the attitude of delay in a sense of urgency. A skilled server wants to give the customer what they want in the most effective manner possible. They want to be acknowledged or greeted within seconds not minutes. This simply states to them that they are important to the well being of the business and in turn their business has value.

Training teaches the right actions to take with a customer. When a customer is greeted within 30 seconds with a smile and acknowledgment the customer is set at ease at once. Leave them wait and not acknowledge them and they quickly become irate and ready to go elsewhere. Just making eye contact  with a customer assures them they are important to the business. Yet some do not realize this, training teaches them and gives them an edge.

Training teaches the employee the value of the words they speak, a harsh greeting makes for an unhappy customer. Be friendly and sincere with your words and you will find a customer that is at ease and willing to listen while they are complaining. Let your words show confidence in doing so your client will also have confidence that the server truly cares and resolve their problem.

Think about all the companies that do just what you do, why do your clients return to you? Have you trained beyond what the competitor does? Is it because of the training that your customer has complete assurance in you and your service? Training always returns a higher payback that what it cost to do it when you bring a new employee into the business.

Many believe education is training, however education does not replace what goes on in your business. Education cannot be replaced however training is an imperative to business. If you prefer you can call training “continuing education” either way it is important. Training helps the learner solve known problems with a high degree of expertise. Education will preform some training, give a mindset, develop thinking abilities, develop attitudes and behavior patterns. Training gives the skills to use these. Simply put education is the giving out of knowledge, training is the applied use of the knowledge learned. We need both.

Miles To Go

Matthew 5:41 states, “If someone forces you to go one mile, go with him two miles.” Back in the first century AD, when the Roman Empire conquered what used to be Israel, a Roman soldier could tell a Jew to carry his baggage. As one can imagine, the Roman could abuse this right by forcing a Jew to carry his bags indefinitely. So, a law was passed that no Roman soldier could make anyone carry his stuff for over one mile.

When Jesus gave His Sermon on the Mount, His audience were aghast as He came to the part that says, “If someone forces you to go one mile, go with him two miles” (Matthew 5:41). This was a revolutionary thought. It would be like the Jew offering the Roman soldier, “Sir, I carried your load for the obligated one mile. Would you like me to carry it for one more mile?” To freely paraphrase what Jesus was saying, “Sure you have enemies. Who doesn’t? But don’t regard them in silent contempt. Do something good and kind to them that they do not expect or even deserve. If you don’t, what would make you different from ordinary people?” Therefore we must ask  ourselves what makes your service different from ordinary  competitors.

In a world of cookie cutter businesses, restaurants that are all identical, superstore’s that offer the same merchandise, big box electronic stores that need a sound check, what is going to differ one from another? Service. Media and cell phone companies offer nearly identical plans, what is convincing to a customer to choose one or the other? Service.

The service is absolutely the difference, but when they all offer service just as they are, very much identical to each other then it becomes our job as the person requesting the service to gain knowledge of our service provider before choosing them.

When we consider the extra mile we have to think about the term” mile” what is exactly we are talking about. Put another way we need to the distance required to provide our service, then push forward way beyond that.

As a restaurant person, let’s just look at the areas I am most familiar with. Going that distant, do we greet the customer at our door why not go a little further and open the door for them, this lets them know “you are most welcome here” opening the door for them as they leave says” thank you so very much for your business” certainly not hard things to do but things that speak largely in the mind of the customer.

Want to keep the customer from leaving while they wait in line at the door, offer them a bite size something. Amuse bouche (literally mouth teaser)  a French term for a tidbit of free food offered to keep you happy while you wait for your first course. When offered during a waiting period it does a few things, first it puts the taste of your chef’s culinary ability in their mouth causing them to want more (if good of course.) Secondly because they are hungry and now with a flavor in their mouth, they may order more once they are seated. Thirdly, this little gesture speaks to the customer that the patience they have given in waiting for the table is rewarded with a kindness by the restaurant setting the customer somewhat at ease.  I learned this little kindness many years ago when a friend took me to a BBQ restaurant. We drove for nearly an hour on back country roads to get to this little shack of a restaurant. It didn’t look like any place I would ever enter, out in the middle of nowhere. But although it was miles away from anything there was a line up of people in front. We were greeted by a hostess and informed that the wait would be nearly 45 minutes (an honest time period) two minutes later she returned with a couple of barbequed ribs to snack on. Once we tasted those ribs we knew we were not going anywhere no matter how long the wait may have been, they were just too good not to have more once inside. This was great service.

Once inside, the service just got better and better, drinks with 1 minute of ordering, food within 10 minutes, a friendly smiling “knowledgeable” server just what a great dining experience should be. We drove many miles and were treated very well for doing so. A restaurant could have the best food in the world but if the service is poor or worse then the experience of the food is not worth the time it took to get there, even if it’s just walking across the street.

Going the distance, means getting proactive. Do you wait for the customer to request something or do you foresee the need. Just having one napkin in BBQ restaurant is not likely enough, does the server bring additional ones before asked to? Service foresees the need and responds, on hot days does the server bring ice water with lemon  as they bring the menus. A proactive service cuts the problems down quickly and if one does arrive it is often far less than what it could be with poor or even average service. Being proactive is simply anticipating the need before it arises. It sees that the request of the customer is met beyond the expectation, when a special request is made it is fulfilled “exactly” as the request was made.

Thinking about going the distance as if you are forming a relationship that you really, really want badly. You are absolutely willing to do anything to see to it that it will work. Great service is exactly that, a relationship with your client that you want to continue for a very long time. As in all relationships remember actions speak larger than words. What you do in service must be beyond what you say. When you do speak, say what you mean and mean what you say. Remember back in grade school we had a time during class called “show and tell” that is exactly what service should be show me what I need and tell how you’re going to fulfill my need, then I will be a happy customer. We used to do business with a simple handshake, why, because they always stood by their word. Service  must be the same always do what you say. Today instead of the handshake we have long legal binding agreements which deal mostly upon one or the other not keeping their word. How much easier to say what you mean then do it.

When a customer has a need don’t just tell where you find the solution, take them there. When they need something on the other side of the store take them to it. A good concierge of a hotel always sends his clients what he considers the best, not only telling them about it but arranging the transportation to get them there as well.

Relationships do not require permission to move forward. Give the service worker training and they will have the required knowledge to handle a situation without the need for a manager’s approval. When the situation requires a manager’s attention then the customer will know that server has already done the best to resolve the problem and manager may find the customer less hostile in dealing with.

Once you have the relationship, be sure to keep it. Many “loyal” customers leave because they believe they are not important any longer as a customer. Customers return because they feel valued far more than a gimmick or freebie that may be offered. Sure they’ll take the freebie and move on to where they feel wanted. Freebies, give away’s, coupon’s and gimmicks are not, nor do they equate, good customer service and certainly not going the distance. The advantage of discounting is only as good as long your competitor doesn’t match you, but excellent service is often never matched by the competitor. Having a big sale or great offers mean little when the service isn’t as big as the sale. Seek to serve and you may not need the sale.

Great service is helpful service even when there is no apparent benefit in it. There is a win always customers with a customer who is happy. The customer who leaves happy lets others know how happy they are and therefore they will come for the service as well.

Going the distance means to be known as the company of “always.” Do you always serve the same meal every time it ordered, or does it vary from time to time. Do you always clean the interior of a car after it has been serviced, or just when you’re not busy. Do you always treat a child when servicing the parents or is just employees who really love the kids. Do you always check a guest with a smile and a comforting word? The two demons of always are “new and improved” this tell your client that there was something wrong with the old. Do remember how Pepsi was able to cash in on Coca Cola  with they introduced “New Coke” this told the customer that the old Coke simply wasn’t good enough, they quickly switched back.

We know the expression “don’t fix what is not broken” so don’t mess with always. What works, always do it and stay with it, if you don’t your customer will, by always staying away. On August 29, 2010 a sewer worker walked out of the sewer and into the Parkway Bakery & Tavern  in mid-city New Orleans, dirty and grimy he orders a shrimp PO-Boy sandwich, later that day the president of the United States (much cleaner) did exactly the same thing. Why, because the Parkway always served the very best sandwich. For them always has meant over 100 years of the same great food and service.

The PO-Boy sandwich in the late 1800s was the fried oyster sandwich served on French loaves. Well known in New Orleans and San Francisco as “oyster loaves”, a term still in use. The sandwich was alternately called a “peacemaker” or “La Mediatrice”.

There are countless stories as to the origin of the term “po’ boy”. The term is likely derived from the French word pourboire, referring to a tip given to a waiter. A popular local theory claims that “po’ boy”, as specifically referring to a type of sandwich, was coined in a New Orleans restaurant owned by Benny and Clovis Martin (originally from Raceland, LA), former streetcar conductors. In 1929, during a four-month strike against the streetcar company, the Martin brothers served their former colleagues free sandwiches. The Martins’ restaurant workers jokingly referred to the strikers as “poor boys”, and soon the sandwiches themselves took on the name. In the heavy Cajun/Creole Louisiana dialect, this is naturally shortened to “po’ boy. The best of these today is served at the Parkway.

When you think of companies with great service you can trace the history, Parkway Bakery & Tavern 101 years old is still young compared to some with great service (still around today.) Here are just a few:

Hoshi Ryokan a Japanese hotel established in 717 AD the worlds oldest hotel.

The Bingley Arms Pub in the UK founded in 953 AD.

Weihenstephan Abbey a brewery in Germany founded in 1040 AD.

The Old Crown restaurant UK founded in 1368 AD.

Delmonico’s  A New York restaurant founded in 1837 AD.

Durgin Park Cafe of Boston founded in 1827 AD.

AntoInes of New Orleans founded in 1840 AD.

Griswold Inn in Connecticut founded in 1776 AD.

Buckhorn Exchange of Denver founded in 1893 AD.

Think how an establishment can be found and then centuries after it came into existence it still is here today, one answer, service.

Always know who the company is, when you represent your employer you are the company. In the eyes of the client you are the company so then treat both your job and your client as if they are your own.

Have you watched Undercover Boss, they go undercover to see how their employees treat their customers and their business. What they discover is the best employee always treat the business as their own, and the customer is always first. These employers have come to understand that the quality of service is totally dependant on the quality of people. Money is not a good qualifier of the quality of a person, many minimum wage employees have greater quality of person than those who make 100 times their wage. However those of high quality should be compensated for their high standard.

Everyone however has a rough day from time to time, so how do you insure that great service is always a surety? Like common sense, the answer is to train. Training becomes a second nature of the service provider. When the service is so ingrained within the worker regardless of the day the worker is having they will follow the training.

So then that extra mile is going way beyond the distance. Again we can go to scripture to conclude, “If someone forces you to go one mile, go with him two miles” (Matthew 5:41) Successful service is doing that which unsuccessful people will not.

Service Lifes Conduit

There are four areas in life that cannot be excluded, they embrace each other, fulfill each other and make an individual complete. Without them there is a lacking in all areas of living. These areas of course are Faith, Love, Passion and Serving.

We each can speak of faith, love and passion as our personal experiences require of to be true to what we believe most, what will guide us through life. However when we have established these core values in our lives then they set the standard for how we serve. Make no mistake “we all serve.”

We serve but are not in servitude, those with little or no education serves, the B.A. serves, the M.B.A. serves, the PHD serves. When you visit a doctor’s office you are served, from the receptionist, to the nurse who sees you then finally by the doctor who examines and prescribes a needful remedy. We must always see the service we receive in every area of our lives.

It is our core values that will allow us to see and receive service, if we believe we are not receiving service, we must first see what kind of service we perform, then and only then can we demand the same from another. Our standards or core values, must be visible to others in the service we perform and in the manner that we receive service from another. If we give praiseworthy service it is highly likely we will receive the same, demeaning service will reap the same.

There is a law of nature and spirit, “we reap what we sow” sow corn get corn, sow wheat get wheat, sow apples get apples, sow kindness get kindness, sow love get love, sow service and be served.  Keep in mind however the law of sowing and reaping brings forth another law, the law of multiplication. When you sow a seed it grows and returns a much higher yield. If you plant an apple seed you get a tree which produces many apples over many years. Sowing great service produces a crop of great service which you receive over and over again.

Our personal mission statement should have a list of our core values, every company’s mission statement should have a set of core values. Look a great service company, notice what the call themselves.

Calgary Police Service Core Values

“All members of the Calgary Police Service are expected to adhere to the core values of the Service, conducting themselves at all times with honesty, integrity, respect, fairness and compassion, and courage.”

Honesty: Tell the truth with candor in a way that is clear and to the point.

Integrity: Display actions and express oneself in a manner consistent with the values of the Service.

Respect: Treat all people with value and decency. Listen to the views of others and maintain open communication.

Fairness and Compassion: Deal with people fairly and in a manner that displays empathy and understanding.

Courage: Take a stand on issues of value and importance to oneself and the Service. Make decisions and take action regardless of the possible consequences, to maintain public safety.

They not only recognize that they are in service but they embrace it by placing the word within the very essence of their being. They exist to serve, not just to enforce laws but serve the needful in a manner that is of the highest standard. Should there be any question as to the standard of service they list those standards for all to see.

The slogan of many Police Departments is “To Protect and Serve” and when you examine the core values of each department you find they all hold true to Calgary’s. No matter how you may try you will find that you too, serve. So find how you may do so at the highest level.  

Establish core values that you can never stray from here are some that make a good beginning:

Tell the truth, it is what it is, if you stay with the truth you never have to be concerned about the repercussions of the lie. The truth is transparent, clear, your reward is you are believable have credibility and respect. Remember, say what you mean and mean what you say.  A false claim is still a lie, if it’s not the worlds best don’t call it that. Be sure you have something to sustain your claim, certificates, awards, etc. Restaurant menus of course are a great example of untruths, state what it is and be sure you state nothing less. A Black Angus hamburger is not Kobe beef and just because 99% of your guests cannot tell the difference it does not permit you lie on your menu.

In the 1970’s we had another saying that went like this, “I know you believe that you understood what you thought I said, but I don’t think you realize that what you heard is not what I meant.” Clearly communication was lacking one believed they spoke correctly the other they heard correctly yet there was a misunderstanding. The very reason to, say what you mean and mean what you say.

Promises Promises, make them and keep them. Never leave them unfulfilled, in doing so you break the above core value.  When I promise service in 15 minutes or it’s free I must deliver or not charge. The promise given must always stand. A 10 minute oil change is rarely 10 minutes, how can you trust a service center who makes that promise, they delay on purpose so they can up sell you on other products. But their promise means nothing therefore the service they provide also loses its value. The result is the customer is always seeking an oil change service center.

 Respect, a customer does not have to demand respect, they already are your customer therefore I respect their choice of choosing me so they have already gained my respect, why would I not give the same to them. We show that respect (even with the most difficult) by being courteous, considerate and attentive to their needs.

Loyalty, great service seeds loyal customers, they become faithful followers, committed to your service. When we break that loyalty by not fulfilling our word to them they feel beyond betrayed, it becomes very difficult to win them back. We must be just as faithful and loyal to our customers as they are to us. Why do “new” customers get better deals than the loyal faithful customer? Is there a double standard, often the answer is yes.

Empowerment, I have been well trained, I must be given the freedom to use my training. Empowered to make decisions and resolve problems. In exchange I will take responsibility for the decisions I have been empowered to make. Having been empowered I will make only those decisions within the guidelines I have been given and will seek assistance from a superior seeking decisions outweighed by my empowerment.

Discipline, As we have a defined set of rules and guidelines we are trained not to vary from them. By be disciplined in these actions I improve my skills, enhance my training, develop my behavior. When I am disciplined, no matter my day, I vary not from my core values.

Leadership, We lead by example, therefore it must be the example one that others want to emulate. Innovation, creativity, and forward thinking are hallmarks of the leadership we demonstrated. We never hear a leader say “that’s not my job” no matter the job it is the responsibility of everyone, the name of the job is serving the client and every leader takes on every job.

Undeniable truths are what core values are, once ingrained within the very being of the soul they are demonstrated in our very being, they are an inseparable part of of us. Serving is a choice of the heart, servitude is a burden of the soul. In service we always look to another best interest before our own. Phil 2:1-4 (Phi) Now if you have known anything of Christ’s encouragement and of his reassuring love; if you have known something of the fellowship of his Spirit, and of compassion and deep sympathy, do make my joy complete–live together in harmony, live together in love, as though you had only one mind and spirit between you. Never act from motives of rivalry or personal vanity, but in humility think more of each other than you do of yourselves. None of you should think only of his own affairs, but consider other people’s interests also.

We serve because we have been given a great example of service for our lives, Mat 20:27-28 (NEB) “…whoever wants to be great must be your servant, and whoever wants to be first must be the willing slave of all–like the Son of Man; He did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give up his life as a ransom for many.”

Serve With Honor

“I don’t know what your destiny will be, but one thing I do know: The only ones among you who will be really happy are those who have sought and found how to serve.”

Albert Schweitzer

In a world that has so many vast needs the art of service may be the walk that we require to take us to the answer to these needs. Fulfilling needs truly is the art of service, the needs are great the service must be greater. In other words, we minister to the needs of the people. Minister in religion, in government, in business, in health care and in family. Ministry is simply meeting the people where they are at and then lifting them above it. Serving the people, Christ of course was the greatest example, Stephen (a waiter) gave his life to serve as did Philip (Acts 6:5) Serving is always life giving, life changing and for life.

However one’s service can only be as genuine as they are. A corrupt person will serve from a place that focuses upon self and not upon the need of those whom they serve. Those who are motivated by anything other than to serve and to make someone happy must check their motivations.  Some are motivated by need themselves, when the need is met then the service becomes lacking. Those motivated by greed never serve the needs of others and only are there to serve their own need. Check your motivation and you will see what kind of server you will be.

Service is and must always be an act of compassion, but understand that compassion is not just feeling sorry for another and the situation they be in. Compassion is far greater than this. When we read scripture we find that compassion was all that moved Jesus, He met the needs of the people when He had compassion upon the people. In other words He served the people by meeting their needs through the motivating power called compassion.

We therefore need to know what compassion really is if it is not just feeling sorry for another. Dakes says compassion is “a characteristic of God and Jesus and should be of the believers. It is the drawing and the agitation of the innermost parts at the sight of any distressed or miserable object. It causes revolting action in the innermost being to bring deliverance from such unlawful and inhuman misery and suffering”. In other word’s compassion is “to experience what another undergoes and have the power to change it forever”.

No matter what we do as servers we always to the same thing, see a need and meet the need. When we do so through compassion we often eliminate that need. A governmental minister sees that the populous needs a way to have health care that is affordable, so they pass laws mandating that the need be met. The pastor of a church sees a need within the congregation and takes them to scripture to fulfill the need. A banker, doctor, dentist, mechanic, electrician, plumber, waiter all are presented with a need, Having gone through a similar situation each knows the anxiety of the problem and each knows they posses the power to answer the need, in doing so, they eliminate it.

Compassion has its own  motivating force, it is called honor. Without honor our compassion is misapplied even distorted and then confused with a feeling, (like sympathy) but all too often not a feeling for the one with the need but rather for self.

Honor is best defined as: honesty, fairness, or integrity in ones belief and actions. To serve without honor is but to mock whom you are pretending to meet their needs. So lets break this down. Honor defined as honesty. Many are surprised to learn that the scam artist actually believes himself to be an honest person. His own personal welfare far outweighs any other considerations. His thief is to serve himself and in his mind he is being honest to himself, harm to others are not factored into his actions. Look at the history of the greatest scam artist of all, Bernie Madoff, and you find someone who began with great intentions for the good of those whom he served. Life and welfare of others really was important to him at one time, he even began serving as a lifeguard. The well being of another was important to Bernie at one time, but along the line serving others became only a means of serving himself. Horribly wrong, incredibly dishonest. The trademark of any scam artist is to believe they are the ones who were honest and it was another who caused them to become a cheat locked in deception and delusion. Bernie’s reward 150 years in jail, a wife and youngest son will not visit, his oldest son committed suicide and a life left unfulfilled. Lost it all because he stopped honoring what he once believed so valuable, the welfare of another.

One doesn’t have to be a Bernie to stop this action. Honor has no off switch, a bartender who over pours a drink may believe himself to be a person of honor, he in fact is a a cheat. Like a Bernie, he over pours for  a bigger tip, give a little extra to a friend, or just doesn’t care about the quality of the drink. Whatever the reason, his action is dishonest in that he steals a little at a time from the employer. Added up over a year and it becomes grand theft. I once had a singing bartender at my restaurant in Branson Missouri who stolen over his time there close to 50,000 dollars along with doing other harm to the business. When we caught him, like Bernie, denied it all, he could sing like an angel but stole like the devil. His service is ever marred, and forever is known as a thief. The waitress who bill for the extra fry’s, the builder who uses inferior products, the repair person who fix’s the problem with a used part charging for a new, the cashier who short changes a customer all are not in service but to themselves.

In serving with honor we protect the only thing we truly have, and that is our name. Say Bernie Madoff and honor is not something that jumps to your mind. Say the name of that bartender to me and I cannot bring myself to say anything worthy of him (I even refuse to use his name). Our name must be protected at all times and we can only do so by living up it with honor. Do something that takes away from your name (even a little) then you take away from your very being not just your well being (the reason most cheats are who they are.)

Honor will do what it has promised or offered to do even to ones own hurt. A contractor may offer to complete a job at a certain price but did not price the job correctly, honor completes the job. He may discuss the problem and believe that the extra may be paid but the price should remain as the quote. A store sale price should mean it applies without unknown factors. Honor always does the right thing. When we serve people with what has been agreed upon and do it in excellence then we live a life in honor.

Honor is the foundation for the expression I quoted earlier, “do what is right, do it because it is right, then do it right” yes even to your own hurt if need be. I am in a situation right now that is one of honor. Opening a second location, one of clients advertise their restaurant as if I approved of it, using both my name and trade name in their marketing. Yet they had no contact, or approval to do so. They make claims that leave their clients believe that they use the finest ingredients and freshest product and that I have approved such. None is true therefore cheating the customer, myself and even themselves. They mistakenly believe that because they are doing well the other factors are not important. Honor says they are important, to claim an international chef has approved your food when he has not is a falsehood, to claim you use the finest ingredients when you use far inferior ones is a falsehood, it will catch up with you.

Romans 12:10: Expanded Bible (EXB)  10 ·Love [Be devoted to] each other ·like brothers and sisters [with family/brotherly affection]. ·Give each other more honor than you want for yourselves [or Outdo one another in showing honor; or Be eager to show honor to one another].

Simply put we are to honor those who get on our nerves, those who do us wrong, yes even the cheats of the world. In doing so we build ourselves and the reward they have for their actions will come. The cheating bartender lost all, Bernie Madoff lost all, honor is meant mostly for our well being and not another.

Some believe in honor so much that they are willing to kill for it. Recently we have seen a surge in so called honor killings especially in western countries, but there is never any honor murder. These are meant to service the honor of a family however every religion in the world forbids the taking of another’s life. Most honor killings are a crime against the youth (average age is 23) surely it must be easier to instruct than to kill. Honor provides and loves whom it may want to instruct. To live with honor is to teach the most important lesson of life, to serve another.

Serving with honor is to serve with fairness, in 1949 the FCC saw a need lacking in the broadcast industry and would pass what became known as the Fairness Doctrine. The focus was to be sure that a broadcaster would handle controversial issue that were of great concerns to the public in a fair, equitable and balanced manner. The broadcaster would give the public an honest response to their need serving the viewer with comfort. So then to be fair is to be honest, equitable and balanced. These should be the minimum standard of any server.

Fairness in service should:

A) Give the customer what they paid for, more when it is fair to the service provider, but at a bare minimum what the customer has paid for. We may have need to educate a customer as to what exactly they are paying for, they then are comfortable they are getting what they pay for. I recall an automotive company once advertising “get a trip to Hawaii with any Chrysler product sold” so a customer went and bought a spark plug and demanded the trip. The car company saw the advertising mistake but honored to ad and gave the trip to Hawaii. In the long run they could not have got more exposure as the news wires told and retold the story. The customer was very happy, getting far more than what he paid for, the car company happy to be fair and honor their advertising.

B) Never take advantage of the customer. Most customers are not qualified in the service they seek, therefore the need of the service. Our priority must always be that we are serving in a manner that leaves the client feeling that they were served extremely well. Customers rely on the expertise of the server and know within when they are being taken advantage of. This always leaves a sour taste in the soul and you can be sure that you will never see that customer again.

C) Offer the customer the best you have. We have said this much during this study but always needs repeating. Excellence will always be rewarded mostly by gaining a loyal customer.

D) Create a loyal customer. There is a difference in a satisfied customer and loyal customer. A customer who is satisfied is one who received  service which they considered the same. Same price, same offer, same service, they see the business only there to provide what they need. The loyal customer sees beyond, the service is better the product better, so they form a personal relationship with the service provider. They are swayed by gimmicks and freebies but by the service. A satisfied customer may not be a returning customer, a loyal customer thinks twice about going elsewhere. Going beyond, being fair will switch the satisfied customer to a loyal one.

You will find the loyal customer has emotional attachment to the service provider, therefore they begin to refer to the establishment as their own, and in no way could they be found elsewhere, no other establishment could be better than their own. In all my restaurants my loyal customers refer to as their chef, they have taken me on as a possession of theirs. I would have it no other way for many I will see several times a week. In Branson I had many of the entertainers who ate in no other restaurant many just considered it their own. The emotionally attached customer is your best advertising tool, they simply tell everybody to go to “their place”.

E) Eliminates the embarrassment of closing questions. If a service provider has been fair then why should they be embarrassed to simply ask the client for their business. Would you buy the car today, have I explained everything and answered all your questions? ‘Yes, then lets go a write it up. There is never a poor reason to ask for the client’s business when fairness, honesty and honor is the foundation of the negotiation.

F) Good is not good enough! We just watched this year’s Academy Awards, we watched how one Oscar winner after the other received their award, they were the best at what they did. All the others were good but these few excelled in their service to the moviegoer. TO BE FAIR IS TO BE THE BEST,

Serve with honor and success will be yours.

Why Don’t You Get A Real Job

We spoke above about preforming service that can only be accomplished when it is offered with honor, so I now want to speak to the art of service, and given my background I will speak to service industry of waiters and waitresses, but the following applies to all who are dependent upon the TIP as part of their wages.

Waiting tables is an “honorable” profession and should be treated with a certain level of high respect. If you can’t afford to tip, you can’t afford to eat out. We as servers have actually have had patrons say (usually angry ones) “Why don’t you get a real job.” So for those who would make such a statement, SERVING TABLES IS A REAL JOB. This statement is often from the lips of someone who simply does not want to leave a tip regardless of the level of service. We will discuss the tip later but i want to discuss the duties of most servers (good ones.)

* Arrive before schedule and check POS for specials, a la mode offerings, and eighty six items.

* Greet guests in a friendly and courteous manner during all interactions.

* Handle all guest interactions with the highest level of hospitality and professionalism.

* Abide by the policies and procedures as set out in the Associate Handbook and any other applicable policies.

* Must adhere to the appearance and grooming policy.

* Perform other duties/tasks and projects as assigned

* Offers suitable wine pairing options to enhance guest experience.

* Informed wine, spirit and cocktail knowledge, constantly improving and updating to suit guests’ needs.

* Ensure guests meet the legal age in order consume alcohol beverages, check valid government issued identification.

* Must be able to perform accounting duties as it pertains to closing out checks, giving change and accuracy in balancing end of day reports and paperwork.

* Must be able to up sell and suggest specialty food and beverage items to each guest.

* Writes customers’ food and beverage and keys into POS.

* Clears and resets tables, including removing and replacing dishes, glasses, utensils and condiments in a timely manner.

* Ensures cleanliness of the dining room, service areas and back of the house.

* Have knowledge of menu and private party menus.

* Responsible for pre-sets and removing unused pre-sets from the table.

* Effectively communicates to management, both front and back of the house, any problems (e.g. Allergies), special requests (e.g., no garlic, no MSG, etc.) concerns (e.g. Timing) to ensure the guest a pleasurable dining experience.

* Coordinates with kitchen and floor staff to ensure an exceptional guest dining experience.

* Answers or finds the answer to questions regarding menu items, property and area events and attractions.

* Resolves customer complaints including invocation of complete satisfaction policy.

* Completes required side work as assigned.

* Meets the attendance guidelines of the job and adheres to regulatory, departmental and company policies.

* Fluent in English both written and verbal. Proficiency in other languages would be an asset.

* Ability to work flexible hours including days, evenings, nights, weekends and holidays, including overtime as required.

* Ability to follow all safety policies and procedures within the work area and respond properly to any hotel emergency or safety situation.

* Ability to work well under pressure. Ability to serve up to 30 guests at the same time.

* Work harmoniously and professionally with co-workers and management.

* Must be able to initiate and engage in conversation in a professional and friendly manner.

* Excellent interpersonal and customers service skills. Problem solving, and guest retention skills are required.

* Must be able to work in the assigned bar and lounge.

* Must be able to carry and balance cocktail and serving trays that weigh at least 15 pounds.

* Must be able to stoop and bend, as well as maneuver up and down stairs.

* Must be able to use hand motion when serving drinks and wiping down tables

* Must be able to stand for extended periods of time to continuously perform essential job functions.

* Must be able to attend to the needs of guests of differing age groups, seniors, adults, young adults, children and toddlers ensuring an excellent experience in dining.

How then does one actually say “get a real job” what exactly is a real job and how do you classify it as such? Why is a job not serving a real job and one of serving not a real job. A bank teller is that a real job, or the doorman, the theatre usher, the restroom steward, the car sales person, are these also not real jobs? Or is it only for those with a degree and various letters behind their name. Take a look at what my name could actually be written like, Rev. Ronald Kalenuik, CCC, BA, MBA yet I am a server, does this discount my degrees? Perhaps the real job means the amount of money one makes, most professional servers make sums much higher than those with a BA or other Bachelor type degrees. A real job must be one where the needs of the individual and his or her family are being met. The taxi driver or counter server work in no less of a real job than the doctor or the lawyer. The difference is the value that society places upon the individual, but the job they perform is very much real.

This job of serving requires extensive knowledge in various areas, it requires the individual to multitask at multiple tables while keeping health and safety of the customer foremost but not letting the customer realize it. Performing all the requirements while dealing with the demands of a logistic corporation, a manufacturing corporation, an educational institute and a day care center (that’s just the first hour.)

The server is required to a peace maker, have knowledge of obscure ingredients, tracking information as to the locale where the ingredient is grown. Knowledge field and farm, fresh and salt water fish and seafood, and is the product wild or farmed grown. They are required to do the exotic and then the mundane. An expert in time management, they are required to know the exact timing of the preparations of the kitchen to ensure all is delivered fresh and at the correct temperature. They must be ambassadors, diplomats, politicians and skilled orators. They become skillful at handling ego’s of managers, chefs, sommeliers, and more importantly the customer.

Servers work every special occasion and birthday except their own. All long weekends take on a completely different meaning to the server. While they attend to the needs of those with the “real jobs” being sure that their families are having a great long weekend of fun, the family sits at home to wait for the server to return, tired, hurting, deprived of rest, exhausted, and it was all at or below the local minimum wage and a percent of the tips. (Most servers’ tips are split in various ways, we’ll see this later) Special days or holidays are always the highest in stress, in customer dissatisfaction, in errors committed, and at the door wait times all potential disasters that the server needs to defuse.

Although many view the job as temporary (as they gain knowledge to transcend to their career) those who have made a career of serving, often find it a more rewarding and fulfilling career. In comparison to those who have successfully entered into their field of their choice and the professional server statistics show the server is happier in their job.

The song “Take this job and shove it” by Johnny Paycheck, may explain the attitude of many, it is not a general feeling of the professional server. Given the stress and the high demands the professional server everyone who serves this is not a job but rather a vocation. A vocation is a term meaning “a divine call” which most servers truly believe they are. Another meaning is: occupation, or the principal business of one’s life. Talk to most servers and they will tell you that they do what they do because it is in their blood to do so. They leave for a time but soon they are back, many who have departed serving for another career will be found returning, often giving up the career to serve. The professional server is reminded daily of what they do, an acronym for service is: Social, Enthusiastic, Responsible, Vibrant, Intelligent, Courteous, Engaged. The professional server has been trained in service.

When I conduct service courses for my clients here is what the staff will be trained in:

• Hospitality and the waiter • Menu: Types, uses and services: Buffet service; Family service; Plate service; Silver service; Functions service. • Food service equipment• Food service procedures • Mise-en-place (everything in its place) • Taking orders • Suggestive selling • Styles and sequence of service • Silver service • Gueridon service, (food is presented, cooked, or finished on a trolley in front of the guest.) • Beverage equipment and service procedures • Beverage product knowledge • Patron-care • Wine rituals • Cash register operations  • Handling customer complaints • End–of–service procedures  • Espresso machine operation.

Having a complete understanding in these areas requires dedication to professionalism, and once learn it does not end there servers are constantly upgrading their knowledge as food trends become popular.

So much of the server’s job is to provide the guest with the highest of standards, the standards must be in place and enforced by all, servers, chefs, managers. They are never up for debate, a standard means the way it is done, automatically without thinking. Think of it, after the manner of a car’s transmission, there is the manual which requires coordination and thought but for most they drive an automatic, just get in and go, the work and thought are completely done with the car. Everyone applies the standards without thought, a server cannot serve hot food if in fact the cooks do not follow the standards of providing it hot. The manager cannot change the standard when he or she just happens to feel like it, they put are in place to the delight, satisfaction and safety of the customer, not the ease of those who must enforce them. Any business without standards will frustrate the employees, managers, owner and most importantly the guest. They are likely not to exist too long. Those which do stay in business will see the business struggle in retention of employees and satisfied guests.

Service, Sales & Satisfaction

Have you ever noticed that most car dealerships always divide their dealership into three areas, the showroom, a sales area, and a service area. Sales and service are always divided, you are sold in the sales area and then serviced by others. Both departments are staffed by “professionals” and are equipped to resolve the problems you may present to them, both want you to leave with whatever they choose to sell to you, therein lies the problem.

The salesperson has a quota set by the dealership, he or she must sell cars or lose their job. The service manager also has a quota set and most upsale the service call, even a free oil change can end up costing hundreds in unexpected repairs. The dealership has lost the main idea, “the customer is the one buying.”

True service knows the most important part of selling is a customer who is willing to buy. A person pressured or “convinced” to buy will be a dissatisfied and disgruntled customer. Every good salesperson knows the key to a happy customer is first to listen. How do you fill a need if you have not discovered what the need may be. Too often the salesperson wants to talk in order to get across why their product is so much better than the competitors. The customer however only wants to know why the product fills their need.

Every salesperson needs to be instructed by a good server. No server would ever tell the customer what they are going to eat, drink or how they are going to pay the bill. Yet this is the action of most salespeople. You want this car because it does all these wonderful things, the radio will get 300 satellite stations (as if anyone would listen to 300 instead of the five most people do) the GPS system are programmed with all of the 20,366 Starbucks stores in 61 countries (but somehow not the one around the corner) it can go 0-100 miles in 20 seconds (but on what road.)

The server is trained is to listen to the customer, they order a steak, they server wants to know how they like it. They order a coffee beverage, the server knows to ask how they want it, black with sugar, cream, a double double. The server just doesn’t bring a dessert but they give the customer descriptive choices. They listen to what the customer desires to purchase then they do everything possible to fulfill the request. Thus no effort needed to close a sale, the customer buys exactly what they want and the server receives the commission in the form of a tip.

Sales should be exactly the same, for a salesperson is in the same industry as the server, fulfilling the needs of the customer by listening to the customer. If you sell for a living, (cars, insurance, furniture anything) the sale is made by listening first to the customer. We have often heard the expression “it’s not personal, it’s just business” but for the customer buying something for life’s need is personal, and they want that salesperson to have a personal involvement, it is not a business to them it is very personal. The customer takes the spending of their budget very personal and they care more about receiving value of those dollars, value and   what the product can do for them. The sales professional will see to it that the customer knows that they have been listened to and their money is being spent in a manner that will improve the life they desire to have.

When was the last time you saw a waitress on the street looking for someone to serve, never right! Why, because their customers always come to them. Most salespeople miss this simple reality, the customer has come to them. Then listen to what the customer wants when they show up at the door.

Define the need, a family man with 3 kids wants a high powered sports car but needs the four door sedan, listening and defining the need will put him into a car that both his family and he will be very happy with. Attracting a potential customer is costly, but seeing them buying at the competitor next door is even more costly. You prevent this by listening and fulfilling the need, it is a very personal way to a successful business. Fulfilling the need of the customer is paramount, we need to understand his need, set aside any need of ours we may have (the final sale) and do everything in our power to meet that need of the client. Building the business is complete through building the relationship.

Too often the salesperson wants to impress the client with how much they know about the product, and yes, the client may need to know about the product. But listening to the client will tell the salesperson when to hush, and let the customer talk, ask questions or absorb the knowledge they have been given.  No client ever wants to feel they are not smart enough or intelligent enough to comprehend what they are seeking to purchase. A smart phone is not so smart to the user who doesn’t understand it because the salesperson has given an over kill demonstration. Show the phone, let the customer see it will do, what they need it to, make the sell and when the customer is comfortable with what they have purchased let them know how much more it will do for them. If you overwhelm them with information then they feel inferior and will look for a way not to buy. Listening shows you when the customer is becoming uncomfortable with the conversation even though you are trying to provide information for the clients well being.

A good listener knows where to take the conversation. A good server knows that when a customer says they don’t like something to ask probing questions to find a replacement for the item that is being rejected (they also know to be sure that the rejected item never comes near the diners dinner.) The salesperson should know when listening to ask the questions that will lead the conversation to the clients desired conclusion. Although the job is to make the sale creating the long term relationship by listening to the client outweighs all other concerns. Happy clients always buy, unhappy ones stop buying with you.

Stay on topic. If you take the conversation in various directions you will lose the client, this can include overselling the product. You need to explain the product to a comfortable point, when the client becomes uncomfortable is when you will lose the sale. You can only know this point by listening well to the client. If they change the topic you have lost them, getting them back on topic may not be so easy.

By listening you avoid giving the client an opportunity to shut down the conversation. Asking  questions designed to draw out a meaningful response, not a simple yes or no, gives them a true opportunity to be involved in their purchase, something they will have to live with much longer than the salesperson. They truly want to ask questions about their purchase knowing that the person providing the answer is more involved with them than with the product being offered.

Stick to the benefits, never misrepresent the product. By listening to the clients questions they will lead you to explain the benefits of their purchase. In doing so you build their confidence in their decision and you avoid the urge to discredit the competitor’s product. If your product is what the client is looking for then their search is over, running down the competition only will make them curious to find out why you’re insecure about your product. The only opinion that really matters is that of the client who is buying your product, double talk confuses their opinion about you and your product.

The restaurant server always offers options, but regardless of what they think the client’s decision is, it is always the right one. If the client hates chocolate (who really does) the server will know not to bring something containing chocolate. The server found out by asking the right questions and listening to the customer, then offering options that fit their customers choices. No matter how great the server may love chocolate it is not open for discussion with the customer, they move on to something else (maybe strawberry.) So too the sales person must do the same, offer options.

Never, never, never ever say what someone else wants you to say. Listening must first begin within you. You must stay true to you. You will never find success or happiness if you rely upon what others say or think about you and your convictions. Great salespeople are not moved by the negative opinion of the general population, the world needs salespeople even when they don’t know it. The great ones know it and fill the need, they do so by staying true to their own convictions.

As a chef I cannot lower my standards, I cannot allow others to offer less than what is very good. To do so would be to take from who I am, my convictions are that the customer deserves the finest, freshest ingredients that I can prepare, anything less is to steal from the customer and I am no thief. If my menu says I use the best then I better use the best, if not I am lying to the customer my convictions will not permit such a lie. To compromise my convictions for a temporal gain would be wrong.

Earlier in this blog I told you how a client used my name, trade name and marketed me to promote a different restaurant which I had nothing to do with and without notifying me or with my approval. They actually sold me! Yet when they were caught they were the ones who became offended, they compromised their convictions. When you compromise any standard; you offend yourself, and thus lash out at those with whom you have committed the offense against. (The lawyer is biting at the bit for this one) They make money but lie and deceive to do so, no conviction. Your convictions are a reflection of the truth as to who you are, standing for them and doing so boldly lets everyone else know your value. Your convictions must never bring harm or violate the rights of another or affect their liberty or well being, if you touch any of those then your convictions must be examined and readjusted. This restaurant group believes that because they are successful then they can continue to do what they do, lying to their customers, deceiving them as to whose reputation is on the line, that is okay to them but still wrong, anything wrong will eventually have dire consequences.

Listening to your convictions, to your clients and serving them according to both will only result in a bright future. Enjoy yours.

Truth In Service

A lie gets halfway around the world before the truth has a chance to get its pants on.

Winston Churchill

Truth or Consequences, a city in New Mexico or a game show or a life lesson? I know, I know, all of them. Well it is the life lesson we will concern ourselves with, truth in service and what are the consequences for either disobeying or obeying the truth. As a chef I will use my industry to be an example, but it holds true for all industries.

We are a”five star” restaurant states the manager to a guest, it’s a lie. No one awards 5 stars, the best is 3 stars from the Michelin Guide, 5 diamonds awarded by AAA and Zagat’s rates on a point system as does Wine Spectator. For someone to claim such, shows how little they know little about what they are talking about and if they can lie about their rating what other lie’s may be found upon the menu.

Common menu lie’s are over inflating the ingredient used, (farm salmon touted as wild or even Copper River salmon sold fresh in October (the Copper River season is mid May until July) cannot be true. Other menu lie’s are the latest catch words such as sustainable, local or organic. These are the latest hot button terms in the greening of a restaurant, but do you really receive what they claim on the menu. Certified organic means there is a record to track the product, sustainable is a philosophy and subject strictly to to  the claims of the farmer or operator, local often refers to product farmed within 100 miles of the operation (something that can be verified but often is not.) Many restaurants use these terms without providing  the required documentation. I dined in a restaurant just today who made these claims,  in Canada, in winter you cannot get any fresh produce grown within 100 miles, the ground is frozen. So they clearly lie to the customer. There are times of the year when ingredients are simply not available within that 100 mile zone, strawberries may come from California or Florida or even Chilie. Apples are waxed and stored in the fall, getting a fresh one in May it simply doesn’t happen although the apple from Washington State may be available year round it still may be last season’s apple (which is ok as long as you don’t claim it was just picked). In defense of the chef who actually goes to the farmers market (very few do) they need to be asking the right questions as well, the farmer may be getting what he is selling shipped in from elsewhere too. Many farmers will sell other regions until their own product is ready.

The restaurant operator must present what is stated upon the menu, so if they claim an ingredient comes from a certain area then it must: Scottish salmon; Atlantic salmon (can be both a type and a region); Crassostrea gigas or Pacific oysters; Bluepoint oysters raised in Long Island’s Great South Bay ; PEI or Idaho potatoes; Bay scallops; Gulf shrimp; PEI Mussels, Smithfield ham; Limerick ham; Alaskan king crab; Long Island duck; Florida stone crabs; French white asparagus.

Leeway may be given for styles rather than districts, New England, Manhattan  and Boston style clam chowder, New York style cheesecake, Maryland style crab,New York or Chicago style pizza, Kansas City or New York strip is commonly accepted and most realize that it is a style of cuisine rather than a district, we all understand that Chinese food does not come from China but rather it is the preparation method of the food.

Often restaurants boast of servicing the” finest” and “freshest” ingredients however when questioned they use terms like IQF (individually quick frozen) to refer to the food ingredient, no matter what frozen is, it is still not fresh. I recently watched a TV commercial referring to bagels as “fresher than fresh” because of the IQF process, still frozen is not fresh, thus it is a lie.  Often compounded with the lie there is just out and out fraud. Veal cutlets made of pork, shrimp used instead of scampi, common beef sold as Black Angus, Kobe or Wagyu (watch out any restaurant that claims the burger is made of these) wild mushrooms must be wild.

Bar’s who use well stock instead of the requested brand name knowing most people cannot tell the difference once mix has been added to the drink. How much more money can I get if my customer orders a Masterson 10 year old whiskey at 4.00 an ounce but I give him a Centennial 10 year old at 1.00 per ounce, if they add cola will they know the flavor difference.  The Masterson would sell for 25.00 per drink and the Centennial for 6.00 (at the bar 17% liquor cost) so if two drinks are served with mix I can charge 50.00 and only have a cost of 2.00 instead one of 8.00 (after all he will never know) so the bartender has lied, committed fraud and theft, (after all who is going to pocket the 38.00 difference in just those two drinks?

Truth will prevent the restaurant from using many canned and RTU items as well. Is that sauce on your steak Oscar really Bearnaise (eggs, butter, white wine, lemon juice, tarragon, salt and pepper) or is it something made of modified milk ingredients, palm oil, wheat flour, modified corn starch, monosodium glutamate, corn syrup solids, hydrolyzed protein (corn, soy, wheat), salt, onion powder, silicon dioxide, locust bean & guar gum, citric acid, spices, hydrolyzed casein (milk), hydrolyzed soybean oil, garlic powder, disodium guanylate, disodium inosinate, color. With  allergens of milk, wheat and soy. Would it not be far nicer if the cooks only knew how to make the sauce in the first place instead of relying upon a microwavable “something”. The big factor here is most restaurants proudly declare themselves as MSG (monosodium glutamate) free zones, cooks simply make an instant product that calls itself Bearnaise sauce and states to the server no MSG because they have not read through the ingredients listed upon the package. Reading labels prevent’s problems in the dining room as well, maple “flavored” syrup is not maple syrup for pancakes.

We may ask ourselves, how is that we are not speaking truth? This is so easy to answer, in doing so lets look at what a lie is. There are two kinds of lies, both wrong, both destructive. What there is not is what we call a big lie or a little lie, a lie is a lie. So what are the two kinds of lies, white lies and black lies.

Something white has always been thought of as day, light, beneficial, good, pure, not presenting any harm. Whereas something black is considered dark, night, destructive, very harmful. Other terms we use this comparison with: white and black magic, black and white ideas or choices, seeing everything in black or white, an agreement written in black and white.

So then a “little white lie” can’t be harmful, can it? Most white lies are conceived to manipulate someone into a course of action that who favor the liar, not usually beneficial to anyone except the liar. In a restaurant my menu white lie manipulates the customer into buying an item at a cost higher than what I should charge or reassures the guest I am offering them what they want when in fact I knowingly am not. Morality says we don’t lie, compromising our morals gives us the needed permission to tell little white lies.  We want our customers to think highly of us therefore we tell them what they want to hear so that our self-esteem or our confidence in our business skills do not come under question.

The little white lies are ok because we have not harmed anyone, right? Wrong for we have caused harm first to our sense of morality which devalues who we are, once caught in our lie we generally tell another and yet another cover of the first, it eventually gets lost in a maze of lies and our integrity is now gone. Some may believe that the telling of the white lie is really just being kind and showing kindness. To be kind is defined as being: useful, to lie to someone only serves you and has no good use ever. People want the truth regardless of the circumstance, you’re not being kind to tell them anything less than the truth. If the truth cannot be expressed because of a possibility of harming sensitivities, just ask yourself what will be the repercussions be in the end? If they will be harmful (and they will be with a lie) then tell the truth. Everyone can be truthful, just word the answer in a way that holds integrity.

Truth is kindness, those who receive the truth have knowledge upon which they may shape their future, immediate or for the  long term.  “Is this the best thing you ever ate?” asks the new cook, when it was not so good at all,  the comforting lie would be a simple yes, the truth could be worded “there is potential for you to produce the best thing I ever ate if you will only do….” No lies and the cook gets a useful bit of knowledge. We place greater value on hearing the truth so we may move forward than hearing a falsehood that only strokes our ego.

No matter the circumstance there is never the place for the white lie, especially in service. We want to build relationships and to do so on the grounds of a falsehood will only catch us in the end and we suffer the loss of the relationship. What price have you placed upon your integrity.

A black lie of course is any lie spoken to cover and protect ourselves or out and out deceive another for our personal gain. We talked earlier about Bernie Madoff the King of the Liar’s he did only that which pleased or made gains for himself, all based upon black lies. Be sure that the fall is great, I wonder what price Bernie had upon his son’s life.

Most bartenders, like car salespeople, insurance salespeople are masters at the lie, telling the customer what they want to hear rather than what they need to hear, that is the kindness we cans serve, speak the truth.

Service demands truth and if you want the best of your customer than give them the best you have, the truth. Many states, provinces and most city health departments actually have “truth in menu” laws, and the operator could be closed for misrepresenting their menu with lies. Homemade (house made) must be so, not a purchased product, using ingredients which are claimed to be not in the building (MSG), Most government law enforcement can enforce truth in menu laws and literally hundreds per year experience some punitive action for lies expressed on the menu.

“Anyone who doesn’t take truth seriously in small matters cannot be trusted in large ones either.” Albert Einstein

“The truth is incontrovertible. Malice may attack it, ignorance may deride it, but in the end, there it is.” Winston Churchill

“Our duty is to encourage every one in his struggle to live up to his own highest idea, and strive at the same time to make the ideal as near as possible to the Truth.” Swami Vivekananda

“Truth is a deep kindness that teaches us to be content in our everyday life and share with the people the same happiness.” Khalil Gibran

“Tell me I’m clever, Tell me I’m kind, Tell me I’m talented, Tell me I’m cute, Tell me I’m sensitive, Graceful and wise, Tell me I’m perfect – But tell me the truth.” Shel Silverstein

“And ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free. ” John 8:32 Jesus The Christ

 

 

 

The Foodie and The Truth

“A truth that’s told with bad intent beats all the lies you can invent.”

William Blake

We have spoken within this writing regarding the actions and the inner working of those who choose to serve and do so  with excellence. There are however those who are a nemesis of the service operator. They choose a different path and the weapons they choose to battle with are written words. A select few are the ones who truly are dedicated to cuisine, others approach from haughty know it all attitude. They speak with roars but have attached little truth to what they say. So I have an acronym for them as to what the truth could be: Taking Real Understanding to Heart. Those who serve as partners in business are known as the “critic” some are hired to be truthful in journalism, others have elevated themselves to the position and believe they are void of the responsibilities that journalist must live by. In the hospitality industry they have renamed themselves many times over the years. Once known as gastronomes  they became known as the epicures, later gourmets but now they call themselves “the foodie.”

 Gastronomy is a word derived from two ancient Greek words,  gastér, meaning stomach and nómos, the laws which govern. Therefore Gastronomy is the a study of the laws that govern that which goes into the stomach. The most respected of all gastronomes would be Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin, the author of the, Physiology of Taste. A brilliant writer his works have been the foundation and trustworthy source for most other gastronomes including Prosper Montagné who wrote Larousse Gastronomique the dictionary standard for cooking (especially French cuisine) the world over. Any gastronome would be of little worth without having read and fully understanding both of these founders of the laws which govern the stomach. It is important to note that Brillat-Savarin was an outstanding cook and Montagné was an incredible chef. To write well on cuisine you must be able to prepare it in excellence as well. A critic words has no value if in fact they cannot perform that which they are reviewing. “Whoever receives friends and does not participate in the preparation of their meal does not deserve to have friends.” Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin

The “Epicurean” is a philosophy of luxurious pleasures, especially those of food, drink, and bodily comfort. The epicurean follows the teaching of Epicurus an ancient Greek philosopher who taught that life was about pleasure. Therefore all epicurean’s propagate a teaching of the pleasure of food. Their writing must herald that the experience is well worth the effort. Epicurus taught that pleasure was gained through modesty in life.  He said, “It is impossible to live a pleasant life without living wisely and well and justly. And it is impossible to live wisely and well and justly without living a pleasant life.” A conundrum of life.

The epicurean is also an ethicurean one who believes in eating ethically without depriving oneself of taste. They hold to a local, sustainable, organic philosophy and their writings concern themselves with these areas including that of most cuisines. Epicureans would hold to the writings of Miguel Angel Ruiz author of the “Four Agreements” which are:

Be Impeccable With Your Word.

Don’t Take Anything Personally.

Don’t Make Assumptions.

Always Do Your Best.

For the epicurean he has said “Be Impeccable With Your Word. Speak with integrity. Say only what you mean. Avoid using the word to speak against yourself or to gossip about others. Use the power of your word in the direction of truth and love.” This philosophy would clearly prevent the harsh and destructive words used against many establishments today found on websites such as Yelp, Trip Advisor, Urbanspoon and others (but we will get to them.)

The “Gourmet” is an idealist with a focus upon the culinary arts of fine food and drink, or haute cuisine, a person of discriminating taste and who is knowledgeable in the preparation of food. One who is passionate about all areas of food and its formulation. They have the palate and the skill to back their opinion in their writings. Perhaps one of the finest of gourmets was Craig Claiborne the well known and equally respected food editor of the New York Times. Author of many cookbooks including the New York Times cookbook an important book for any cook to own. Many gourmet’s are also gourmands which is an epicurean on steroids, any person given over to the excesses of fine dining. They live by the words of Mae West, “Too much of a good thing can be wonderful.” Mr. Claiborne once consumed a 31 course meal in his pursuit of the finest of food. Again the gourmet speaks about food and concerns themselves with the all aspects of its preparation and service. So their writings are focused upon these points, they equip themselves with knowledge and have the skills to fortify their words.

The Foodie, pick any of the aforementioned review sites and a good amount of the reviews will be written by someone who is a blogger, oh, what’s a blogger? Defined by Blogger.com: “A blog is a personal diary. A daily pulpit. A collaborative space. A political soapbox. A breaking-news outlet. A collection of links. Your own private thoughts. Memos to the world.” So these food writing bloggers consider themselves to be a “Foodie.” So then what is a foodie, best possible explanation is a mishmash of the Gourmet, Epicurean and Gastronomoe, that being the best explanation. However the most common definition is a person who simply has taken a limit amount of knowledge and portrays themselves as an expert in the topic of cuisine.  

I performed an unscientific test, to determine the skill level of foodie bloggers, the result was only 2 of 100 actually had any culinary training, knowledge or work experience. Here is an example of what I found in my study. A world famous three star Michelin guide (highest they award) rated restaurant located in the Napa Valley of California, of 13 restaurant critics, all gave the highest rating possible including the aforementioned three stars. Of the twenty nine foodie bloggers 9 gave a very negative report, 1 on the same day Michelin awarded their three stars (who are you going to believe?) Of the 13 critics all have culinary backgrounds and are paid by their employers (not the restaurant) to review food service establishments. Of the twenty nine foodie bloggers only 1 had any culinary background or history equipping them to review restaurants, (I know not if any are paid.) Skilled blogging foodie’s (by skilled I mean having knowledge of the culinary arts and are not writing just because they like to eat) write because they want to express themselves in an artistic manner. They are not paid for writing, if they were paid then the review is called into question which would make them a “hack.” “Truth will always be truth, regardless of lack of understanding, disbelief or ignorance.” W. Clement Stone

The foodie blogger is obliged to speak (write) the truth for if they do not then the blog becomes nothing more than a lie and the author, the creator of the lie.  The foodie blogger must be true to the reader, the food, the establishment, and the public, to break trust by writing something untrue is to devalue all who are dependent upon the writing. We all have heard that we are not to believe everything we read, yet we desire to do so. That is why cult’s do so well, lazy people believe what they read then do nothing to find the truth. “One of the peculiar sins of the twentieth century which we’ve developed to a very high level is the sin of credulity. It has been said that when human beings stop believing in God they believe in nothing. The truth is much worse: they believe in anything.” Malcolm Muggeridge The foodie blogger or writer is not a cult leader but a cuisine leader and must lead the follower on a path that is true to the cuisine.

Although some foodie bloggers can cause havoc, they are an important part of doing business. When they review a restaurant truthfully the operator has a great opportunity to improve. Truthful bloggers are in a sense partnered with the operation in that the words they choose to use can increase or decrease sales, a positive review which goes viral can actually overwhelm the restaurant, the negative one can crush them. A foodie blogger has equal responsibility to that of any other food critic, the truth and nothing but the truth.

As the review sites grow (and they will) so too shall the foodie bloggers that use them as their means to vent, what should an operator who believes in their service do? Many of the sites allow the operator to respond to any reviewer, so monitor the sites (Twitter too) and respond to the reviewer in the same manner you would as if they were still seated in your restaurant. If the reviewer has given valid points, listen to them, and don’t make excuses for a poor performance.  Any operator should welcome point of views that will help do the job better. A reviewer who use vague wordy comments are more difficult the respond to, when the review is “the worst thing I ever ate” it begs the question, why? The reviewer needs to be more specific with the comment, why was it the worst. I find it difficult to believe a 1,2 or 3 star restaurant actually made anyone the worst thing they ever ate. In lesser qualified restaurants reviewers need to understand the skill level of the service offered and write accordingly. Perhaps invite the foodie blogger to spend a night working along side the chef and see how they do, and let them know that you too get to write a review on their performance, if they believe in the foodie principals they would jump at such an invitation.

Anonymous appears at the restaurant for a dinner service, great they should, thus being able to receive the exact same service as everyone else, anonymous however should never write as such. Anonymous, who is he or she, how does one take the comments made seriously if they won’t even identify themselves and who they may be. We stand beside one another is providing excellence in service, how do stand with whom you cannot know for they choose to hide. “I am not bound to win, but I am bound to be true. I am not bound to succeed, but I am bound to live by the light that I have. I must stand with anybody that stands right, and stand with him while he is right, and part with him when he goes wrong.” Abraham Lincoln Anonymous often will blog comments they would never say in a face to face conversation therefore the comment is not constructive and needs to treated as such. Their comments are often like a virus which quickly spreads and to others (going viral is the expression) with the same disease that they suffer with, there are healthy viruses but not often found on review sites. There is a name for those who join the bandwagon and add their comments to the original one, they are called “trolls” nothing more need be said. Anonymous means there is no way to verify the skills of the writer and therefore one can only assume the skill is that they have a hate on for whom they are writing about. Although sometimes the bloggers’ comments may be slightly negative but it is the trolls that do the damage with just a little feeding, anonymous is still responsible to stop the feeding by being identifiable and by replying to each troll comment.

The fodie(as I have said) is an important part of the food business, as partners, we welcome their input. A writer who uses his or her ability to build the relationship with the customer while not agreeing with you on all points can be very helpful. The actions of the foodie blogger must be those of the paid food critic, no exceptions, same code of ethics. Once you have posted to the internet you are a publisher and thus must abide by the same rules any publisher would demand of their journalists. “Truth is not a matter of fact but a state of harmony with progress and hope. Enveloped only in its wings will we ever soar to the promise of our greater selves.” Bryant H. McGill Foodie bloggers may want the subscribe to the same code of ethics as the food reviewer, see http://www.afjonline.com/FoodCriticsGuidelines.cfm then sign up. Finally be true and truthful, true to yourself, the reader and the food, then report truthfully. “Between falsehood and useless truth there is little difference. As gold which he cannot spend will make no man rich, so knowledge which cannot apply will make no man wise.” Samuel Johnson

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Posted by: chefkscookingschool | April 14, 2011

Chicken, Duck, Turkey and other Poultry

POULTRY DISHES INTRODUCTION

First the Facts:

  1. All chicken grown in Canada is grain fed
  2. No hormones or steroids are fed to chicken
  3. Chickens have free access to feed and water
  4. Chicken farmers do not set retail or wholesale prices
  5. The Canadian chicken industry is responsible for 49,700 jobs
  6. The Canadian chicken industry contributes close to $9.5 billion to the Canadian Economy
  7. The Canadian chicken industry is supply managed
  8. Most chicken farms in Canada are family owned and operated
  9. Chicken manure is a great fertilizer

10.  Canadian chicken barns are thoroughly cleaned between each flock

11.  Chicken is Canada’s favourite meal

12.  Hormone and steroid use has been illegal in chicken production since the 1960s

13.  Chicks are vaccinated to prevent common diseases

14.  The average Canadian eats 30kgs of chicken a year

Nutritional Value of chicken based on portions of 100 grams trimmed of skin and visible fat.

    Fat (in grams) Protein (in grams) Calories
  Breast, Meat Only 2.1 33 159
  Leg, Meat only 6.9 25 170
  Lean Ground Chicken 12.4 22 207

Source: Chicken Data: Moncton University Food Research Centre, 1996
Percentage of the recommended daily allowance of nutrients contained in 100g of cooked skinless chicken breast:

  Niacin 86%  
  Thiamin 5%  
  Riboflavin 7%  
  Pantothenic acid 14%  
  Vitamin B6 33%  
  Vitamin B12 17%  
  Vitamin A 5%  
  Zinc 11%  
  Iron 7%  
  Phosphorous 21%  

Source: Canadian Nutrient File, 1981

Improper food handling and preparation causes over 80% of food borne illness.  Here are four easy steps to follow when cooking with chicken:

Always wash your hands with hot soapy water after handling raw meat.  Thoroughly clean all kitchen surfaces and utensils using a mild bleach and water solution.

Keep raw meat and fish away from other foods.  At the grocery store, keep separate from other foods.  At home, store on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator.  When cooking, use a designated meat only cutting board, preferably glass or acrylic as bacteria can survive in the crevices of wooden cutting boards.

Cook chicken thoroughly until there is no trace of pink and it is cooked to the right temperature.  Never partially cook meat and finish cooking it later.
All chicken pieces, with or without skin and bone, must be cooked to an internal temperature of 165°F (74°C) and whole chickens, stuffed or un-stuffed, must be cooked to an internal temperature of 185°F (85°C).

Always put your prepared food or leftovers in the refrigerator or freezer within two hours after cooking.

  • Whole chickens can be stored in the refrigerator for 2-3 days or in the freezer for up to one year.
  • Chicken Pieces can be stored in the refrigerator for 2-3 days or in the freezer for up to six months.
  • Cooked Chicken can be stored in the refrigerator for 3-4 days or in the freezer for up to three months.
  • Ground Chicken can be stored in the refrigerator for 1-2 days or in the freezer for up to three months.
  • Never thaw poultry at room temperature.  Poultry can be thawed in the microwave, refrigerator or a cold water bath where the water is changed numerous times.
  • Always cook thawed chicken with 48 hours

Chickens raised for meat – called broilers – are raised in climate-controlled barns where they are free to roam and are protected from hot summers, cold winters, predators and disease.

Chickens have unlimited access to clean water and nutritious feed 24 hours a day.

Chickens eat a healthy balanced diet consisting primarily of grains (corn, soya, wheat) and a protein-mineral supplement. All ingredients are government approved.

Chickens are not given hormones. In fact, hormones are not available in Canada and their use is illegal.

Chickens are full grown in about six to eight weeks and farmers produce five or six flocks a year

DUCK

Rich and full of flavour, duck meat is extremely nutritious, with high levels of protein, B vitamins and minerals such as zinc, potassium, magnesium and iron. Weight for weight, it has less meat than chicken and turkey but, because its flavour is strong, a little goes a long way. If you’re cooking duck breast its comparatively high fat content can be reduced by removing the skin, and the layer of fat that sits beneath it, before cooking.

Farmed duck, domesticated from the wild mallard, is the most commonly available, but wild duck is also available in season. Duck is popular in Chinese and Thai cuisine, as well as in European cookery, which often pairs it with fruits such as oranges, raspberries, cherries, cranberries and blueberries.

As is the case with all meat, duck should be bought from a source that you trust – a good supermarket, local butcher, farmers’ market or shop, or a website mail order company.

Whole ducks are good for roasting. Other portions are also available (either skin on or off, on the bone or boneless), including breasts (dry fry, sauté, grill or roast) and legs (use in casseroles or stews). You can also buy smoked duck breast, sliced and ready to eat (it is edged with fat, which can be removed), as well as confit de canard, duck legs that have been cooked and preserved in their own fat – all it needs is to be reheated.

Whichever breed, type or cut of duck you choose, look for birds or cuts that have clear, soft skin, without bruising, blemishing or tears.

As farmed duck meat is so richly flavoured, with a fattier texture than other poultry, cuts such as breasts don’t need to be marinated. However, wild duck breasts, while having just as a strong flavour, can be dry, so will benefit from being marinated for between 4-24 hours; slash the skin a couple of times to help the marinade penetrate further.

Before it goes in the oven, both whole and cuts of duck should be at room temperature, so take it out of the fridge (1 hour for a whole duck; 30 minutes for a cut) before cooking. Keep it covered, in a cool place.

Duck should be stored in the fridge as soon as you get it home. Take off all the wrappings, then wipe it all over (and inside the cavities) with kitchen paper. Put the duck on a tray or a plate wide and deep enough to contain any blood or juice that might seep out. Cover loosely with foil.

Make sure the duck doesn’t touch any over food in the fridge that’s to be eaten raw, or meat that is already cooked. Whole birds and pieces of duck will keep for up to 2 days. As with all poultry follow the same storage, handling and preparation as with chicken.

Roast (whole duck: 2 ¼ hours for ducks weighing 1.75-2 kg, 2 ¾ hours for ducks weighing 2.5-3 kg; breasts, 30 minutes). Dry fry, grill or barbecue (3-4 minutes on each side). Stir fry (cubes or strips, 5-7 minutes).

TURKEY

Producers and retailers adhere to strict standards to assure consumers receive safe turkey products. But there are four critical points when improper handling by consumers could cause the development of bacterial problems which can lead to foodborne illness. They are thawing, preparation, stuffing and cooking.

Thawing

NEVER THAW FROZEN TURKEY AT ROOM TEMPERATURE which falls in the Danger Zone between 4°C (40°F) and 60°C (140°F) where bacteria thrive. Instead leave turkey in the original leak-proof package and use one of the following methods:

  • The preferred method for defrosting whole turkey is to place it on a tray to prevent raw juices dripping onto other foods and thaw completely in the refrigerator. Allow 10 hours per kilogram (5 hours per pound).
  • When time is short, place turkey in a large container or the sink and completely cover with cold water. Change the water every 45 minutes to an hour. Allow 2 hours per kilogram (1 hour per pound). Once thawed, refrigerate immediately and cook within 48 hours.
  • Turkey parts and ground turkey may be thawed in the microwave following manufacturer’s directions. But they must be cooked immediately after thawing.

It’s important that turkey is completely defrosted before cooking so it cooks evenly to destroy any bacteria which might be present. Never refreeze thawed turkey without cooking it first.

Do not thaw a frozen pre-stuffed turkey. It should be cooked from the frozen state.

Preparation

Be careful when handling raw turkey because any surface which comes in contact with it or its juices can be contaminated with bacteria. Wash your hands well in hot soapy water before and after handling raw turkey. Remove plastic wrap from turkey, being careful that raw juices don’t drip on areas where ready-to-eat foods are prepared. Remove neck and giblets from the body cavity of whole turkey; rinse in cold water and cook, if desired, or discard. Rinse turkey inside and out with cold water. Pat dry with paper towels and discard them.

After preparing raw turkey, wash all counters and cutting boards, trays, pans and utensils with hot soapy water. Then sanitize with a mixture of 1 teaspoon (5 mL) bleach for each 4 cups (1 L) of water. Thoroughly rinse with hot water and let air dry.

Stuffing

The safest and easiest way to handle stuffing is to prepare it separately and place it in a covered baking dish to cook during the last half hour of the roasting. The flavour may be enhanced by basting with broth made by cooking the neck and giblets or cooked juices from the roasting pan.

Baking stuffing separately is safer because it can take over two hours for the heat of the oven to penetrate a large stuffed bird. This provides time and temperature for bacteria which might be present in the stuffing to multiply. These bacteria may produce toxins which will not be destroyed by cooking. If you still prefer to cook stuffing in the turkey, it’s safer to use smaller birds. Turkey should be stuffed loosely, about 3/4 cup of stuffing per pound of turkey.

Warm stuffing is an ideal environment for bacterial growth. So whether stuffing is cooked in the turkey or in a baking dish, extra care must be taken during its preparation and cooking. Wet and dry ingredients can be prepared ahead of time and chilled. But they should not be mixed until just before placing the stuffing into the turkey or into a casserole. Never stuff your turkey the night before.

Fresh Young Turkey

Approximate cooking time in hours and minutes.

  Fresh Young Turkey*
(10-16 pounds)
Fresh Young Turkey*
(16-24 pounds)
Roasting/ Baking (325°F) 3-4 hrs.
15-20 min./lb.
(325°F) 4-5 hrs.
12-15 min./lb.
Braising/ Sautéing Not recommended Not recommended
Poaching/ Simmering Not recommended Not recommended
Deep-Frying (365-375°F) About 40 minutes.
3-4 min./lb.
About 60 minutes.
2-3 min./lb.
Oven-Frying (425°F) Not recommended Not recommended
Broiling/ Direct Grilling Not recommended Not recommended
Smoking/ Indirect Grilling 12-20 min./lb. 12-15 min./lb.
MICROWAVE COOKING
Microwave Setting (high) 10 min./lb.
(med) remaining time
Not recommended
Cooking/Standing Time
(for combined total weight
12-15 min./lb.
standing time 20 min.
Not recommended

* If frozen, defrost in refrigerator, allowing 24 hours for every 5 pounds.

Ground Turkey, Burgers and Sausages:

Approximate cooking time in hours and minutes.

  Ground Turkey Turkey Burgers
Roasting/ Baking (in loaf) 375°F uncovered 45-50 min. Not recommended
Braising/ Sautéing (in burgers)
(med-high) 1 min./side
(med-low) 3-4 min./side
(med-high) 1-1 1/2 min./side
(med-low) 1 1/2 -2 1/2 min./side
Poaching/ Simmering Not recommended Not recommended
Deep-Frying (350-365°F) Not recommended Not recommended
Oven-Frying (425°F) Not recommended Not recommended
Broiling/ Direct Grilling (in burgers) 5-6 min./side 2 1/2 -3 min./side
Smoking/ Indirect Grilling Not recommended Not recommended
MICROWAVE COOKING
Microwave Setting (high) Not recommended
Cooking/ Standing Time (for combined total weight) 6 min./lb.
standing time 5 min.
Not recommended
 
  Turkey Sausage Breakfast Sausage Links
Roasting/ Baking (375°F) uncovered 25-30 min. (375°F) 5-6 min./side
Braising/ Sautéing 10-12 min. (med-high) 4-7 min.
Poaching/ Simmering Not recommended Not recommended
Deep-Frying (350-365°F) Not recommended Not recommended
Oven-Frying (425°F) Not recommended Not recommended
Broiling/ Direct Grilling 15 min. turn often Not recommended
Smoking/ Indirect Grilling Not recommended Not recommended
MICROWAVE COOKING
Microwave Setting (high) (high)
Cooking/ Standing Time (for combined total weight) 7-8 min./lb. standing time 5 min. 6-9 min./lb. standing time 5 min.

Turkey Parts (With Bone):

Approximate cooking time in hours and minutes.

  Half Breast Whole Breast
Roasting/ Baking (350°F) 50-60 min.
18-25 min./lb.
(350°F) 1 1/4 -1 3/4 hrs.
15-20 min./lb.
Braising/ Sautéing (med-high) 10-15 min.
(med-low) add liquid cover, simmer 40-50 min.
(med-high) 15-20 min.
(med-low) add liquid cover, simmer 1-1 1/2 hrs.
Poaching/ Simmering Not Recommended Not Recommended
Deep-Frying (350-365°F) Not Recommended Not Recommended
Oven-Frying (425°F) Not Recommended Not Recommended
Broiling/ Direct Grilling Not Recommended Not Recommended
Smoking/ Indirect Grilling 15-25 min./lb. 12-20 min./lb.
MICROWAVE COOKING
Microwave Setting (high) 10 min.
(med) remaining time
(high) 10 min.
(med) remaining time
Cooking/Standing Time
(for combined total weight)
11 min./lb.
standing time 20 min.
12-15 min./lb.
standing time 15 min.
 
  Wing* Wing Drummettes*
Roasting/ Baking (350°F) for 1 hr.
or until internal temperature reaches 180°F
(350°F) for 45 minutes
or until internal temperature reaches 180°F
Braising/ Sautéing (med-high) 15-20 min.
(med-low) add liquid cover, simmer 75-90 min.
(med-high) 15 min.
(med-low) add liquid cover, simmer 65-70 min.
Poaching/ Simmering uncovered
1 1/2 -1 3/4 hrs.
uncovered
1 1/2 -1 3/4 hrs.
Deep-Frying (350-365°F) Not Recommended Not Recommended
Oven-Frying (425°F) Not Recommended Not Recommended
Broiling/ Direct Grilling precook 1 hrs.
8-10 min./side
precook 1 hr.
8-10 min./side
Smoking/ Indirect Grilling ¼ – 1 ½ hrs. 1 1/2-1 3/4 hrs.
MICROWAVE COOKING
     
Microwave Setting (high) 5 min.
(med) remaining time
(high) 5 min.
(med) remaining time
Cooking/Standing Time (for combined total weight) 14 min./lb.
standing time 10 min.
14 min./lb.
standing time 10 min.
 
  Drumsticks* Thighs*
Roasting/ Baking (350°F) for 1 hr. 10 minutes
or until internal temperature reaches 180°F
(350°F) for 1 hr. 10 minutes
or until internal temperature reaches 180°F
Braising/ Sautéing (med-high) 20 min.
(med-low) add liquid cover, simmer 70-80 min.
(med-high) 15 min.
(med-low) add liquid cover, simmer 40-50 min.
Poaching/ Simmering uncovered 1 1/2-1 3/4 hrs. uncovered 1 ½ – 1 ¾ hrs.
Deep-Frying (350-365°F) Not Recommended Not Recommended
Oven-Frying (425°F) Not Recommended Not Recommended
Broiling/ Direct Grilling precook 1 hr.
8-10 min./side
precook 3/4 hr.
8-10 min./side
Smoking/ Indirect Grilling 1 ¾ – 2 hrs. 1 ½ – 1 ¾ hrs.
MICROWAVE COOKING
Microwave Setting (high) 5 min.
(med) remaining time
(high) 5 min.
(med) remaining time
Cooking/Standing Time (for combined total weight) 14 min./lb.
standing time 10 min.
16 min./lb.
standing time 10 min

Turkey Parts (Boneless):

Approximate cooking time in hours and minutes.

  Breast* Breast Fillets*
Roasting/ Baking (325°F) 3-4 hrs.
15-20 min./lb.
(350°F) for 15-20 minutes
or until internal temperature
reaches 170°F
Braising/ Sautéing (med-high) brown 4 min./side
(med-low) simmer 20-30 min.
med-high 7-8 min./side
until internal temperature reaches 170°F
Poaching/ Simmering uncovered 30-40 min. Not recommended
Deep-Frying (350-365°F) Not recommended Not recommended
Oven-Frying (425°F) Not recommended Not recommended
Broiling/ Direct Grilling Not recommended 9-10 minutes turning
occasionally until internal
temperature reaches 170°F
Smoking/ Indirect Grilling 15-20 min./lb. Not recommended
MICROWAVE COOKING
Microwave Setting (high) 3 min.
(med-high) remaining time
(med)
Cooking/ Standing Time (for combined total weight) 10 min./lb.
standing time 10 min.
12 min./lb.
standing time 5 min.
 
  Breast Tenderloins* Thin-Sliced Breast Cutlets*
Roasting/ Baking (350°F) for 35 minutes or
until internal temperature reaches 170°F
(375°F) 10-15 min.
Braising/ Sautéing (med-high) 12-14 minutes
turning occasionally until
internal temperature reaches 170°F
(med-high) 1 1/2 -2 min./side
Poaching/ Simmering uncovered 20-30 min. Not recommended
Deep-Frying (350-365°F) Not recommended 1-2 min.
Oven-Frying (425°F) Not recommended (breaded) 1 1/2 -2 1/2 min./side
Broiling/ Direct Grilling 30-35 minutes turning
occasionally until internal
temperature reaches 170°F
1 1/2-2 min./side
Smoking/ Indirect Grilling 12-15 min./side Not recommended
MICROWAVE COOKING
Microwave Setting (med-high) (med-high)
Cooking/ Standing Time (for combined total weight) 12 min./lb.
standing time 5 min.
9 min./lb.
standing time 5 min.

*To keep skinless parts (especially breasts) moist, brush lightly with oil before baking.

Chicken famers thoroughly clean out their barns between each flock. Disinfection of the barns is an important element of the food safety program. It gives our farmers the distinction of having one of the highest cleanliness standards in the world.

More than chicken alone, poultry on today’s menu represents creativity and tastefulness at their best. The limitless ways of preparing the bird can range from traditional stuffed birds to the all new never before seen dishes such as a strawberry Italian wine cream chicken. This chapter in itself does not concentrate completely on chicken, it is but one of the fabulous poultry dishes discovered or rediscovered within it’s pages.

International in scope, local in flavor the recipes here are easily prepared and a  pleasure to serve. No recipes can be preferred over another, for they all are to good not to try. However when considering something different for the special function, consider this chapter first. My dishes like duck lasagna are sure to be a pleasure with any group. Or, perhaps it’s more of a formal affair then plan the roast guinea fowl with blueberry hollandaise and fly away with the praise you receive.

The ideas for poultry are endless, from grilling, and roasting to sauteeing just let your creativity flow, and enjoy.

No longer is the lowly chicken lowly, it has reached new pinnacles of success and unfortunately, so too has it’s price as purveyors drive the price ever higher. What is exciting however, is that what-ever could be done with chicken can also be accomplished with any other type of bird. Turkey for example has come into it’s own, no longer just the holiday meal center piece, many and new turkey dishes are showing a renewed love for an old friend, with such dishes as turkey fillets creole or smoked turkey in cherry sauce.

APRICOT CHICKEN

1 cup   boiling water

10 oz  preserved dry apricots

2/3 cup safflower oil

1/3 cup  lemon juice

1 tsp  each of garlic powder, onion powder, basil, thyme leaves, oregano leaves, salt, white pepper

1/3 cup minced onion

1/4 cup  minced sweet red bell pepper

2 tbsp butter

1 sliced Spanish onion

1 cup chicken broth

2  lbs chicken pieces

Pour the boiling water over the apricots and soak for 10 minutes. Drain and place into a food processor with the oil, lemon juice, and seasonings. Process for 1 minute.  Pour into a mixing bowl and stir in the minced onion and pepper.

Heat the butter in a skillet and sauté the onion. Add the broth, bring to a boil reducing the stock to 1/3 cup. Add the apricot mixture.

Place the chicken pieces in a large casserole dish. Pour sauce over, cover and bake in a preheated 350F oven for 45 minutes. Uncover and continue to bake for 15 additional minutes.  Serve with rice pilaff.

SERVES 8

AUSTRIAN STUFFED CHICKEN

3 oz  sliced mushrooms

1 fine diced medium onion

1 tbsp safflower oil

2 1/ 2 cup cooked rice, cold

2 cups peas

1  tsp each of salt, pepper, thyme leaves, basil

1/3 tsp cinnamon

1 egg

1‑5 lbs chicken

2 cup  tomato sauce

Sauté the mushrooms and onions in a large skillet with the oil until all the liquid has evaporated. Cool to room temperature. Blend into the cooked rice along with the peas, seasonings and egg.

Stuff this mixture into the chicken, truss the chicken. Place the chicken into a roaster and roast into a 325F  oven for 2 1/2 hours. Check for doneness. Remove chicken from oven. Scoop the stuffing into a serving dish, carve the chicken and serve with tomato sauce on the side.

SERVES 6

BEER BATTERED CHICKEN

1 1/2 lb chicken boneless breasts

2 eggs

1 1/ 2 cup flour

1 cup ice cold beer

1 tsp baking powder

3 cups  safflower oil

Cut the chicken into 1″ strips. Whip the eggs, 1 cup (250 ml) flour, beer, and baking powder together.

Heat the oil to 375F .

Dust the chicken with remaining flour. Dip into the batter then deep fry in small batches to golden brown, reserve hot. Once all the chicken has been cooked, serve.

SERVES 6

BLANQUETTE DE POULET

1 1/2 lb  boneless chicken meat

3 cup chicken stock

1 tsp  salt

3 tsp   thyme leaves

1  bay leaf

20  pearl onions

4  carrots julienned cut

2 tbsp  butter

2 tbsp flour

2 tbsp  lemon juice

2  egg yolks

pinch cayenne pepper

1 tbsp chopped parsley

In a Dutch oven or a large kettle put the chicken, stock, salt, thyme, and bay leaf,  cover and simmer for 45 minutes. Add the onions and carrots continue to simmer for an additional 10 minutes.

Remove 2 cups of liquid. Melt the butter in a small sauce pan, add the flour and cook for 2 minutes over low heat, (do not brown it). Slowly add the 2 cups of liquid stirring until thicken.

Whisk the lemon juice in the egg yolks. Blend into the sauce.  Reheat but do not boil the sauce as this will curdle the eggs. Blend the sauce with the chicken. Stir in the cayenne.  Pour into a serving bowl.

Sprinkle with parsley and serve over noodles or rice.

SERVES 6

CHICKEN FLORENTINE TWIST

6‑4 oz  chicken breasts

10 oz   spinach leaves

6 oz  havarti cheese

6 oz  smoked salmon

2 tbsp melted butter

2 cup chicken velouté

Pound the chicken breasts flat with a meat mallet.

Chop the spinach fine.

Place 2 oz spinach, 1 oz cheese, and 1 oz of salmon on each breast. Roll chicken and secure with toothpicks.

Brush with melted butter place on a baking sheet. Bake for 20 minutes in a preheated 350F oven.

Place on serving dished with the velouté poured over them. Serve.

SERVES 6

CHICKEN IN CHAMPAGNE SAUCE

6‑4oz boneless, skinless chicken breasts

1 2 cup champagne

1 2 cup chicken stock

1 tsp thyme leaves

3 tsp salt

2 tsp green peppercorns

2 tbsp  butter

2 tbsp flour

2 cup light cream

Place the chicken breasts in a sauce pan. Cover with the champagne, stock and the seasonings and simmer gently for 20 minutes. Remove and reserve hot. Increase the temperature under the sauce pan and bring the broth to a boil, reduce to 1 cup. Strain through a cheese cloth.

Heat the butter in a 2nd sauce pan and add the flour, cook for 2 minutes over low heat. Add the strained broth along with the cream. Simmer for 5 minutes.

Place the chicken on serving plates, pour the sauce over the chicken and serve.

SERVES 6

CHICKEN MEATBALL CURRY

2 lbs chicken

1/3 cup fine diced  onion

1/3 cup fine bread crumbs

1 egg

1/2 tsp each of, cayenne, turmeric, ginger powder, black pepper, basil, thyme leaves, oregano, paprika

1 tsp salt

1 minced garlic clove

3 tbsp safflower oil

2 tbsp butter

2 tbsp flour

1 tsp curry powder

1 2 cup chicken stock

1 cup light cream

In a food processor coarse chopped the chicken. Add the onion, bread crumbs, egg, seasonings and garlic. Process into a fine mix. Remove and shape into small balls.

Heat the oil in a large skillet and brown the meat balls. Drain all oil. Transfer the meatballs to a casserole dish.

Heat the butter in a sauce pan add the flour and curry powder cook for 2 minutes over low heat. Add the stock and cream, simmer for 5 minutes. Pour the sauce over the meatballs.

Cover the dish and bake in a preheated 350F oven for 45 minutes.  Serve with rice.

SERVES 6

CHICKEN N CHESTNUTS

4 tbsp safflower oil

1 1/2 lbs boneless chicken meat

1  finely diced Spanish onion

1 finely diced red bell pepper

1 fine diced green bell pepper

3 oz sliced mushrooms

3 oz chestnuts, peeled, diced

4 tbsp flour

1 tbsp curry powder

2 cup chicken stock

1 cup heavy cream

Heat the oil in a large Dutch oven. Add the chicken, vegetables and chestnuts. Sauté until chicken browns. Sprinkle with flour and curry powder, reduce heat and cook for 2 minutes. Pour in stock and cream and simmer for 35‑45 minutes.

Serve over noodles or rice.

SERVES 6

CHICKEN PISTACHIO

6‑4oz boneless chicken breasts

2 oz suet

1 lb ground chicken meat

3 tbsp gated onion

3 tbsp minced carrot

3 tbsp minced celery

3 tsp each of, basil, thyme leaves, marjoram, salt, pepper

1 cup shelled pistachio nuts

1 egg

2 tbsp melted butter

Pound the chicken breast flat with a meat mallet.

Blend the suet, ground chicken, vegetables, seasonings, nuts and egg together in a large mixing bowl. Divide the mixture evenly over the chicken breasts. Roll the chicken breasts to enfold the filling. Fasten together with toothpicks or tie.

Brush with melted butter and place on a baking tray. Bake for 35‑40 minutes in a preheated 350F oven. Serve with a wild mushroom sauce (see sauces).

SERVES 6

CHICKEN PROVENÇALE

3 tbsp olive oil

1 minced garlic clove

1 1/2 lb boneless chicken strips

3 oz button mushrooms

20 pearl onions

1/2 lb julienne cut zucchini

2 cup  crushed tomatoes

3 tbsp lemon juice

1/3 tsp each of thyme leaves, basil, paprika, salt

2 tsp cracked black pepper

Heat the oil in a Dutch oven, add the garlic, chicken, mushrooms and onions, sauté until chicken is cooked thoroughly. Add the zucchini and continue cooking 5 minutes. Add the tomatoes, lemon juice and seasonings, reduce heat and simmer for 30 minutes.

Serve with rice.

SERVES 6

CHICKEN VELVET

1 1/2 lb boneless chicken breast

3 oz mushrooms

3 tbsp safflower oil

3 tbsp flour

1 1/2 cups chicken stock

2/3 cup heavy cream

1/3 tsp salt

1/3 tsp white pepper

8 oz grated cheddar cheese

Cut the chicken breasts into strips.

Fry with the mushrooms in the oil in a large skillets. Sprinkle with flour, reduce heat and continue to cook for 2 minutes. Pour in the chicken stock and cream. Add the seasonings and continue simmering for 35 minutes.

Stir in the cheese and simmer an additional 5 minutes longer. Serve over rice or noodles.

SERVES 6

CHICKEN WALNUT

1 lb boneless chicken strips

3 tbsp sherry

2/3 cup chicken stock

2 tbsp soy sauce

1 tbsp cornstarch

3 tbsp safflower oil

1 1/2 cups snow peas

4 oz button mushrooms

1 cup sliced celery

1 sliced onion

1 sliced green bell pepper

2/3 cup walnut pieces

Toss the chicken with the sherry and marinate for 30 minutes.

Blend the chicken stock, soya sauce and cornstarch together in a mixing bowl. Heat 2 tbsp (30 ml) of oil in a wok, add the chicken, and fry thoroughly. Remove the meat, add the remaining oil and fry the vegetables.

Return the chicken and add the broth. Simmer for 2 minutes. Stir in the walnuts and serve with steamed rice.

SERVES 6

CORNISH HENS CATALANE

3‑18oz  Cornish game hens

1 tbsp safflower oil

3 tbsp butter

1 finely diced Spanish onion

3 oz sliced mushrooms

2 tbsp flour

1 1/2 cup tomatoes peeled, seeded, chopped

1 oz grated bittersweet chocolate

1 1/2 cup 375 ml espagnole sauce (see sauces)

Split the hens in half. Brush with oil. Place on a baking sheet. Roast for 45 minutes in preheated 350F oven.

While the hens roast, heat the butter in a sauce pan, add the onion and mushrooms and sauté until all the liquid has evaporated. Sprinkle with flour and cook for 2 minutes longer. Add the tomatoes, chocolate and espangnole sauce. Reduce heat and  simmer for 30 minutes.

Remove hens from the oven, place on a serving platter cover with sauce and serve.

SERVES 6

CORNISH HENS WITH PEPPERCORN SAUCE

3‑l lb  Cornish game hens

3 tsp  each of, salt, basil, oregano, pepper, paprika

1  garlic clove

1 tbsp olive oil

2 tbsp butter

2 tbsp flour

1 cup  chicken stock

1/2 cup  light cream

1 tbsp green peppercorns

1 tsp Dijon mustard

1 tbsp chopped chives

1 tbsp chopped parsley

Split the hens in half.

Blend the seasonings together. Rub the hens with the garlic clove. Brush the hens with the olive oil and sprinkle them with the seasonings. Place on a broiling pan and bake in a preheated 350F oven for 45 minutes.

While hens bake, heat the butter in a sauce pan and add the flour, cook for 2 minutes over low heat. Whip in the stock, cream, peppercorns, mustard and chives. Simmer for 10 minutes.

Transfer the hens to a serving platter, cover with sauce, sprinkle with parsley and serve.

SERVES 6

DUCK LASAGNA

2 lbs boneless duck meat

1 large Spanish onion

1 red bell pepper

1 green bell pepper

3 celery stalks

1 minced garlic clove

1/3 cup olive oil

3 cups crushed tomatoes

1/2 tsp each of salt, basil, marjoram

3 tsp each of pepper, paprika

1 tsp  Worcestershire sauce

1 1/3 lbs mafalda noodles (a 1″ wide pasta)

3/4 lb grated mozzarella cheese

Cut the duck meat into 2″ cubes.

Medium dice the vegetables.

Heat the oil in a Dutch oven. Add the duck and vegetables and sauté until the duck has cooked through. Add the tomato, seasonings and Worcestershire. Reduce the heat and simmer for 1 1/2 ‑ 2 hours until sauce is very thick.  Skim any grease from sauce as it floats to the top.

Cook the noodles in a large Dutch oven with plenty of salted water until they are al dente, drain and cool.

Alternate layers of noodles and sauce in a large grease casserole dish. Cover with cheese. Bake in a preheated 350F oven for 15 minutes or until cheese is golden brown.  Serve.

SERVES 8

FLORENCE DEVILED CHICKEN

6‑6oz chicken breast boneless wing attached (aka supreme or airline)

1/3 cup olive oil

1 minced garlic clove

2 tsp minced ginger root

1 tbsp lemon juice

Flatten the chicken breasts leaving the bones in and place in a shallow baking pan.

Blend the remaining ingredients together, pour over the chicken and marinate for 6 hours.

Broil the chicken over a charcoal or gas barbecue for 7 minutes per side on medium heat. Serve very hot.

SERVES 6

JENNIFER’S CHICKEN

6‑6oz  boneless chicken breasts

1 cup green seedless grapes

6 oz rindless brie cheese

1 cup baby shrimp

2 eggs

1/3 cup milk

1/3 cup ground pinenuts

2 cup fine seasoned bread crumbs

1/3 cup freshly grated Romano cheese

2 cup flour

1/3 cup safflower oil

Pound the chicken flat with a meat mallet between two sheets of plastic wrap.

Cut the grapes in half and place a few grapes on the chicken along with 1 oz of cheese and a sprinkling of shrimp. Roll the chicken to enfold the filling inside.  Place on a baking pan and refrigerate for 1 hour.

Blend the eggs and milk together. Mix the nuts with the bread crumbs and cheese. Dust the rolled chicken with flour. Dip the chicken into the egg wash then roll in the bread crumbs.

In a large skillet heat the oil, fry the chicken to golden brown on each side. Transfer to the baking sheet and bake in a preheated 350F oven for 15‑18 minutes.

Serve with a blackberry brandy sauce.

SERVES 6

POULET A’ LA SARASATE

6‑4oz boneless chicken breasts

8 oz finely diced lean veal

8 oz finely diced ham

4 oz finely diced mushrooms

1 finely  diced small onion

2 tbsp safflower oil

1/3 tsp each of salt, pepper, paprika, basil, nutmeg

6 bread rusks

1 1/2 cups wild mushroom sherry sauce

Pound the chicken breast flat with a meat mallet between two sheets of plastic wrap.

Blend the veal, ham, mushrooms and onion together.

Heat 1 tbsp (15 ml) oil in a skillet. Add the mixture and seasonings and sauté until mixture is cooked thoroughly, cool to room temperature.

Divide the filling equally over the chicken. Roll the chicken to enfold the mixture. Place on a broiling pan and refrigerate for 1 hour. Brush with the remaining oil and  bake in a preheated 350F oven for 20 minutes or until golden brown.

Place on a bread rusk on a serving platter, and smother with sauce and serve.

SERVES 6

POULET FARCI EN COCOTTE

1‑3 lb chicken

1/3 lb chicken livers

2 shallots

2 tbsp chopped parsley

1/4 cup butter

2 cups bread crusts

1/3 cup milk

1/3 tsp each of thyme leaves, basil, oregano, salt, pepper

Wash the chicken. Clean the livers of any membranes then fine dice them. Fine dice the shallots and mix with the parsley.

Heat 1 tbsp of butter in a skillet, sauté the livers and shallots for 10 minutes, cool to room temperature.

In a mixing bowl blend the bread crumbs, milk, seasonings and livers together. Stuff into the chicken. Heat the remaining butter in a earthenware cocotte (casserole dish) add the chicken browning it on all sides. Place the lid on the cocotte and bake in a preheated 350F oven for 1 2 hours.

Carve the chicken and serve in the cocotte.

SERVES 6

ROAST CHICKEN AIOLI

1‑5 lb chicken

1 garlic clove

1/3 tsp salt

2 lemons

2/3 cup aioli sauce

Truss the chicken.

Rub the chicken all over with the garlic clove. Sprinkle with salt and the juice of the lemon. Place in a roasting pan and roast in a preheated 325F oven for 1 1/2- 2 hours or until thoroughly cooked.

Remove chicken and carve. Place on a serving platter with aioli sauce to the side.

SERVES 6

ROAST CHRISTMAS GOOSE

3 apples pared, cored, diced

2 grated carrots

1 finely diced Spanish onion

2 finely diced celery stalks

1 cup seedless raisins

1 cup blanched and peeled walnuts

1/2 cup milk

1/2 tsp each of salt, pepper

1 tsp  marjoram

3 cups cubed stale bread

1‑9 lb goose

1 garlic clove

1 tbsp safflower oil

1/2 tsp paprika

1 tsp cornstarch

Mix the apples, carrots, onion, celery, raisins, walnuts, bread, milk and seasonings together. Stuff the mixture into the goose, truss the goose.

Place in a large roaster. Rub goose with garlic and brush with the oil. Sprinkle with paprika.

Place in a preheated 350F oven for 3 1/2 ‑ 4 hours. Baste several times during cooking. When the goose is cooked remove from the roaster, place on a serving platter and keep warm.

Deglaze the pan juices, mix the cornstarch with 2 tbsp (30 ml) of water. Pour into pans juices. Bring to a boil. Strain into a sauce boat and serve with the goose.

ROAST GUINEA FOWL WITH BLUEBERRY HOLLANDAISE

2‑1 1/2 lb guinea hens

6 slices bacon

1/3 tsp each of rosemary, thyme, salt, pepper

2 cup blueberries

2 egg yolks

1/2 cup  very hot butter

Split the guinea fowl in half and place them on a baking sheet. Layer the bacon over the birds, and sprinkle with seasonings. Roast them in a preheated 350F oven for 45 minutes. Remove from oven and remove the bones while hot.

While birds roast puree the blueberries in a food processor, strain to remove pulp and seeds. Place the juice in a sauce pan and heat to a boil reducing to 2 tbsp of thick liquid. Cool.

Place the egg yolks in a double boiler, whisk in the blueberry syrup, slowly whisk in the hot butter forming a thick sauce.

Serve the guinea fowl on a large serving platter with the sauce on the side.

SERVES 4

Posted by: chefkscookingschool | March 3, 2011

Pork and Lamb Lesson

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Chop Chop

Broiling/Pan-frying “Fast Fry”(thin, boneless) Pork Chops

(1) Pat pork chops dry with paper towel and season as desired.

(2) Turn oven to “HIGH” broiler setting or place pan over medium high heat. Lightly spray or oil frying pan.
(3) Place pork on broiler pan 5 to 6 inches (13-15 cm) from heat or place pork in frying pan
(4) Broil or panfry until the pork is golden brown on one side (about 3 – 4 minutes); turn and broil or panfry the other side until golden brown (another 3 – 4 minutes).
Thin, boneless pork chops are also great for cutting into strips for stir-fry or noodle dishes or into small cubes for soups

Grilling Pork Chops

1) Pat pork chops dry with paper towel & rub with seasonings.
(2) Clean grill with BBQ brush and Preheat BBQ on HIGH.
(3) Place chops on grill & sear on each side (about 1 min/side)
(4) Reduce heat to MEDIUM. Brush chops with BBQ sauce, if desired, and close lid. Continue cooking for approximately 3 – 4 minutes per side (cooking time depends on thickness of chops).
(5) Use a meat thermometer to check for doneness without overcooking: cook to an internal temperature of 155°F – 160°F (68°C – 71°C).
(6) Thicker pork chops, either boneless or bone-in, are fantastic on the BBQ with a rub.

Tips for Perfect Pork Chops

Always use tongs or a fork to turn meat.

 For nicely browned pork chops, pat dry with a paper towel before cooking (even if they have been marinated).

 To make very tender pork chops, particularly for very thick chops, try brining them before cooking (not recommended if you are using “seasoned” pork).

 Bone-in pork chops typically cook a bit faster than boneless chops, so allow a few extra minutes of cooking time for boneless pork chops.

The thicker the pork chop, the longer and slower you should cook it.

Searing (quickly browning at high heat) the outside of the chops before continuing with cooking is a great way to seal in flavor.

Don’t guess – use a meat thermometer to make sure pork is safely cooked without being overdone

Just Too Tenderloin

Pork tenderloin is the only cut of pork that can tolerate a high temperature. Tenderloin will cook in about half-an-hour roasted in a 400°F (200°C) oven – talk about great fast food!

(1) Pat the tenderloin dry with a paper towel.

(2) Rub the outside of the tenderloin with seasonings as desired.

(3) Place the tenderloin in a roasting pan.

(4) Preheat the oven to 400°F (200°C).

(7) Place the tenderloin in the oven for 20-25 minutes; or until an internal temperature of 155°F – 160°F (68°C – 71°C) is reached. Time will vary depending on size of tenderloin piece.

(8) Remove the tenderloin from the oven, cover in loosely tented aluminum foil for 10 – 15 minutes to allow the juice’s to redistribute, and the internal temperature to rise.

(9) Slice against the grain (across the tenderloin) into medallions to serve.

To Roast Or Not To Roast

If you feel intimidated by attempting a pork roast, don’t be – it’s surprisingly easy!

(1) Pat the roast dry with a paper towel.
(2) Rub the outside of the roast with seasonings as desired.
(3) Place the roast in a large oven-proof Dutch oven or roasting pan.
(4) Preheat the oven to 450°F (230°C).
(5) Sear the roast by placing it, uncovered, in the oven for 20-25 minutes.
(6) Reduce the heat to 325° F (160° C) and continue cooking until internal temperature of 155°F – 160°F (68°C – 71°C) is reached. Time will vary widely depending on size of roast and whether or not it has a bone- as a general rule allow 20-30 minutes per pound (500 g) of meat.
(7) Remove the roast from the oven, cover in loosely tented aluminum foil for 10 – 15 minutes to allow the juice’s to redistribute, and the internal temperature to rise.
(8) Slice against the grain.

Tips for a Perfect Pork Roast

Do not use sharp utensils that may pierce the meat when trying to turn it because piercing allows valuable juices to escape. Use utensils, such as wooden spoons and spatulas for turning the meat.

Like pork chops, bone-in roasts will cook more quickly than boneless roasts, so allow a few more minutes of cooking time for a boneless roast.

For a crisp surface on your roast, be sure the oven is fully preheated before placing the roast in it and do not cover the meat while roasting.

Searing (quickly browning at high heat) the outside of a pork roast before continuing with cooking is a great way to seal in flavor.

Roasts should have a ‘hint’ of pink in the centre after cooking

Tickle Your Ribs

There are two basic kinds of pork ribs: back ribs and side ribs.

Back vs. Side Ribs

Back ribs generally have more meat and are more tender, than side ribs, thus they are often more expensive as well. The bones (ribs) on back ribs are small and more rounded in cross-section than those of side ribs. Less expensive than back ribs, side ribs have a great flavour, but are generally less tender, and so need a longer cooking time.

Special Varieties of Ribs

“Country Style Ribs” are cut from the same loin portion as the back ribs but the loin meat is intact. The loin is then split open (“butterflied”) to create a thick flat piece of meat. They are great for grilling or smoking. Country style ribs have more lean meat than rib bone, so will take a bit longer to cook than back or side ribs.

“Baby Back Ribs” are identical in every way to regular back ribs – (the name likely came from a chef trying to make his or her dish sound even more enticing)!

“St. Louis Style Ribs” are side ribs that have been trimmed in a certain way by the butcher – the breast bone has been removed and flank meat has been trimmed away, making them the preferred format for the barbecue.

“Sweet and Sour Ribs” are side ribs labelled “centre portion removed” and have had a narrow strip removed from the top portion of the rib rack.

“Spare Ribs” are identical in every way to regular side ribs; this term is more common in the US.

Buying Guide:

Allow at least one pound (500 g) raw weight of ribs per person, depending on what other food is being served at the meal. Two pork back rib racks will usually serve 3 guests, while one side pork rack would serve two guests.

Cooking Guide: Back & Side Ribs

Preparation: On the concave surface of all ribs is a thin, translucent membrane. This membrane is tough and will prevent any flavouring to get to the rib meat, and so should be removed.

To remove membrane: Insert a metal spoon handle under the membrane at one end of the rib rack and detach a corner. Then grab the detached flap and gently tear it away from the ribs. It should come off in one clean pull.

DO NOT BOIL your Pork Ribs: this has been the accepted method for generations, but there is a better way! If using adry rub, apply to the ribs. One back rib rack will need about one tablespoon (15 mL) of rub, a side rib rack will need two tablespoons (30 mL). In a cookie sheet or shallow roasting pan, add about 1/2 inch (1.25 cm) of water. Add a few slices of lemon or orange to the pan. Place the ribs, meaty side up, on the pan in a single layer. Cover tightly with aluminum foil and place in oven at 325°F (160°C).

Back Ribs: Cook for between 1 and 1 and a half hours, or until meat is easily pierced with a metal skewer.

Side Ribs: Cook for between 1 and a half and 2 hours, or until meat is easily pierced with a metal skewer.

Tip: At this stage the ribs can be cooled and refrigerated for up to three days.

To Finish Cooking: Ribs can be finished on the BBQ (grilled) or in the oven. To finish in the oven, remove foil and turn oven up to broil, brush ribs with your favourite BBQ sauce and broil for about 3 minutes (if ribs are hot) or until sizzling and golden. Turn ribs over and repeat with BBQ sauce and broil again. For the ultimate ribs, repeat brushing sauce and broiling or BBQing on each side. Watch carefully when broiling, so that they do not burn.

Tip: Cooking times can be reduced by adding HOT liquid to baking tray.

Tip: Line the cookie sheet or roasting pan with parchment paper if you are going to finish the ribs in the oven (under the broiler).

Tip: Cooking times will vary depending on how many rib racks are being cooked at once; more ribs means a longer cooking time.

Grilling Pork Ribs:

Preheat BBQ on HIGH, then reduce heat to MEDIUM. Place ribs on the grill and baste with your favourite BBQ sauce. As soon as the ribs begin to brown, turn and baste. Continue doing this for about 20 minutes. Eventually the ribs will begin to turn a beautiful mahogany colour from a build-up of cooked sauce applied in multiple layers. Ensure that the ribs are hot all the way through.

Indirect Cooking (barbecuing) Pork Ribs:

Back ribs can be grilled without prior cooking, i.e. from raw. The best way to do this is to use the indirect cooking method. Heat barbecue to about 250°F (120°C), turn off one side and place ribs on the “off” side. If using barbecue sauce start basting after thirty minutes, and continue until ribs are cooked and tender, between 1 and a half and 2 and a half hours total. Turn ribs every 20 minutes or so. If using a rub, apply before you start grilling. If using charcoal, wait until coals have died down, bank the coals to one side, and grill on the other side. Keep the lid of the barbecue down, and try to maintain a temperature of 250°F (120°C) throughout the cooking process.

Oven roasting:

Place steamed ribs in a roasting tray and baste with your favourite BBQ sauce. Place in oven at 300° (150°C). Continue basting with sauce every five minutes or so, turning ribs each time, for a total of 30 minutes.

Slow Cooker:

Pork ribs, especially side ribs, can also be done in the slow cooker with great results. There are many different slow cooker methods, depending on the type of sauce you like, but generally slow-cooked ribs are saucy and extremely tender.

How To Ham It Up

There are several different types of fully-cooked hams to choose from:

Bone-in or Boneless – Most people feel that hams with the bone still in are more flavourful; however hams with the bone removed are easier to carve.

Spiral-sliced – These are usually bone-in hams that have been pre-sliced into a continuous shape for convenient serving; the difficulties of carving a bone-in ham are solved, however the slices may tend to dry out because they are pre-cut.

Dinner hams – Dinner hams are made of meat that is chopped and packed in a “football” shape; these usually have added water and so are less expensive than whole hams.

Flavoured – some hams will come with additional flavouring such as Maple or Black Forest.

How Much to Buy?

  • Each pound (500 g) of boneless ham will serve 2 – 3 people. For example, a 3 lb. (1.3 kg) ham would serve 6 – 9 people.
  • Each pound (500 g) of bone-in ham will serve 1 – 2 people. For example, a 5 lb (2.2 kg) bone-in ham would serve 5 – 10 people.

Cooking a Ham

Fully-cooked hams are best if heated through and served with a glaze.

Pre-heat the oven to 325°F (160 C) and cook, uncovered, until an internal temperature of 140°F (60°C) is reached (use a meat thermometer to check that ham has reached correct temperature). A fully-cooked whole ham will take about 15 to 18 minutes per pound (500 g); while a smaller fully-cooked half-ham will need about 18 to 24 minutes per pound (500 g).

Fresh (uncooked) ham or pork leg needs to be cooked to an internal temperature of 160°F (71°C) just like a pork roast

Never baste ham with its drippings during cooking or it will be too salty. Instead, prepare a glazeand apply it during the final 30 mniutes of cooking.

Going Whole Hog

Method for cooking one whole 80 lb (36 kg) hog, barbequed slowly on a grill, with smoke:

Order your hog from a reliable butcher at least a week in advance. All hogs should be stamped with proof of government inspection.

Suckling pigs are usually 10-25 pounds (4.5 – 11 kg); whole hogs usually range from 70 -120 pounds (32 – 55 kg). Allow at least one pound (500 g) total raw weight per guest. Typically an 80 lb (36 kg) hog easily feeds 70 hungry people.

Rent a cooking unit: If you do not have a suitable unit on which to cook, order one well in advance. Find out the dimensions of the hog and of the smoking unit/barbecue so that you don’t find yourself in the unfortunate situation where the hog is longer than the cooking surface. The cooking unit should have a water pan(s) situated directly below the grill, and a thermometer incorporated into the design.

An 80 lb (36 kg) hog will take at least 12 hours using the method we chose. Give yourself plenty of lead time so that you will be ready for your guests on time!

You will require:

6 – 20 lb (9 kg) bags of charcoal

5 lb (2.2 kg) of wood chips (hickory or other)

5 cups (1.25 L) BBQ rub (like Chef K’s)

A separate charcoal BBQ or a “chimney”, which is a gadget for getting briquettes going, is a useful piece of equipment, available at better BBQ supply outlets

A table and large cutting boards large enough to be used for cutting up the cooked hog

Large shovel for coals

Knives and roasting fork

Two probe or oven-proof thermometers (this is an absolute must – do not try to guess when the hog is done, use a thermometer!)

One timer

Begin:

Check hog well in advance for blemishes, freshness, and look for the government stamp (if none found, return immediately to supplier and get money back).

Wipe hog inside and out.

With a sharp knife, cut tendons at ankle of all four legs to ensure the feet do not curl up when cooked.

With the hog on its back, carefully cut skin away from belly up to the spine, and away from the legs and shoulders. Liberally spread BBQ rub over all surfaces between skin and flesh.

Dislocate both hips (grab hog’s ankle, press down firmly toward belly, until hip “pops”).

There are two ways to place hog on grill: either tuck front legs under chest, giving a kneeling attitude, or cut through the breast bone, and splay out front legs, giving a “spread-eagled” look. The back legs are splayed in both cases. We recommend the “spread-eagled” method, as this will accelerate the cooking time for the (slow-cooking) shoulders.

Now your cooking:

In the separate charcoal BBQ or “chimney” heat about 10 lb (4.5) of the charcoal until glowing.

Fill water trays with water.

Place prepared hog on grill.

Using a shovel, divide hot glowing coals evenly underneath the hog. With each shovel of charcoal, add a handful of wood chips. Place an extra ¾ of a shovel-full of coals directly under the shoulder of the hog, and an extra ½ of a shovel-full to coals under leg section. The leg will cook faster than the shoulder, and so it’s best to cook the leg area at a slower rate and with less heat.

Set timer to 40 minutes. During the initial 40 minutes, check barbecue temperature. It should peak at about 225°F (105°C). Try to keep it within ten degrees of this temperature throughout by adjusting charcoal supply and vents on unit. This takes a bit of trial and error. After each 40 minute period has elapsed, check temperatures and add more charcoal in the same amounts, trying to ensure the leg area is at lower temperature than the shoulder area.

Place probes (or meat thermometers) in thickest portion of both shoulder and leg. Set final cooking temperatures to 160°F (71°C) for the leg, and 180°F (82°C) for the shoulder.

With each new shovel of charcoal, add another handful of wood chips. This will add to the “smoky” flavour. It will also temporarily cause a temperature spike as the chips burn. You can soak the chips beforehand in water to lessen this effect, but it’s not necessary.

Keep adding charcoal, checking temperatures, and making sure the water trays don’t run dry.

Try to manage it so that the (quicker-cooking) leg is cooking slower than the shoulder. Ideally it should be about five to 15 degrees cooler than the shoulder. But don’t get frustrated if this doesn’t happen.

When the final temperatures are nearly reached, slow down or accelerate cooking accordingly by adjusting charcoal supply and playing with the vents.

Make sure all your other foods and drinks are ready for your guests.

Place the cutting boards on the table, which is then placed close and parallel to the hog. Give yourself plenty of room to place carved meat.

To remove the hog from the grill for carving, at least two people must put on heavy gloves or oven mitts (to save ruining the gloves a good idea is to cover these with plastic or zip-lock bags). With one person on each end of the hog, grab both sides of the legs and shoulders and rock the hog gently to release it from the grill. Then, in one movement, transfer to the table.

Carving a whole hog produces large amounts of juice and fat, so before cutting , lay cardboard around table, and do not perform this operation anywhere where grease stains are going to be a problem.

First, remove an area of skin on one side of the hog by making a cut in the skin all along the spine from top of neck to the tail. Then, at right-angles to the first cut, cut down leg from the tail, and down the shoulder at the neck. Then, pull away the skin from one large rectangular area, exposing one entire flank.

With a sharp knife, carefully remove the loin meat in one piece, then carve the shoulder and leg meat. There will be a fair amount of meat attached to the belly skin, which can, and should, be sliced off and served. Repeat on other side.

Once as much meat as possible has been removed from both sides of the hog (don’t forget the cheek muscle meat, turn the carcass over, and remove tenderloins), remove the head.

If you are not serving immediately, put meat in chafing dishes, and cover. Take care to keep the meat warm (at a safe temperature of at least 140 °F or 60°C). Do not leave meat exposed to flies to prevent food-borne illness.

Freezing

With a little care, pork freezes well and will be just as tasty and juicy as fresh pork when cooked. When freezing pork, use sealable freezer bags, and remove as much air as possible from freezer bags before sealing to prevent “freezer burn”. Freezer burn is caused by loss of moisture on the surface of food. Meat that has freezer burn will have a dry discolored surface and when cooked, it will be tough and taste bland.

When freezing pork steaks, chops and patties, place a layer of waxed paper in-between each one to make it easy to separate them when defrosting.

If freezing leftover cooked pork or dishes made with pork, cool the dish (uncovered) at room temperature, then cover tightly and place in freezer within an hour after cooking.

Use frozen pork within the recommended time for best flavour and texture:

Pork Storing Guide

    Refrigerator
36-40°F (2-4°C)
Freezer
0°F (-18°C)
Fresh roasts, chops/steaks
ground pork
sausage (fresh)
variety meat
2-4 days
1-2 days
2-3 days
1-2 days
8-10 months
1-3 months
2-3 months
3-4 months
Processed Sausage
– smoked
– dry and semi dry sausage
ham *
bacon *
cold cuts *
leftover cooked pork
3-7 days
2-3 days
3-4 days
1 week
3-5 days
4-5 days
1-2 months
1-2 months
N/R
1 month
N/R
2-3 months

N/R – not recommended
* If vacuum packaged, check manufacturer’s date.

Pork Defrosting Guide

The best way to defrost meat is in the refrigerator Refrigerator Defrosting Time
Roast larger than 2 lbs (1.0 kg)
less than 2 lbs (1.0 kg)
12-15 hours/pound (500g)
10-12 hours/pound (500g)
Chops/steaks single
4-pack
8-10 hours
10-12 hours
Ground Pork 1 lb (500g)
2 lbs (1.0kg)
16-20 hours
24-30 hours
  • Meat defrosted in a microwave oven should be cooked immediately. Follow microwave oven manufacturer’s directions.
  • If you’re not using a microwave to defrost your meat, defrost it in your refrigerator.

Lamb & Sheep (Mutton)


Canadian lamb has been shown to be lower in fat and more nutritious than imported lamb.[1] This particular lamb comes from the (name of breed) stock, a breed recognized for its (quality #1) and (quality #2, etc.). Our lamb is (raised organically / grass-fed, etc.) to produce (leaner meat, etc.).

Discovering Lamb

Lamb is tastiest when it is served slightly pink. The internal temperature is an effective way to verify cooking.

At 63 °C (145 °F), the meat is rare.

At 68 °C (155 °F), it is just right

At 75 °C (167 °F), it is well done.

Nutrition & Health Benefits

(Grass-fed) lamb produces (leaner) meat.

Lamb fed with (flax seed) produce meat that contains more (omega fatty acids), a proven nutritional benefit.

Many cuts, such as (loin chops, etc.) are ideal to serve as smaller portions. Other cuts, such as (rolled roasts, etc.) offer great value for larger meals.


[1] Canadian Sheep Federation, nutritional analysis, 2007. www.cansheep.ca

   
   
  Cooking Method: Leg, Loin, Ribs, Shoulder, and Shank. Cooked by dry heat, usually roasted. Chop from these cuts are broiled. Shoulder chops can also be braised.

Breast, Shank and Neck. Cooked by moist heat methods, simmering or braising.

General Cooking Tips

  Lamb should be cooked at low temperature i.e. not higher than 160° C (325° F).
  Frozen lamb does not need to be thawed before cooking. The cooking time required depends on the cut and thickness of the cut.
  A small lamb roast requires cooking time per gram (pound) than a larger roast, but less total cooking time.
  A thick cut of lamb requires more cooking time than a thin cut of the same weight.
  Lamb with an outside layer of fat requires more cooking time than that with little or no fat.
  Boned or rolled roasts require more cooking time time per gram (pound) than roasts with bone in.
  Refrigerator, 4° C (40° F) Freezer, -18° C (0° F)
Roasts 2-3 days 6-8 months
Chops 2-3 days 4-5 months
Ground Meat 1-2 days 2-3 months
Variety Meats
(heart kidney, etc.)
1 day 3-4 months

For Cooking Excellence:
Lamb should be cooked at low, moderate temperature not higher than 160° C (325° F). Slow cooking ensures a tender, juicy, evenly coloured and delicious final product.

Frozen lamb does not need to be thawed before cooking, but will require approximately 1.5 times the recommended cooking time.

Roast leg, loin, and shoulder cuts at 150 – 190° C (300 – 375° F), rib roasts at 175 – 190° C (350 – 375° F).

Braise frozen thick chops, shanks, and neck slices only slightly longer than comparable defrosted cuts.

Frozen chops and patties should be broiled further from the heat to ensure that the meat does not brown on the outside before it is fully cooked. The time required varies depending on thickness and broiling temperatures.

Internal Temperatures:
To determine if lamb is done take the internal temperature at the center of the roast with a meat thermometer.

Degree of Cooking Internal Temperature
Rare 60° C (140° F)
Medium 65° C (150° F)
Well done 70° C (160° F)
   

CHINESE SWEET & SOUR RIBS

4 lbs spare ribs

2 tsp five spice

2 tsp salt

1/3 cup   soy sauce

1 cup  brown sugar

2/3 cup vinegar

1/2 cup  sherry

2 tbsp oyster sauce

1 thin sliced green bell pepper

1 tbsp  chopped candied ginger

2/3 cup pineapple chunks

2 tsp cornstarch

2 tbsp water

Cut the ribs into 2″ size pieces. Place on a baking sheet. Mix the five spice and salt together and sprinkle on ribs. Bake in a preheated 325F (160C) oven for 1  1/2 hours or until crisp.

Blend the soya sauce, sugar, vinegar, sherry, oyster sauce, green peppers in a sauce pan. Bring to a boil. Add the ginger and pineapple chunks.

Blend the cornstarch with the water, add the sauce. Remove from the heat as soon as the sauce thickens. Pour over the ribs and serve.

SERVES 4

CHINESE PORK TENDERLOIN

1 1/ 2 lbs pork tenderloin

1/3 cup safflower oil

1 tsp minced ginger root

2 minced garlic clove

1/3 cup light soya sauce

1/3 cup honey liquid

2 tbsp sherry

4 drops red food colouring (optional)

Trim and slice the pork.

Blend 2 tbsp (30 ml) of oil with the remaining ingredients. Pour over the pork, marinate for 4‑6 hours.

Heat the remaining oil in a wok. Drain the pork but reserve the marinate. Fry the pork thoroughly. Drain any excess oil. Add the marinate and continue to fry until all the liquid has evaporated.

Serve with rice.

SERVES 6

CLOVED PORK STEW

2 tbsp  olive oil

2 lbs  diced boneless pork

1 lbpeeled, seeded and chopped tomatoes

6 cloves

1 cup chicken stock

2minced garlic cloves

3 tsp each of basil, thyme, marjoram

2 tsp salt and pepper

1 tbsp chopped parsley

Heat the olive oil in a dutch oven. Add the pork and brown. Add the tomatoes, cloves, stock, garlic and seasoning.

Cover reduce heat and simmer for 2 hours.

Serve over noodles or rice, sprinkled with parsely as a garnish.

SERVES 6

CRANBERRY PORK CHOPS

6‑6oz6‑     170 gr      Loin chops

3 tbsp        45 ml       olive oil

2 cups       500 ml     fresh cranberries

2/3 cup    180 ml    sugar

2 tsp         3 ml          salt

1/3 cup   80 ml       water

Brown the pork chops in the oil in a large skillet. Drain off the fat.

Add the remaining ingredients. Bring to a boil. Reduce heat and cook simmering for 2 hour covered. Serve the chops covered with the sauce.

SERVES 6

CREOLE PORK TURKEYS

8    double pork chops

2 1/2 cups  bread cubes

5 tbsp   butter

1   minced small onion

2 tsp   Worcestershire sauce

2 tsp  salt

2 tsp  pepper

4 tbsp oil

2 cups creole sauce (see sauces)

Cut a deep incision in each chop.

Blend the bread, butter, onion, worcestershire sauce, salt and pepper into a stuffing. Stuff into the chops.

Heat the oil in a large skillet. Brown chops in oil, drain excess oil. Pour sauce over the chops. Cover and reduce heat, simmer for 1 hour.

Serve with rice.

SERVES 6

FRESH PEACH BBQ RIBS

2 cups  pared diced peaches

3 cup   vinegar

2 cup   peach juice

3 cup   brown sugar

1 tsp     Worcestershire sauce

1 tsp     salt

2 tsp    oregano

4 drop   Tabasco sauce

4.5 lbs  baby back ribs

Place all the ingredients except the ribs in a food processor. Puree, then transfer to a sauce pan. Simmer into a very thick sauce.

Parboil the ribs in boiling salted water until tender.

Transfer to a charbroiler and grill over medium coals. Brush with plenty of sauce. Serve with a final brushing of sauce.

SERVES 4

HAM LOAF

LOAF:

1 lb       ground ham

1 lb       fresh ground pork

1 cup   seasoned bread crumbs

3 cup   minced onion

1            minced carrot

1            minced celery stalk

2 cup   milk

SAUCE:

2 cup   brown sugar

1 tbsp  Dijon mustard

2 tbsp  vinegar

1 tbsp  water

Combine all the ingredients together. Press into a ring mold (bundt pan) place in a 350NF (180NC) oven and bake 45 minutes.

Blend the sauce ingredients together. Pour over meat. Continue to bake for 30 minutes. Turn out on to a serving platter.

Serve with rice pilaff.

SERVES 6

INTOXICATED PORK

3 tbsp  oil

1‑5 lb   center cut boneless Pork loin tied

3            minced garlic cloves

3 cup   chopped parsley

4 cups  red wine

2 tsp    salt

1 tsp     peppercorns

2 tbsp  butter

2 tbsp  flour

Heat the oil in a dutch oven. Sear the meat in the oil to brown on all sides.

Add the garlic, parsley, wine, salt and peppercorns. Reduce heat and simmer covered for 3 hours. Remove meat and reduce stock to a it’s volume. Strain.

Heat the butter in a smaller sauce pan. Add the flour and cook 2 minutes, pour in the stock and simmer until thicken.

Carve the pork and serve with sauce separately.

SERVES 8

ITALIAN SAUSAGE LASAGNA

1 lb       coarse chopped Italian sausage

1            minced garlic clove

2 tsp    each of oregano, thyme, basil

2 tsp    each of salt and pepper

4 cups  peeled, seeded and chopped tomatoes

1 1/ 3 cups  tomato paste

1 quantity   basic pasta, cut in wide noodles (see pasta chapter)

3 cups       creamed cottage cheese

2                 beaten eggs

2 cup        freshly grated parmesan cheese

1 lb            grated mozzarella

Brown the sausage slowly in a dutch oven. Drain the excess fat. Add the garlic, herbs, tomatoes and tomato paste. Simmer for one hour.

Line a large buttered casserole dish with a layer of noodles. Blend the cottage cheese, eggs and parmesan together.

Place a layer of meat sauce on the noodles, then add a layer of noodles covering them with the cheese blend. Alternate sauce, cheese blend and mozzarella layers. Finish with a final layer of sauce covered with the mozzarella. Bake in a 375F (190C) oven for 40 minutes.

Stand 15 minutes and serve.

SERVES 12

LAMB CHOPS WITH LIME CILANTRO CREAM

1             egg

1/3 cup    milk

6‑4oz         boneless blade chops

1/2 cup    flour

1/2 cup    seasoned bread crumbs

6 tbsp       olive oil

3 tbsp       butter

2 tbsp       flour

1/2 cup    chicken stock

1/2 cup    heavy cream

3 cup         lime juice

2 tbsp       chopped cilantro (coriander)

Mix the egg with the milk, dust the lamb chops with the flour, dip into egg then dredge through the bread crumbs.

Heat the oil in a large skillet fry the chops for 3 minutes per side or golden brown. Reserve hot in the oven.

Heat the butter in a sauce pan, add the flour and cook 2 minutes over low heat. Add the chicken stock and cream, simmer into a light sauce. Whip in the lime juice and cilantro, continue to simmer 5 minutes.

Place chops on serving plates and pour the sauce over the chops.

SERVES 6

LAMB CUTLETS CHERBOURG

6‑4oz         lamb cutlets

1                  egg

1/3 cup    milk

2 cup         flour

1 cup         seasoned bread crumbs

3 tbsp        safflower oil

6 tbsp       butter

3 tbsp       flour

1 cup         chicken stock

1 cup         light cream

1 1/2 cups  cooked crayfish tails

1/3 tsp     salt

pinch        each of white pepper, paprika

Pound the cutlets thin with a meat mallet.

Mix the egg into the milk. Dust the cutlets in the flour, dip into the egg wash, then dredge with bread crumbs. Heat the oil in a large skillet and fry the cutlets until golden brown. Reserve hot.

Heat 2 the butter in a sauce pan add the flour and cook for 2 minutes over low heat. Add both the chicken stock and cream and simmer 15 minutes or until sauce thickens.

In a food processor puree the remaining butter and 2 the crayfish tails. Remove sauce from heat whisk in the puree. Add the remaining crayfish and seasonings.

Place cutlets on serving plate smother with sauce and serve.

SERVES 6

LAMB CUTLETS WITH TOMATO JAM AND CHEESE

1 cup crushed tomatoes

1 cup sugar

3 cup sherry

6‑4oz lamb cutlets

1 egg

3 cup  milk

2 cup flour

1 cup seasoned  bread crumbs

3 tbsp safflower oil

2 cups grated havarti cheese

Mix the tomatoes, sugar and sherry in a sauce pan. Heat on low, stirring constantly reduce until the tomato mixture is very thick the consistency of jam.

Pound the cutlets thin with a meat mallet. Mix the egg with the milk. Dust the cutlets with flour, dip into the egg wash, dredge in bread crumbs.

Heat the oil in a large skillet. Fry the cutlets until golden brown on both sides.

Place each cutlet on a baking sheet, top with tomato jam, sprinkle with cheese, place in a 450F (230C) oven until cheese is melted and golden.

Serve at once.

SERVES 6

LAMB OLIVES

1  1/2 lbs   lamb cut into thin slices

3 oz             anchovies

2 tbsp         capers

1/3 cup      red pimento

1 cup           flour

1/2 cup      cornstarch

1 tsp            baking powder

1                    egg

2 tbsp         olive oil

1 tbsp          lemon juice

1  1/2 cups   ice water

3 cups         safflower oil

Pound the lamb to very thin.

In a food processor puree the anchovies, capers and pimento, place a little puree in the centre of each lamb slice. Wrap the meat around, shape in a olive shape. Refrigerate 1 hour.

Sift the flour, cornstarch and baking powder together.

Mix the egg, olive oil, lemon juice and water together. Whisk into the flour to form a thin batter.

Heat the safflower oil to 375F (190C). Dip the lamb into the batter and fry in the oil until golden brown. Serve very hot.

SERVES 6

LAMB ROLLUPS WITH CLEMENTINE SAUCE

6‑4oz     lamb cutlets

18           blanched asparagus spears

18           large peeled and deviened shrimp

3 oz        grated havarti cheese

2 tbsp    olive oil

1 1/2 cups  fresh clementine or tangerine juice

1 cup         chicken stock

2 cup          heavy cream

2 tbsp        butter

3 tsp          fresh ground pepper

Pound the lamb very thin with a meat mallet. Place 3 asparagus, 3 large shrimp, 2 oz of cheese in each. Fold in the ends and roll together. Secure with tooth picks. Place on a baking sheet.

Brush with oil. Bake in a preheated 350F (180C) oven for 25‑30 minutes.

While lamb bakes, combine the orange juice with the chicken stock in a sauce pan. Heat and reduce to half. Add the cream and reduce again to half. Remove from heat. whip in the butter. Add the pepper.

Place the roll-ups on serving plate, pour sauce over rollups and serve.

SERVES 6

LAMB SALAD WITH WILD MUSHROOMS

1 1/2 lbs   julienne cut cooked lamb

1 1/4 lb    wild mushrooms

2 tbsp       chopped basil leaves

1 tbsp        parsley

1/3 cup    chopped green onion

2 tsp          salt

1 tsp          cracked black pepper

1/3 cup    lemon juice

1 cup         olive oil

1                  small head Boston bibb lettuce

1                  small head radicchio

1                   egg yolk

Mix the lamb with the mushrooms in a mixing bowl.

In a blender combine the basil, parsley, green onion, salt, pepper and lemon juice. With the machine running on low, slowly pour in the oil. Blend thoroughly.

Pour half the dressing over the lamb and mushrooms, marinate in the refrigerator 1 hour.

Wash the lettuce and radiccho. Chop into coarse pieces. Place on plates. Top with the marinate lamb.

Place the egg yolk in a blender. With the machine running slowly pour in the remaining dressing. Once a thin mayonnaise is formed pour over the salad and serve.

NOTE: For wild mushrooms use chanterelles, shiitake, morels, or enoki mushrooms otherwise use cultivated ones.

SERVES 6

LAMB TRATTORIA

1  1/2 lbs  boneless, lean lamb

5 tbsp        butter

1                  minced garlic clove

3 tbsp        flour

1 tbsp        chopped fresh parsley

1/3 cup    red wine

1 cup         tomatoes ‑ peeled, seeded, chopped

1/2 cup    chicken stock

2 tsp          each of salt, pepper, paprika

1 tsp          oregano

2 tsp          capers

2 tsp          lemon zest

Coarse dice the lamb. Heat the butter in a large sauce pan. Add the lamb and garlic, cook until meat browns. Sprinkle with flour and continue cooking for 3 minutes over low heat.

Add the remaining ingredients, simmer for 30 minutes.

Serve with rice.

SERVES 6

LAMB WITH CHINESE MUSHROOMS

1  1/2 lbs boneless lamb

8 dried Chinese black mushrooms

2 tsp cornstarch

4 tsp light soy sauce

1 egg white

3 cup safflower oil

1 minced garlic clove

2 tsp sugar

3 tbsp oyster sauce

2 tbsp  mirin (rice wine)

Cut the lamb into thin slices.

Soak the mushrooms in warm water for 1 hour.

Blend the cornstarch with soya sauce and egg white. Pour over the lamb, and marinate 1 hour.

Drain the mushrooms and slice into thin strips.

Heat the oil in a wok. Stir fry the garlic. Add the lamb and fry 2 minutes. Add the sugar, oyster sauce, and wine. Continue to fry until most of the liquid has evaporated.

Serve with steamed rice.

SERVES 6

PEPPERED LAMB CHOPS

6‑6oz lamb chops

3 cup crushed black peppercorns

3 cup butter

2 tbsp brandy

1 cup demi glace (see sauces)

2 tbsp sherry

3 cup heavy cream

Pat the peppercorns into the lamb chops.

Heat the butter in a large skillet and sauté the lamb chops to the desired doneness. Remove and reserve hot.

Pour in the brandy and flame, add the demi glace and sherry. Simmer 1 minute. Add the cream blending well.

Pour sauce over the lamb chops and serve.

SERVES 6

PORK AND LAMB WITH A DIFFERENCE

6 oz lean, ground pork

4 oz lean, ground lamb

2 oz minced bacon

3 tbsp minced green onions

3 tsp1 minced garlic

1 tbsp fresh chopped parsley

2 tbsp sherry

3 tsp each of paprika, oregano, thyme, basil

2 tsp salt

1 extra large beaten egg

2‑1 lb whole boneless chicken breasts, with skin’s

2 tbsp olive oil

In a food processor (chill the bowl and blade first) process the pork, lamb, bacon, green onions, garlic, parsley, sherry, seasonings and egg into a smooth paté mixture.

With a sharp knife trim the chicken of any fat, etc. Gently pull the skin away from the chicken taking care not to separate the skin from the edges. Stuff the mixture under the skin. Skewer the skin to keep intact.

Brush the chicken with oil, bake in a preheated 375F (190C) oven for 25 minutes. Remove skewers, carve and serve with an orange liqueur sauce ( see sauces).

SERVES 6

PORK CHOPS CHARCUTIERE

6‑6 oz pork shoulder chops

2 tbsp safflower oil

1 diced Spanish onion

2 tbsp butter

2 tbsp flour

1 cup white wine

1 cup chicken or veal stock

2 tbsp chopped gherkins

1 tsp Dijon mustard

Brush the chops with the oil. Season with a little salt and pepper if desired. Broil in the oven until cooked through.

Fry the onion in the butter in a sauce pan until the brown. Sprinkle with flour and continue to cook for 2 minutes over low heat. Add the wine, stock, gherkins and mustard simmer 15 minutes.

Place chops on a serving plate, pour sauce over chops and serve.

SERVES 6

PORK CUTLETS VERDE

6‑4 oz pork cutlets

1 egg

3 cup milk

2 cup flour

1 cup seasoned bread crumbs

3 tbsp oil

3 tbsp butter

1 minced garlic clove

2 tbsp flour

2 cups chicken stock

1 cup peas

3 tsp each of salt and pepper

Pound the cutlets with a meat mallet thin.

Mix the egg with milk. Dust with flour, dip into the egg wash, dredge in bread crumbs.

Heat the oil in a skillet and fry the cutlets to golden brown on each side. Reserve hot.

Heat the butter along with the garlic, sprinkle with flour and cook for 2 minutes over low heat. Add the stock, peas and seasonings, simmer until sauce thickens. Pour in a food processor and process until smooth.

Plate the cutlets and cover with sauce, serve.

SERVES 6



Posted by: chefkscookingschool | February 15, 2011

Culinary Terms

Acidic 1. A sharp, sour or tart flavor.2. A wine-tasting term for a sharp, sour flavor caused by an abnormally high acid content.

Adobo Sauce (ah-DOH-bo) A Mexican seasoning paste or sauce made from ground chiles, herbs and vinegar.

Aerate 1. To dissolve air in a liquid or to expose a liquid to air. 2. To add air to a food (e.g., sifting flour or beating egg whites).

Aging 1. The period during which freshly killed meat is allowed to rest so that the effects of rigor mortis dissipate.2. The period during which freshly milled flour is allowed to rest so that it will whiten and produce less sticky doughs; the aging of flour can be chemically accelerated.

Aioli (ay-OH-lee) A garlic mayonnaise made in France’s Provence region; it is used as a condiment or sauce.

A la king (ah lah KING) An American dish consisting of diced foods, usually chicken or turkey, in a cream sauce flavored with pimientos, mushrooms, green peppers and sometimes sherry.

A la mode (ah lah MOHD) 1. French for in the fashion or manner of.2. In the United States, a dessert item topped with a scoop of ice cream.

Albumen (al-BYOO-mehn) The clear portion of the egg used as the nutrient source for the developing chick, constituting approximately two-thirds of its internal mass and containing most of its protein and riboflavin; sometimes used in fresh or dried form as a fining or clarifying agent or whipped for general baking and cooking; also known as egg white.

Al Dente (al DEN-tay) Italian for to the tooth and used to describe a food, usually pasta, that is cooked only until it gives a slight resistance when one bites into it; the food is neither soft nor overdone. Alkali Also known as a base, any substance with a pH higher than 7; baking soda is one of the few alkaline foods.

Allemande A sauce made by adding lemon juice and a liaison to a veloute made from veal or chicken stock; used to make several small sauces of the veloute family.

Amaretto (am-ah-REHT-toh) An Italian amber-colored liqueur with an almond like flavor, although it is actually flavored with apricot kernels; it was originally made in Saronno and called Amaretto di Saronno.

Amino Acid The basic molecular component of proteins; each of the approximately two dozen amino acids contains oxygen, hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen atoms.

Ancho (ahn-cho) A dried poblano with broad shoulders tapering to a rounded end; the chile has a brick red to dark mahogany color, wrinkled flesh and relatively mild, fruity flavor with overtones of coffee, licorice, tobacco and raisin.

Anchovy A member of the herring family found in the Mediterranean Sea and off southern Europe; it has a long snout, a large mouth and a blue-green skin that becomes silvery on the sides and belly; it ranges in length from 5 to 9 in.; usually available in pickled or salted.

Andouille Sausage (an-DOO-ee; ahn-DWEE) A spicy smoked porked sausage (made with neck and stomach meat); originally from France, it is now a hallmark of Cajun cuisine.

Angel Food Cake A light, airy cake made without egg yolks or other fats; its structure is based on the air whipped into the egg whites; it is typically baked in a tube pan.

Angus Beef, Certified A brand created in 1978 to distinguish the highest-quality beef produced from descendants of the black, hornless Angus cattle of Scotland.

Anise (AN-ihs) 1. A small annual member of the parsley family (Pimpinella anisum) native to the eastern Mediterranean region; it has bright green leaves with a mild licorice flavor that are sometimes used as an herb or in salads.2. Greek for aniseed.

Antipasto (ahn-tee-PAHS-toe) Italian for before pasta and used to describe hot or cold appetizers, usually simple foods such as cheeses, sausages, olives, marinated vegetables or the like.

Appetizer 1. Finger food served before the meal to whet the appetite; the term is often used synonymously with the term hors d’ oeuvre.2. The first course of a meal, usually small portions of hot or cold foods intended to whet the appetite; also know as a starter.

Arborio Rice (ar-BOH-ree-oh) An ovoid, short-grain rice with a hard core, white color and mild flavor; it becomes creamy when cooked and is used for risotto.

Arrowroot A starchy white powder made from the underground stems of a tropical plant, generally used as a thickener; it is flavorless and becomes clear when cooked.

Arugula (ah-ROO-guh-lah) A leaf vegetable with dark green, spiky, dandelion-like leaves and a strong, spicy, peppery flavor; used in salads; also known as rocket, rucola and rugula.

Aspic A clear savory jelly made from clarified meat, fish or vegetable stock and gelatin; it is used to glaze cold foods.

Au Gratin (oh GRAH-tan) A French term referring to a dish with a browned topping of bread crumbs and/or grated cheese; also known as gratinee.

Au Jus (oh zhew) Roasted meats, poultry or game served with their natural, unthickened juices.

Au Sec (oh sek) A French term referring to something cooked until nearly dry.

Baba Ghanoush (bah bah gha-NOOSH) A Middle Eastern dish of pureed eggplant, olive oil, tahini, lemon juice and garlic and garnished with chopped mint, pomegranate seeds or chopped pistachios; it is served as a dip or spread, usually with pita; also known as mutabbal.

Bacon A fabricated cut of the pork carcass, cut from the sides and belly; consisting of fat interspersed with strands of meat, it is salted and/or smoked and available sliced or in a slab. Bacon, Canadian A fabricated cut of the primal pork loin; it is a lean, boneless pork loin roast that is smoked; known as back bacon in Canada.

Bagel A dense, doughnut-shaped Jewish yeast roll; it is cooked in boiling water, then baked, which gives the rolls a shiny glaze and chewy texture. Bagel Chips Thinly sliced stale bagels seasoned with garlic, salt, herbs and/or cheese.

Bain Marie (bane mah-ree) 1. A hot water bath used to cook foods gently or to keep cooked foods hot; also known as a water bath.2. A container for holding foods in a hot water bath.

Bake Blind A technique for baking an unfilled pastry or tart shell; the shaped dough is weighted down with dry beans or pie weights, then baked completely before being filled.

Baked Alaska A dessert composed of liqueur-soaked sponge cake topped with a mound or half-sphere of ice cream, all of which is coated with sweetened meringue and browned just before service.

Baker’s Joy The proprietary name of a combined vegetable oil and flour spray used to help release baked goods from their pans.

Baker’s Rack A portable metal rack designed to hold numerous sheet pans or hotel pans; it is used for moving pans of food quickly from one work area to another; also known as a speed rack.

Baking A dry-heat cooking method that heats food by surrounding it with hot, dry air in a closed environment; the term is usually used with reference to cooking breads, pastries, vegetables, fruits and fish.

Baking Powder A mixture of sodium bicarbonate and one or more acids, generally cream of tartar and/or sodium aluminum sulfate, used to leaven baked goods; it releases carbon dioxide gas if moisture is present in a formula.

Baking Soda Sodium Bicarbonate, an alkaline compound that releases carbon dioxide gas when combined with an acid and moisture; used to leaven baked goods.

Baklava (BAAK-lah-vah) A Middle Eastern sweet pastry made with buttered phyllo dough layered with honey, nuts and spices, usually cut into diamond-shaped pieces after baking.

Balsamic Vinegar (bahl-sah-mek) A dark, mellow Italian vinegar with a sweet-sour flavor; it is made from concentrated grape juice fermented and aged for 15-20 years in a series of wooden casks.

Banana Foster A dessert created by Brennan’s Restaurant in New Orleans consisting of a sliced banana quickly sauteed in butter, rum, sugar and banana liqueur, then flambeed and served over vanilla ice cream.

Barbecue 1. To cook foods over dry heat created by the burning of hardwood or hardwood charcoals.2. A tangy tomato- or vinegar-based sauce used for grilled foods.

Barding Tying thin slices of fat, such as bacon or pork fatback, over meats or poultry that have little to no natural fat covering in order to protect and moisten them during roasting.

Basting Moistening foods during cooking (usually roasting, broiling or grilling) with melted fat, pan drippings, a sauce or other liquids to prevent drying and to add flavor.

Batonnet Foods cut into matchstick shapes of 1/4″ X 1/4″ X 2″.

Batter A semiliquid mixture containing flour or other starch used to make cakes and breads. 1. The gluten development is minimized and the liquid forms the continuous medium in which other ingredients are disbursed; generally contains more fat, sugar and liquids than a dough.2. A semiliquid mixture of liquid and starch used to coat foods for deep-frying.

Bavarian Cream A sweet dessert mixture made by thickening custard sauce with gelatin and then folding in whipped cream; the final product is poured into a mold and chilled until firm.

Beard A clump of dark threads found on a mussel.

Bearnaise Sauce (bair-NAYZ) A French sauce made with a reduction of vinegar, wine, tarragon, peppercorns and shallots and finished with egg yolks and butter.

Beating A mixing method in which foods are agitated vigorously to incorporate air or develop gluten; a spoon or electric mixer with a paddle attachment is used.

Bechamel Sauce (bay-shah-mell) A French leading sauce made by thickening milk with a white roux and adding seasonings; also known as a cream sauce and a white sauce.

Beggar’s Purse An appetizer consisting of a small crepe topped with a savory fillling; the edges are pulled up in pleats to form a sack and tied with a chive.

Beignet (ben-YEA) French for fritter and used to describe a crisp, puffy, deep-fried, New Orleans pastry similar to a doughnut.

Bellini (beh-lee-nee) 1. A cocktail made of pureed white peaches, lemon juice, dry Italian spumante and grenadine.2. A cocktail made of sparkling wine and peach brandy or peach liquor.

Bench Scraper A handheld rectangular tool, typically 6 x 3 in., with a stainless steel blade and a rolled handle on one long side; used for cleaning and scraping surfaces.

Beurre (burr) French for butter.

Beurre Manie A combination of equal amounts by weight of flour and soft, whole butter; it is whisked into a simmering sauce at the end of the cooking process for quick thickening and added sheen and flavor.

Beurre Noisette French for “brown butter”; whole butter heated until it turns light brown, giving off a nutty aroma.

Beurre Rouge French for “red butter”; an emulsified butter sauce made from shallots, red wine and butter.

Biga (BEE-gah) An aged dough made with yeast or sour dough; used in Italy; it is a type of sourdough starter. Binder 1. An ingredient or combination of ingredients used to thicken or hold a mixture together.2. A leaf of tough, coarse tobacco that holds a cigar’s filler in place; the binder is usually covered by a leaf of wrapper tobacco.

Bird’s Nest Very thinly sliced potatoes deep-fried in a cup-shaped basket to form a nest; usually filled with vegetables for service.

Biscotti (bee-SKAWT-toh) Italian for slices from a twice-baked flattened cookie loaf.

Bisque (beesk) A thick French cream soup made of pureed fish, shellfish, poultry, meat or vegetables and traditionally thickened with rice.

Bittersweet Chocolate Chocolate containing minimal amounts of sugar and at least 35% chocolate liquor; eaten as a candy or used in pastries and confections.

Black Bottom Pie A rich custard pie made with a layer of dark chocolate custard on the bottom topped with a layer of white rum custard.

Blackened A Cajun cooking method in which food, usually meat or fish, is rubbed with a spice mixture and cooked in a very hot cast-iron skillet, giving the food an extra-crisp crust.

Black Tea One of the three principal types of tea; the leaves are rolled and fully fermented before being heated and dried; the beverage is generally a dark reddish-brown color with a strong, full flavor.

Blanching Cooking a food very briefly and partially in boiling water or hot fat; generally used to assist preparation (e.g., loosen peels), as part of a combination cooking method, to remove undesirable flavors or to prepare food for freezing.

Bleached Flour Flour that has been whitened by removing the yellow pigment; flour can be bleached through aging or by adding bleaching and oxidizing agents.

Blend (verb) 1. To mix two or more ingredients together until uniformly combined. 2. To combine different varieties or grades of an item to obtain a mixture of a particular character, quality and/or consistancy. (noun) A mixture of two or more flavors or other attributes.

Blini (blee-nee) Leavened Russian pancakes made from a buckwheat and wheat flour batter; they are usually served as hors d’oeuvre with sour cream and caviar or smoked fish; singular is blin.

Blood Orange A medium-sized orange with a red or red-streaked white flesh (the color reflects a pigment, anthocyanin, not normally present in citrus); it has a sweet flavor that is less tart than that of a typical orange.

Bloom 1. A dull gray film or grayish-whitish streaks that sometimes appear on chocolate if the cocoa butter separates; the chocolate’s flavor and cooking properties are not affected; also known as chocolate bloom and fat bloom.2. A measure of gelatin’s strength.3. The process of softening gelatin in a cool liquid before it is dissolved. Blown Sugar A boiled mixture of sucrose, glucose and tartaric acid colored and shaped using an air pump; used to make decorative objects and containers.

Blue Cheese 1. A generic term for any cheese containing visible blue-green molds that contribute a characteristic tart, sharp flavor and aroma; also known as a blue-veined cheese or bleu.2. A group of Roquefort-style cheeses made in the United States and Canada from cow’s or goat’s milk rather than ewe’s milk and injected with molds that form blue-green veins; also known as blue mold cheese or blue-veined cheese.

Blush Wine 1. A slightly sweet, light-bodies white wine made from black grapes such as Zinfandel, Pinot Noir or Cabernet Sauvignon; its color ranges from pale salmon to pink.2. A wine blended from red and white wines; also known as a light rose.

Boil, Full Rolling Large bubbles rise and break on the surface of the heated liquid so rapidly that vigorous stirring does not interfere.

Bok Choy A member of the cabbage family native to southern China; it has long, wide, white, crunchy stalks with tender, smooth-edged, dark green leaves; it is used raw, pickled or cooked; also known as baak choy, Chinese mustard, Chinese white mustard cabbage, celery mustard, pak choi and white mustard cabbage.

Bolognese (boh-loh-nay-see) An Italian meat sauce for pasta made from ground meat, tomatoes, celery, carrots and bacon and seasoned with garlic, herbs and olive oil; also known as ragu and sugo.

Bombe; Bombe Glacee (baoum) A French dessert consisting of layers of ice cream and sherbet packed into a round or spherical mold, frozen, then unmolded and decorated for service.

Bon Appetit (boh nah-pay-TEE) French for good appetite, meaning I wish you a good meal, hearty appetite or enjoy your meal.

Bonbon (bohn-bohn) 1. A small piece of candy, usually chocolate-coated fondant.2. French for any bite-sized candy, confection or sweetmeat.

Bone-in A cut of meat containing the bone.

Bordeaux (bohr-DOH) One of France’s six principal grape-growing and wine-producing regions; it is located in southwest France. Bordeaux, Red Red wines from Bordeaux; the principal grapes used are Carbernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc and Merlot and to a lesser extent Malbec and Petit Verdot. Bordeaux, White White wines from Bordeaux; the principal grapes used are Sauvignon Blanc and Semillon and to a lesser extent Muscadelle, Colombard and Ugni Blanc.

Bordelaise A brown sauce flavored with a reduction of red wine, shallots, pepper and herbs and garnished with marrow.

Bosc Pear (Bawsk) An all-purpose winter pear with a long, tapering neck, dark gold skin overlaid with russet, a tender, juicy, slightly gritty texture and a sweet, buttery flavor; also known as beurre Bosc.

Bouchees (boo-SHAY) Small puff pastry shells that can be filled and served as bite-size hors d’oeuvre or petit fours.

Bouillon (BOOL-yahn) French for broth and used to describe a stock made by cooking meat, poultry, fish or vegetables in water; the solids are removed before the broth is used in soups or sauces or as a poaching medium.

Bound Salad A salad composed of cooked meats, poultry, fish, shellfish, pasta or potatoes combined with a dressing.

Bouquet Garni (boo-kay gar-nee) A French seasoning blend of fresh herbs and vegetables tied in a bundle with twine and used to flavor stocks, sauces, soups and stews; a standard bouquet garni consists of parsley stems, celery, thyme, leeks and carrots.

Box Grater four flat graters, generally of different degrees of coarseness, joined to form a box, usually with a handle on top.

Boysenberry A blackberry and raspberry hybrid named for its progenitor, Rudolph Boysen; shaped like a raspberry, it has a purple-red color and a rich, sweet, tart flavor.

Brackish 1. Slightly salty; briny. 2. A beer-tasting term for a salty flavor.

Braising A combination cooking method in which foods are first browned in hot fat, then covered and slowly cooked in a small amount of liquid over low heat; braising uses a combination of simmering and steaming to transfer heat from the liquid (conduction) and the air (convection) to the foods.

Bran The tough, outer covering of the endosperm of various types of grain kernels; it has a high fiber and vitamin B content and is usually removed during milling; used to enrich baked goods and as a cereal and nutrient supplement.

Brandy A spirit distilled from grape wine or the fermented juice of other fruits with a minimum proof of 60 and usually aged in an oak cask; its color, flavor and aroma depend on the wine or fermented juice used and the length of time it ages in the cask.

Bratwurst (BRAHT-wurst; BRAHT-vurst) A fresh German sausage made from pork and veal, seasoned with ginger, nutmeg and coriander or caraway seeds.

Bread Bowl A round loaf of bread; the top is sliced off, the center hollowed out and the crust and remaining interior is used as a bowl for soups, stews, or the like, with the bowl being consumed as part of the meal.

Bread Crumbs, Fresh Crumbs obtained by processing fresh bread in a food processor; they are softer and give more texture to breaded foods than do dry bread crumbs.

Bread Flour A strong flour, usually made from hard winter wheat and containing 11-13% protein; used for making yeast-leavened breads.

Breading 1. A coating of bread or cracker crumbs, cornmeal or other dry meal applied to foods that will typically be deep-fried or pan-fried.2. The process of applying this coating.

Bread Pudding A baked dessert made with cubes or slices of bread soaked in a mixture of eggs, milk, sugar and flavorings.

Brew 1. To make tea or coffee by boiling or steeping the tea leaves or coffee grounds in water.2. To make beer.3.Slang for beer, especially draught.

Brie (bree) A soft, creamy French cheese made from cow’s milk; it has a pale ivory-gold color, a soft, leathery white rind and a delicate, somewhat nutty flavor; rind-ripened, it can develop an ammonia odor if overly ripe; traditionally named after its place of origin.

Brine a salt and water solution.

Brining a method of curing, preserving and/or flavoring certain foods such as meats, fish, vegetables and cheese by immersing them in brine or injecting brine into them; also known as pickling.

Brining Solution a very salty marinade (generally 20% salinity) used to preserve and/or flavor certain foods; it can be flavored with sugar, herbs and spices.

Brioche (bree-ohsh) A light, tender French yeast bread enriched with eggs and butter.

Broccoli Rabe (BROK-a lee RAHB) Broccoli Rabe is a non-heading variety of broccoli. This member of the prolific mustard clan has flavorful leaves and clusters of tiny, broccoli-like buds. It is generally cooked by steaming, frying or sauteing. Trim the bottoms of tough stems and remove fibrous parts of upper stems with a paring knife. To subdue bitterness, blanch briefly, then shock in cold water before cooking.

Brochettes (bro-shettz) Skewers, either small hors d’oeuvre or large entree size, threaded with meat, poultry, fish, shellfish and/or vegetables and grilled, broiled or baked; sometimes served with a dipping sauce.

Broiling A dry-heat cooking method in which foods are cooked by heat radiating from an overhead source.

Broth A flavorful liquid obtained from the long simmering of meats and/or vegetables.

Brown To caramelize the surface sugars of a food by applying heat, invariably through a dry-heat cooking method.

Brown Rice A form of processed rice with only the tough outer husk removed; the retained bran gives the rice a light tan color, a nutlike flavor and a chewy texture; it is available in long-, medium- and short-grain forms.

Brown Sauce See Espagnole. Brown Stock A richly colored stock made of chicken, veal, beef or game bones and vegetables, all of which are caramelized before they are simmered in water with seasonings.

Brule (broo-LAY) French for burned and used to describe the browning of a food by means of direct, intense heat. Brunch A meal taken, usually leisurely, between 11 a.m. and 3 p.m.; a combination of breakfast and lunch, it usually offers breakfast foods and almost anything else.

Brunoise foods cut into cubes of 1/8″ X 1/8″ X 1/8″. A 1/16″ cube is referred to as a fine brunoise.

Bruschetta (broo-SKEH-tah) 1. An Italian appetizer of toasted bread slices rubbed with garlic and drizzled with olive oil and sometimes topped with tomatoes and basil; served warm.2. In the United States, any of a variety of appetizers made from toasted bread drizzled with olive oil and topped with olives, tomatoes, cheese or other ingredients.

Brush To apply a liquid with a pastry brush to the surface of a food to baste or glaze the item.

Brut (broot) A very, very dry Champagne or sparkling wine, drier than one labeled extra dry; contains 0.8-1.5% sugar.

Buche de Noel (boosh dah noh-ehl) French for Yule log and used to describe a traditional Christmas cake made with genoise and buttercream, shaped and decorated to resemble a log.

Bucheron (BOOSH-rawn) A tangy but mild French goat’s milk cheese; it has a soft, white interior and usually comes in logs with a white rind or covered in black ash.

Buffer; buffering agent A substance added to a solution to neutralize the acids and/or bases while maintaining the solution’s original acidity or alkalinity.

Buffet 1. A meal or social event at which persons help themselves to foods arranged on a table or other surfaces; seating is not always provided. 2. A sideboard table from which foods are served or kept during a meal.

Bulb Baster A tool used to baste meat, poultry and fish; the basting liquid is drawn into the hollow body by suction created by squeezing the bulb at the other end; available with a hollow, needlelike attachment for injecting the basting liquid into food.

Bulk Buying Purchasing products in quantity, usually at a lower as-purchased price per unit; also known as discount purchasing and quantity purchasing.

Bundt Pan A tube pan with curved, fluted sides and used for baking cakes and quick breads.

Burgoo 1. A thick stew from the American South; it is made from pork, chicken, lamb, veal, beef, potatoes, onions, cabbage, carrots, corn, lima beans and okra.2. An oatmeal porridge served to English sailors as early as 1750.

Burgundy (boor-guhn-dee) 1. One of France’s six principal grape-growing and wine-producing regions, located in southeast France.2. The red or white wine produced in this region. Burgundy, red The red wines produced in Burgundy, principally from Gamay and Pinot Noir grapes; the wines mature quickly and are generally dry and full bodied, with a tannin content less harsh than that in a Bordeaux. Burgundy, white The white wines produced in Burgundy; the wines, made from the Chardonnay grape, are generally dry and full bodied.

Burrito; Burro (bur-REED-toh) A Mexican and American Southwest dish consisting of a large flour tortilla folded and rolled around a savory filling of chorizo, chicken, machaca, refried beans or the like and garnished with lettuce, sour cream, cheese, tomato, guacamole and so on.

Butter A fatty substance produced by agitating or churning cream; it contains at least 80% milkfat, not more than 16% water and 2-4% milk solids; it melts into a liquid at approximately 98 degrees F and reaches the smoke point at 260 degrees F; used as a cooking medium, ingredient and topping. Butter, Clarified Purified butterfat; the butter is melted and the water and milk solids are removed; also known as drawn butter. Butter, salted Butter with up to 2.5% salt added; salt changes the flavor and extends the keeping qualities.

Buttercream A light, smooth, fluffy frosting of sugar, fat and flavorings with egg yolks or whipped egg whites sometimes added; there are three principal kinds: simple, Italian and French.

Butter Curler A tool with a curved serrated blade; used to produce a shell-like curl of butter by dragging the knife across the butter.

Butterfly To split food, such as boneless meat, fish or shrimp, nearly in half lengthwise, leaving the halves hinged on one side so that the item spreads open like a book; used to increase surface area and speed cooking.

Buttermilk 1. French, pasteurized skim or low-fat cow’s milk cultured (soured) with Streptococcus lactis bacteria; also known as cultured buttermilk.2. Traditionally, the liquid remaining after the cream was churned into butter.

Butternut Squash A large, elongated pear-shaped squash with a smooth yellow to butterscotch-colored shell, an orange flesh and a sweet, nutty flavor.

Butterscotch 1. A flavor derived from brown sugar and butter, used for cookies, candies, sauces and the like.2. a hard candy with the flavor of butterscotch.

Buttery 1. A wine-tasting term for an aroma and sometimes flavor reminiscent of butter; often found in Chardonnays.2. A larder or pantry used to store provisions.

BYOB Slang abbreviation for bring your own bottle, beer, or booze, meaning that guests should bring their own beverages, usually alcoholic.

Cacao (kah-KAH-oh) The dried and partly fermented seed of the cacao tree grown in tropical regions of the Western Hemisphere; it is used principally in the preparation of cocoa, chocolate and cocoa butter.

Cacciatore, a la (ka-cha-TOH-reh) An Italian preparation method for meats, usually chicken, stewed with tomatoes, onions, mushrooms and various herbs and spices and sometimes wine.

Ceasar Salad (SEE-zar) A salad created in Tiajuana Mexico by Ceasar Cardini; it consists of greens, traditionally romaine lettuce, tossed with a garlic vinaigrette flavored with Worcestershire sauce, lemon juice, coddled eggs and sometimes anchovies and garnished with croutons and grated Parmesan. First prepared as a table side presentation now prepared worldwide in great, good and poor kitchens.

Cafetiere (ka-fay-tee-yair) A coffeemaker consisting of a glass pot fitted with a plunger covered in a fine wire mesh; coffee grounds and hot water are added to the pot, allowed to brew and then the plunger is pushed down, trapping the grounds; the coffee then rises through the mesh; also known as an infusion coffeepot and plunger coffeepot.

Caffeine An Alkaloid found in coffee beans, tea leaves and cocoa beans that acts as a stimulant.

Caffe Latte (kahf-AY LAH-tay) 1. An Italian beverage made from one-third or less espresso and two-thirds or more steamed milk, sometimes served with a dollop of foam on top; usually served in a tall glass.2. Italian for coffee with milk.

Caffe Mocha (kahf-AY MO-kah) A beverage made from chocolate syrup, one-third espresso and approximately two-thirds steamed milk; it is topped with whipped cream sprinkled with cocoa powder; usually served in a tall glass.

Cajeta (kah-HEH-tah) 1. A Mexican caramel sauce made from goat’s milk.2. A Mexican dessert made from fruit or milk cooked with sugar until thick.

Cajun Cooking A style of cooking associated with the descendants of French Acadians from Nova Scotia now living in Louisiana; it combines the cuisines of France and the American South, producing hardy dishes typically containing spices, file powder, onions, green pepper, celery and a dark roux. Cajun is considered counrty style cooking while Creole is considered city style and less spicy hot.

Cake in American usage, refers to a broad range of pastries, including layer cakes, coffeecakes and gateaux; can refer to almost anything that is baked, tender, sweet and sometimes frosted.

Cake Flour A low-protein wheat flour used for making cakes, pastry doughs and other tender baked goods.

Calorie The unit of energy measured by the amount of heat required to raise 1000grams of water one degree Celsius; it is also written as kilocalorie or kcal and is used as a measure of food energy.

Calvados (KAL-vah-dohs) An apple brandy made in Calvados, Normandy, France; distilled from a mash of cider apples, it is aged in oak casks for 3-10 years before blending and bottling.

Calzone (kal-ZOH-nay) 1. An Italian-American dish made with pizza dough shaped like a large turnover and stuffed with various meats, vegetables and cheeses; it is deep-fried or baked.2. A Mexican sugar cookie.

Camembert (kam-uhn-BAIR) A soft, creamy French cheese made from cow’s milk; it has a creamy texture, a pale ivory-gold color and a whitish-gray, yellow-flecked rind; when perfectly ripe, it oozes thickly, and when overly ripe, it is runny and bitter, with a strong ammonia odor.

Canape (KAN-uh-pay; KAN-uh-pee) An hors d’oeuvre consisting of toasted or untoasted bread cut into a shape (sliced vegetables such as cucumbers are also used) and typically topped with a spread (e.g., butter or cream cheese) and one or more savory garnishes (e.g., foie gras or sausage).

Cannellini (kan-eh-LEE-nee) Large, elongated kidney-shaped beans grown in Italy; they have a creamy white color and are used in soups and salads; also known as white kidney beans.

Cannelloni (kahn-eh-LONE-ee) Italian for large reeds and used to describe large, hollow tubes of pasta; they are usually boiled, stuffed with meat, fish or chicken and then baked and served with a sauce and grated cheese.

Cannoli (kan-OH-lee) An Italian pastry composed of a deep-fried tube of sweet pastry dough filled with sweetened ricotta studded with candied fruit, chocolate or pistachio nuts.

Canola Oil (Kan-OH-luh) An oil made in Canada from rapeseeds; it is relatively low in saturated fats, contains omega – 3 fatty acids and has a bland, neutral flavor suitable for cooking and other uses.

Capellini (kahp-payl-LEE-nee) Italian for fine hair and used to describe extremely fine spaghetti. AKA Angel hair.

Capers The unopened flower buds of a shrub (Capparis spinosa) native to the Mediterranean region; part of the chrysanthemum after curing in salted white vinegar, the buds develop a sharp, salty-sour flavor and are used as a flavoring and condiment.

Cappuccino (kahp-uh-CHEE-noh) An Italian beverage made from equal parts espresso, steamed milk and foamed milk, sometimes dusted with sweetened cocoa powder or cinnamon; usually served in a large cup.

Caprini (kah-PREE-nee) A fresh, soft, unripened, rindless ewe’s or cow’s milk cheese from Itlay’s Piedmont and Lombardy regions; it has a snow-white, moist interior and a sweet-cream flavor.

Capsaicin An alkaloid found in a chile pepper’s placental ribs that provides the pepper’s heat.

Carafe (kah-RAHF) A glass container used to serve wine (generally young, inexpensive wine), coffee, water or other beverages at the table; usually in liter and half-liter sizes and generally without a lid, cork or other stopper.

Caramelize To heat sugar to very high temperatures, usually 310-360 degrees F; this causes the sugar to brown and develop a full rich, intense flavor.

Carbohydrates A group of compounds composed of oxygen, hydrogen and carbon that supply the body with energy (4 calories per gram); carbohydrates are classified as simple (including certain sugars) and complex (including starches and fiber).

Carotenoid A naturally occurring pigment that predominates in red and yellow vegetables such as carrots and red peppers.

Carryover Cooking the cooking that occurs after a food is removed from a heat source; it is accomplished by the residual heat remaining in the food.

Cartilage also known as gristle, a tough, elastic, whitish connective tissue that helps give structure to an animal’s body.

Carve To cut cooked meat or poultry into portions.

Casing The outer covering or membrane of a sausage; it holds the forcemeat or other fillings; a casing can be made from animal intestines, collagen or artificial materials.

Casserole 1. Any of a variety of baked dishes made with meat, poultry, fish, shellfish, pasta and/or vegetables, bound with a sauce and often topped with bread crumbs, cheese or the like.2. The deep dish, usually with two handles and a tight-fitting lid and made of ceramic or glass, used to bake and serve these foods.

Caster A small glass, ceramic or metal bottle with a perforated top used for sprinkling sugar, pepper, dry mustard or other dry seasonings or ingredients on food.

Catalyst A substance causing or accelerating a chemical change in another substance or substances without itself being affected permanently by the process.

Caul Fat The fatty membrane that lines the abdominal cavity of hogs and sheep; this thin, lacy, weblike net is used to wrap forcemeats and melts rapidly when cooked, thereby basting the item.

Caviar (kav-ee-AHR) 1. The salted roe of the sturgeon; the small spheres have a crisp texture that should pop in the mouth and have a pleasantly salty flavor; available fresh or pasteurized in tins and jars. 2. An improperly and imprecisely used term to describe the roe of fish such as whitefish, lumpfish, salmon, herring, pike and perch.

Cayenne; Cayenne Pepper (KI-yen; KAY-yen) 1. A hot, pungent, peppery powder blended from various ground, dried hot chiles and salt; it has a bright orange-red color and fine texture; also known as red pepper.2. A dried, thin, short chile with a bright red color, thin flesh and hot, tart, acidic flavor; usually used ground.

Cellar Temperature The temperature of a wine cellar, it is generally cool, approximately 55-60 degrees F, although it can fluctuate from 45-70 degrees F.

Cellulose A complex carbohydrate found in the cell wall of plants; it is edible but indigestible by humans.

Chablis (shah-blee) 1. A white Burgundy wine made from Chardonnay grapes and named for the village and surrounding area in northern Burgundy, France, where it is produced; generally dry, it has a pale straw color and can be thin and tart or rich and full.2. In the United States and Australia, a sometimes imprecisely used term to describe any inexpensive and not necessarily dry white wine.

Chafing Dish A dish used to warm or cook foods; it consists of a container with a heat source (candle, solid fuel or electric element) directly beneath it; the container can be an assemblage similar to a bain marie; also known as rechaud, which is French for reheat.

Chalupa (chah-LOO-pah) Corn tortilla dough formed into the shape of a boat and fried; it is used in Mexican cuisine filled with shredded beef, pork, chicken, vegetables or cheese.

Chalazae Cords Thick, twisted strands of egg white that anchor the yolk in place.

Chambord (sham-bor) A plum-colored, sweet French liqueur with a black raspberry flavor.

Champagne (cham-PANE-ya) A sparkling wine from France’s Champagne region made by the methode champenoise using only three grape varieties: Chardonnay, Pinot Noir and Pinot Meunier. Champagne Grapes A variety of very small, purplish-black or reddish-brown grapes with a very sweet flavor; used for garnish and snacking and not for wine.

Champagne Vinegar a vinegar with a pale color and a mild flavor; it is used for making salad dressings.

Chanterelle (shan-tuh-REHL) A trumpet-shaped wild mushroom (Cantharellus cibarius) found in North America and Europe; it has a ruffled-edge cap, a yellow-orange color, a smooth, slightly chewy texture, a distinctive fruity, nutty flavor, and a clean, earthy aroma; several closely related species are sold under the same name.

Chantilly (shan-TIHL-lee; shahn-tee-YEE) 1. A general category of hot and cold emulsified French sauces to which whipped cream is added; the sauces are also known as mousselines.2. Lightly sweetened whipped cream sometimes flavored with vanilla and used as a dessert topping.

Chao Mein; Chow Mein (chow MAYN) 1. Chinese fried noodles.2. A Chinese-American dish of chicken, shrimp, beef and/or pork stir-fried with vegetables such as bean sprouts, mushrooms, water chestnuts, bamboo shoots and onions and served over noodles.

Chaource (shah-oorceh) A soft, camembert-style cheese made in France’s Champagne region from whole cow’s milk; it has a fruity, rich flavor.

Chapon (shah-POHN) A bread crust rubbed with garlic and used to garnish a salad or a thin soup or to rub inside a bowl to impart a slight garlic flavor to its contents.

Charcuterie (shahr-COO-tuhr-ree; shahr-coo-tuhr-EE) 1. The production of pates, terrines, galantines, sausages, crepinettes and similar foods.2. The shop where such foods are made and/or sold.3. Originally referred only to products produced from pork.

Chard 1. A general term for the leafstalk of leafy green vegetables; also known as midrib. 2. A member of the beet family; it has crinkly dark green leaves and silvery, celerylike stalk; the leaves are prepared like spinach and have a similar tart flavor, and the stalks are prepared like asparagus and have a tart, somewhat bitter flavor; also known as Swiss chard.

Chardonnay (shar-doh-nay) 1. Considered by some the finest white wine grape, it is planted worldwide and used for the great French white Burgundies and sparkling wines; sometimes called Pinot Chardonnay, even though not a member of the Pinot family.2. White wines made from this grape; they range from clean, crisp and with a hint of fruit to rich and complex.3. A sparkling white wine made from this grape.

Charlotte (SHAR-loht) A French dessert in which a mold is lined with ladyfingers, sponge cake or bread, then filled with Bavarian cream and/or fruit, chilled, and unmolded for service.

Charred a food prepared on a hot grill or cooking surface; the food’s surface is usually well cooked, with a roasted, caramelized flavor, while the interior is rare.

Charring 1. The process of searing the outside of a food, usually on a hot grill or cooking surface.2. The process of burning the inside of a barrel that will be used for wine, whiskey, brandy, or other distilled spirits; this helps color, mellow and age the barrel’s contents.

Chateaubriand (sha-toh-bree-AHN) A thick slice of filet of beef tenderloin grilled and traditionally served with chateau potatoes or souffle potatoes and bearnaise sauce.

Chayote (chy-OH-tay) A sqashlike, pear-shaped fruit native to Central America; used like a vegetable, it has a pale green furrowed or slightly lumpy skin, a white-green flesh, a single seed, and a bland, somewhat starchy, cucumber-like flavor; also known as mirliton and vegetable pear.

Cheddar, American A firm cheese made from whole cow’s milk produced principally in Winsconsin, New York and Vermont; its color ranges from white to orange and its flavor from mild to very sharp.

Cheese Balls Mashed cheese mixed with herbs and/or other flavorings and reshaped into balls; the balls are then sometimes coated in herbs, nuts or other garnishes; usually served as an hors d’oeuvre.

Cheesecake A rich, smooth dessert made by blending cream cheese, cottage cheese or ricotta with sugar, eggs and other flavorings, then baking; usually prepared in a springform pan dusted with cookie crumbs or ground nuts; the baked dessert is often topped with sour cream or fruit.

Cheesecloth A loosely woven cotton gauze used for straining stocks and sauces and wrapping poultry and fish for poaching.

Cheese Plane A spade-shaped utensil with a single slot; the cutting edge, on the front side of the slot, is parallel to and just below the flat blade and tilts upward at a 25 degree angle; cheese is sliced by pulling the plane across it; the edge cuts the cheese, and the slice is lifted through the slot to rest on the plane’s top.

Cheese Wire A long, thin wire with handles at each end used to cut a round of cheese into wedges.

Chef’s Knife An all-purpose knife used for chopping, slicing and mincing; its tapering blade is 8-14″ long.

Chemical Leavening Agents Chemicals added to batters and doughs to assist leavening through the production of carbon dioxide released as the result of chemical reactions between acids and bases.

Chemise; En Chemise (she-meez; ahn she-meez) 1. The cloth towel used by servers to wipe the neck of a wine bottle after each pouring.2. The cloth towel used to pat dry a bottle of wine or sparkling wine after it is removed from an ice bucket; it is placed around the bottle.

Chenin Blanc (sheh-nan-blahn) 1. A white wine grape grown predominantly in California, France’s Loire Valley and South Africa; also known as Steen. 2. A white wine made from this grape; it can range from clean, crisp and fruity to rich, sweet and honeyed.

Cherries Jubilee A dessert made by topping vanilla ice cream with dark, pitted cherries that were sauteed with sugar and Kirsch or brandy; the cherry mixture is often flamed table side.

Cherry, Sour Any of a variety of cherries with a skin and flesh color varying from light to dark red and an acidic, tart flavor; they are usually cooked with sugar and used as a pie or pastry filling; also known as a tart cherry.

Cherry, Sweet Any of a variety of cherries that are spherical to heart shaped, with a skin and flesh color varying from pale yellow to dark red, a juicy flesh and a sweet flavor; they are eaten fresh, candied or in baked goods.

Cherry Tomato 1. A small spherical tomato with a bright red or yellow skin; the yellow-skinned variety has a less acidic and blander flavor than the red-skinned variety.2. An imprecisely used term for any of several varieties of small, spherical tomatoes.

Chess Pie A dessert from the American South consisting of a flaky pie shell filled with a sweet custard made from sugar, eggs, butter and small amounts of vinegar and cornmeal or flour; when baked, the filling becomes dense and translucent, with a thin, crisp, crusty top.

Chestnut the nut of the sweet chestnut tree; edible when cooked, it has a dark brown outer shell, a bitter inner skin, and a high starch content; it is used in savory and sweet dishes.

Chestnut Pan A shallow frying pan with a perforated bottom used to roast chestnuts; designed to permit some contact between the food and the heat source (usually a flame).

Chevre (SHEHV-ruh) 1. French for goat.2. Any French goat’s milk cheese; usually pure white with a tart flavor, their textures can range from soft, moist and creamy to dry, firm and crumbly and their shapes from small to medium-sized cones, cylinders, disks or pyramids left ungarnished or covered with black ash, leaves, herbs, or pepper.

Chianti (k’yahn-tee) A red wine made in Tuscany, Italy, principally from Sangiovese grapes mixed with small amounts of Canaiolo grapes and the white Malvasia grapes; the young wines are refreshing and tart, and the older wines aged in wooden casks are richer and more complex.

Chicken A La King An American dish of diced chicken (or turkey) in a cream sauce with pimientos, mushrooms, green peppers and sometimes sherry.

Chicken Tetrazzini (teh-trah-ZEE-nee) An Italian dish consisting of spaghetti and julienne of chicken bound with a sherry and Parmesan sauce, topped with bread crumbs and/or Parmesan and baked; originally made with swan; turkey can be substituted for the chicken.

Chickpea; Chick-pea A somewhat spherical, irregular-shaped, pealike seed of a plant native to the Mediterranean region; it has a buff color, a firm texture, and a nutty flavor; used in Mediterranean and Middle Eastern cuisines in soups, stews and salads, it is also roasted and eaten as a snack; also known as ceci and garbanzo bean.

Chiffonade (chef-fon-nahd) V. To finely slice or shred leafy vegetables or herbs. N. Finely cut leafy vegetables or herbs often used as a garnish or bedding.

Chile Oil A vegetable oil in which hot red chiles have been steeped to impart flavor and color; used as a cooking medium and flavoring in Asian cuisines.

Chile Rellenos (CHEE-leh rreh-YEH-nohs) A Mexican dish of mild roasted chiles stuffed with cheese, dipped in an egg batter and fried.

China Cap A conical metal strainer with a perforated metal body; used for straining stocks and sauces and, with a pestle, to puree soft foods.

Chinois (sheen-WAH) A conical metal strainer with a very fine mesh; it is used for straining stocks and sauces.

Chipotle (chih-POHT-lay) A dried, smoked jalapeno; this medium-sized chile has a dull tan to dark brown color with a wrinkled skin and a smoky, slightly sweet, relatively mild flavor with undertones of tobacco and chocolate.

Chives An herb and member of the onion family, with long, slender, hollow, green stems and purple flowers; the stems have a mild, onionlike flavor and are generally fresh, although dried, chopped chives are available.

Chlorophyll A naturally occuring pigment that predominates in green vegetables such as cabbage.

Chocolate-making process The process by which chocolate is made; typically(1) large pods containing cocoa beans are harvested from the tropical cacao tree;(2) the beans are scraped out of the pods and allowed to ferment;(3) the fermented beans are dried in the sun and then packed and shipped to manufacturers;(4) at the factory, the beans are blended and roasted to create the desired flavors and aromas;(5) they are crushed and the shells are removed;(6) the cleaned cocoa kernels, known as nibs, are milled into a thick paste, known as chocolate liquor or mass, which is distributed as unsweetened chocolate;(7) the chocolate mass may be refined further by pressing it to remove the cocoa butter, leaving dry cocoa powder;(8) cocoa butter, sugar, milk solids, vanilla and other flavorings can be added to the chocolate mass to produce various types of chocolate: bittersweet, semisweet or milk;(9) after the flavorings are added, the mixture is blended and milled until smooth;(10) some manufacturers refine the blended chocolate further through conching, which results in a velvetlike texture and added stability;(11) the finished chocolate is poured into molds to harden, then wrapped and shipped to purchasers.

Cholesterol A fatty substance found in foods derived from animal products and in the human body; it has been linked to heart disease.

Chop A cut of meat, including part of the rib. 2. To cut an item into small pieces where uniformity of size and shape is neither feasible nor necessary.

Chorizo (chor-EE-zoh; chor-EE-soh) 1. A Mexican sausage made from pork, seasoned with garlic and powdered chiles; usually cooked without the casing.2. A Spanish sausage made from smoked pork, seasoned with garlic and powdered chiles; it is usually cooked without the casing.

Choux Pastry aka Eclair Paste.

Chowder A hearty soup made from fish, shellfish and/or vegetables, usually containing milk and potatoes and often thickened with roux.

Chutney From the Hindi chatni, it is a condiment made from fruit, vinegar, sugar and spices; its texture can range from smooth to chunky and its flavor from mild to hot.

Ciabatta (ch’yah-BAH-tah) Italian for slipper and used to describe a slipper-shaped loaf of bread.

Cider Mildly fermented apple juice; nonalcoholic, apple juice may also be labeled cider.

Cider Vinegar A vinegar made by fermenting pure apple juice into hard cider and then exposing it to the air; clear, it has a pale brown color and a strong, somewhat harsh flavor.

Cilantro (thee-LAHN-troh) The dark green, lacy leaves of the cilantro plant; used as an herb, they have a sharp, tangy, fresh flavor and aroma and are used fresh in Mexican, South American and Asian cuisines; aka Chinese parsley.

Citrus Fruits characterized by a thick rind, most of which is a bitter white pith with a thin exterior layer of colored skin (zest); their flesh is segmented and juicy and varies from bitter to tart to sweet.

Clam Chowder, Manhattan A clam chowder made with tomatoes. Clam Chowder, New England A clam chowder made with cream or milk; also known as Boston clam chowder.

Clam Knife A small knife used to open clams; it has a rigid blade and a round tip.

Clams A large group of bi-valve mollusks found in coastal saltwaters worldwide; they have hard or soft, beige, gray, blue or brown shells and juicy, often chewy, pinkish-tan to gray meat with a mild to sweet flavor.

Clarification 1. The process of transforming a broth into a clear consomme by trapping impurities with a clearmeat consisting of the egg white protein albumen, ground meat, an acidic product, mirepoix and other ingredients.2. The clearmeat used to clarify a broth. Clarified Butter Purified butterfat; the butter is melted and the water and milk solids are removed.

Classic Cuisine A late 19th and early 20th-century refinement and simplification of French grande cuisine. Classic (or classical) cuisine relies on the thorough exploration of culinary principles and techniques, and emphasizes the refined preparation and presentation of superb ingredients.

Clearmeat A mixture of egg whites, ground meat, an acidic product and other ingredients; used to clarify a broth.

Clove 1. A spice that is the dried, unopened flower bud of a tropical evergreen tree; it has a reddish-brown color, a nail shape and an extremely pungent, sweet, astringent flavor; available whole or powdered. 2. A segment of a bulb, such as garlic.

Coagulation The irreversible transformation of proteins from a liquid or semiliquid state to a drier, solid state; usually accomplished through the application of heat.

Coarsely Chop To cut food into small pieces, about 3/16 inch square.

Coat A Spoon A technique used to determine if a mixture such as a custard is done; it is done if the mixture clings to a spoon when held aloft and a line drawn across it does not disappear.

Cobbler A deep-dish fruit tart with a rich, sweet, biscuit-type dough covering the fruit.

Cobb Salad A salad of chopped chicken or turkey, tomatoes, avocado, bacon, hard-boiled eggs, scallions, Cheddar and lettuce dressed with a vinaigrette and garnished with a blue cheese.

Cocoa Butter The fat found in cocoa beans and used in fine chocolates.

Cocoa Nibs Roasted, shelled cocoa bean kernels.

Coconut Cream 1. A coconut-flavored liquid made like coconut milk but with less water; it is creamier and thicker than coconut milk.2. The thick fatty portion that separates and rises to the top of canned or frozen coconut milk. Do not substitute cream of coconut for true coconut cream.

Coconut Milk A coconut-flavored liquid made by pouring boiling water over shredded coconut; may be sweetened or unsweetened. Do not substitute cream of coconut for coconut milk.

Coconut Water The thin, slightly opaque liquid contained within a fresh coconut.

Coffee Grinder A machine that grinds roasted coffee beans before brewing; it can be electric or manual, with the fineness of the grind.

Cognac (kohn-yahk) A brandy distilled from wines made from Folle Blanche, Saint-Emilion and Colombard grapes grown within France’s Charente and Charente-Martime departments; it is distilled in a two-step process and aged in Limousin oak barrels, sometimes for as long as 50-55 years.

Cointreau (KWAHN-troh) A clear, colorless, orange-flavored French liqueur.

Cojita (ko HEE-ta) An aged, hard, salty Mexican cow’s-milk cheese; similar to feta, although not soaked in brine.

Colander A bowl-shaped utensil with many perforations and usually short legs; it is used to drain liquids from solids.

Cold Cuts Thin slices of various meats, such as ham, roast beef, salami and turkey, and sometimes cheeses, sliced and served cold, usually for a sandwich or salad.

Cold Pressed A method of extracting oil from olives without the use of heat; usually the first pressing.

Collagen A water-insoluble protein found in connective tissues such as skin, ligaments, tendons and cartilage; it yields gelatin when cooked with moist heat.

Combination Cooking Methods Cooking Methods, principally braising and stewing, that employ both dry-heat and moist-heat procedures.

Common Meringue A mixture of stiffly beaten egg whites and granulated sugar; depending on its intended use, it may be soft (made with equal parts egg white and sugar) or hard (made with at least twice as much sugar as egg white).

Composed Salad A salad prepared by arranging each of the ingredients (the base, body, garnish and dressing) on individual plates in an artistic fashion.

Compote Fresh or dried fruit cooked in a sugar syrup.

Compound Butter A mixture of softened whole butter and flavorings used as sauce or to flavor and color other sauces; also known as beurre compose.

Concassee (kon-kaas-SAY) Peeled, seeded and diced tomatoes.

Concentrate To remove moisture from a food, principally by boiling, drying or freeze-drying. The resulting product; it can be dry or syrupy and usually has a rich, very full flavor and is used as a flavoring or is rehydrated.

Conch A medium-sized to large gastropod mollusk found in the Caribbean Sea and off Florida; it has a peachy-pink spiral shell and a lean, smooth, and very firm, chewy flesh with a sweet-smoky flavor.

Condiment Traditionally, any item added to a dish for flavor, including herbs, spices and vinegars; now also refers to cooked or prepared flavorings or accompaniments such as relishes, prepared mustards, ketchup, bottled sauces and pickles; unlike seasonings, condiments are typically added to a dish by the diner.

Conduction The transfer of heat from one item to another through direct contact. Confection A general term for any kind of candy or other sweet preparation.

Confectioners’ Sugar Refined sugar ground into a fine, white, easily dissolved powder; also known as powdered sugar and 10X sugar.

Confit (kohn-FEE) A method of preserving meats, especially poultry, associated with southwestern France; the meat is cooked in its own fat and stored in a pot covered with the same fat.

Congeal To change from a liquid to a solid state; to become set, firm or rigid, usually by chilling.

Connective Tissues Tissues found throughout an animal’s body that hold together and support other tissues such as muscles.

Conserve A spread for baked goods made from fruits, nuts and sugar cooked until thick.

Consomme (kwang-soh-may) 1. A rich stock or broth that has been clarified with a clearmeat.2. French for soup and used to describe a clear, thin, flavorful broth.

Contaminate In the food safety context, to render an object or environment impure or unsuitable by contact or mixture with unclean or unwanted matter.

Continental Breakfast A breakfast of bread (toast, croissants, pastries or the like) and a beverage (coffee, tea, milk or juice).

Convection Oven An oven in which the heat is circulated by an interior fan.

Cookery The art, practice or work of cooking.

Cookie Press; Cookie Gun A tool consisting of a hollow tube fitted at one end with a decorative template or nozzle and at the other with a trigger for forcing soft cookie dough through the template to create the desired shape.

Cooking The transfer of energy from a heat source to a food; this energy alters the food’s molecular structure, changing its texture, flavor, aroma and appearance.

Cookware Any of a large variety of vessels and containers used on the stove top or in an oven to cook food or store it; they can be made of metal, glass, ceramics or the like and incude pots, pans, hotel pans and molds.

Cool To allow a food to sit until it is no longer warm to the touch.

Cooling Rack A flat grid of closely spaced metal wires resting on small feet; used for cooling baked goods by allowing air to circulate around the food.

Copper Bowl A round-bottomed, unlined copper bowl available in various sizes and usually used for whisking egg whites.

Coq au vin (kohk oh VAHN) A French dish of chicken, mushrooms, onions and bacon or salt pork cooked in red wine.

Coquilles Saint Jacques (koh-kee-san zhahk) A French dish of scallops in a creamy wine sauce (sauce Mornay), topped with bread crumbs or cheese and browned; usually served in a scallop shell.

Cordon Bleu (kor-dohn-BLUH) A French dish consisting of thin boneless chicken breasts or veal scallops sandwiched around a thin slice of prosciutto or other ham and an emmenthal-style cheese, then breaded and sauteed.

Core To remove the central seeded area from a fruit. The center part of pomes (fruits from the family Rosaceae such as apples, pears and quince); sometimes tough and woody, it contains the fruit’s small seeds (called pips).

Coriander (KOR-ee-an-der) The tiny yellow-tan ridged seeds of the cilantro plant; used as a spice, they have a flavor reminiscent of lemon, sage and caraway.

Cork A bottle stopper carved from this material or formed from such bark granules bound with an adhesive.

Corkage A restaurant’s charge for opening, cooling (if necessary) and pouring a bottle of wine brought by a customer to the restaurant for his or her use.

Corky A wine-tasting term for an unpleasant earthy or moldy aroma and/or flavor caused by a flawed cork.

Corn Bread Dressing A poultry stuffing made with crumbled corn bread, sausage, onions, celery and herbs.

Cornichon (KOR-nih-shohn; kor-nee-SHOHN) French for a tiny pickled gherkin cucumber; it is the traditional accompaniment to a meat pate.

Corn Oil A pale yellow oil obtained from corn endosperms; it is odorless, almost flavorless and high in polyunsaturated fats and has a high smoke point; a good medium for frying and also used in baking, dressings and to make margarine.

Cornstarch A dense, very fine, powdery flour made from ground corn endosperm and used as a thickening agent; also known as corn flour (especially in Great Britain).

Corn Syrup A thick, sweet syrup derived from cornstarch and composed of dextrose and glucose; available as clear (light) or brown (dark), which has caramel flavor and color added.

Correct Seasonings 1. To taste a food just before service and add seasonings, especially salt and freshly ground black pepper, if necessary. 2. To reduce a strong flavor by adding a liquid.

Cotlet A firm but chewy confection made with cooked apricots, gelatin and nuts.

Cottage Cheese A soft, fresh cheese made from skimmed cow’s milk or reconstituted skimmed or nonfat dry cow’s milk powders; it has a white color, a moist, large grain texture and a mild, slightly tart flavor; it cannot contain more than 80% moisture; available flavored or unflavored in three forms: small curd, medium curd and large curd; also known as curd cheese.

Cottonseed Oil A thick, colorless oil obtained from the seeds of the cotton plant; it is usually blended with other oils to make highly refined products sold as vegetable or cooking oil.

Coulant (koo-LAHN) French for flowing and used to describe Brie, Camembert and other soft cheeses, the interiors of which ooze from the rind at the appropriate temperature.

Coulis (koo-lee) 1. A sauce made from a puree of vegetables or fruit; it may be hot or cold.2. Traditionally, thickened meat juices used as a sauce.

Country Gravy A gravy made from pan drippings, flour and milk; consistency can vary from thick to thin.

Coupler A plastic conical tube with a screw-on cover or nut; the conical piece is placed inside a pastry bag and a pastry tip is attached to the bag with the nut; used to allow pastry tips to be changed during decorating without emptying the pastry bag.

Court Bouillon (kort boo-yon) Water simmered with vegetables, seasonings and an acidic product such as vinegar or wine; used for simmering or poaching fish, shellfish or vegetables.

Couscous (KOOS-koos) Small, spherical bits of semolina dough that are rolled, dampened and coated with a finer wheat flour; a staple of the North African diet.

Covered-Dish Supper; Covered-Dish Social A social event for which prepared foods are brought and shared with other guests; also known as a potluck supper.

Crab Any of a large variety of crustaceans found in freshwaters and saltwaters worldwide; generally, they have a flat, round body with 10 legs, the front 2 being pinchers, and a pink-tinged white flesh with a sweet, succulent flavor; significant varieties include the blue, dungeness, king, snow and stone crabs.

Crab, Claw Meat A market form of the blue crab; it consists of the brownish claw meat.

Crab, Lump Meat A market form of the blue crab; it consists of whole, relatively large chunks of meat from the large body muscles.

Crab, Soft-Shell A blue crab harvested within 6 hours after molting; it has a soft, pliable, brownish-green shell and an average market width of 3.5 in.; once cooked, the entire crab is eaten; it has a crunchy texture and a mild flavor; available fresh or frozen.

Crab Cake A mixture of lump crabmeat, bread crumbs, milk, egg, scallions and seasonings formed into small cakes and fried.

Crab Louis (LOO-ee) A cold dish of crabmeat on a shredded lettuce bed, dressed with mayonnaise, chiles, cream, scallions, green pepper, lemon juice and seasonings and garnished with tomatoes and hard-boiled eggs.

Cracked Wheat The whole wheat berry broken into coarse, medium or fine particles.

Cracklings; Cracklin’s The crisp pork rind after the fat has been rendered.

Cranberry; Craneberry A small red berry of a plant with low, trailing vines that grows in American bogs; it has a tart flavor and is used for sauces, preserves, beverages and baked goods; aka American cranberry, bounceberry and bearberry.

Crayfish Any of several freshwater crustaceans found in North America; generally, they resemble small lobsters, with a brilliant red shell when cooked.

Cream A component of milk with a milkfat content of at least 18%; it has a slight yellow to ivory color, is more viscous and richer tasting than milk, and can be whipped to a foam; it rises to the top of raw milk; as a commercial product, it must be pasteurized or ultrapasteurized and may be homogenized.

Cream, Heavy Whipping Cream with a milkfat content of 36-40%; pasteurized but rarely homogenized; it is used for thickening and enriching sauces and making ice cream; can be whipped to a foam and used as a dessert topping or folded into custards or mousses for flavor and lightness.

Cream, Light Cream with a milkfat content of 18-30% and typically used for coffee, baked goods and soups; also known as breakfast cream, coffee cream and table cream.

Cream Cheese A fresh, soft, mild, white cheese made from cow’s cream or a mixture of cow’s cream and milk; used for baking, dips, dressings, confections and spreading on bread products; it must contain 33% milkfat and not more than 55% moisture and is available, sometimes flavored, in various-sized blocks or whipped.

Cream Filling A pie filling made of flavored pastry cream thickened with cornstarch.

Cream Horn A small pastry made by wrapping thin strips of puff pastry around a cone-shaped metal form and baking; the baked horn is then removed from the form and filled with whipped cream or custard.

Creaming A mixing method in which softened fat and sugar are combined vigorously to incorporate air; used for making some quick breads, cookies and high-fat cakes.

Cream Of Coconut A canned commercial product consisting of thick, sweetened coconut-flavored liquid; used for baking and in beverages.

Cream Of Tartar Tartaric acid; a fine white powder derived from an acid found on the inside of wine barrels after fermentation; it is used to give volume and stability to beaten egg whites and to prevent sugar from crystallizing when making candy or frosting.

Cream Puff A small round shell made from choux pastry and filled with custard or whipped cream; served alone or as part of another dessert.

Cream Sauce A sauce made by adding cream to a bechamel sauce.

Creme Brulee (broo-lay) French for burned cream and used to describe a rich custard topped with a crust of caramelized sugar.

Creme Fraiche (krehm fraysh) A cultured cream product with a tart, tangy flavor similar to sour cream but thinner and richer; used in French cooking.

Creole Cooking A cuisine combining elements of French, Spanish and African cuisines and native to New Orleans, Louisiana; it is characterized by the use of butter, cream, green peppers, onions, celery, file powder and tomatoes. See Cajun cuisine.

Creole Sauce An American sauce consisting of onions, green and red peppers, celery, tomatoes and tomato paste, flavored with bay leaves.

Crepe (krayp) A thin, delicate, unleavened griddle cake made with a very thin egg batter cooked in a very hot saute pan; used in sweet and savory preparations.

Crepe Pan A low pan with a heavy bottom, sloping sides and a smooth surface; it is sized by diameter of the crepe made: 5-6 in. for dessert crepes and 6-7 in. for entree crepes.

Crepes Suzette (kraypz sue-zeht) A dessert consisting of sweet crepes sauteed in orange butter, then flamed with an orange liquor or brandy.

Crimini (kree-MEE-nee) Italian for various common store mushrooms.

Crimp 1. To pinch or press together the edges of pastry dough using fingers, a fork or other utensil; the decorative edge seals the dough.,br. 2. To cut gashes along both sides of a fresh fish; the fish is then soaked in ice water to firm the flesh and help the skin crisp when cooked.

Crimper/Cutter A hand tool with two crimping disks axle-set flush against either side of a cutting wheel; it can press, crimp and cut dough simultaneously; used for ravioli, empanadas, turnovers and other pastry doughs; also known as a doughspur.

Crisp To refresh vegetables such as carrots or celery by soaking them in ice water or baked goods such as crackers by heating them. Adj. A description of produce that is firm and fresh and not soft or wilted or a baked good that is hard and brittle and not soft.

Crockpot An electrical appliance that simmers food slowly for extended periods of time in a covered glass or ceramic pot.

Croissant (kwah-SAHN; kwah-SAHNT) A rich, buttery, crescent-shaped roll made with flaky yeast dough.

Croissant Dough A rolled-in or laminated dough made with yeast and large quantities of butter; used for making croissants and other pastries.

Crookneck Squash A summer squash with a long slender neck and bulbous body, a pale to deep yellow skin with a smooth to bumpy texture, a creamy yellow flesh, and a mild, delicate flavor; also known as yellow squash.

Croquette (kroh-keht) A food such as salmon or potatoes that has been pureed and/or bound with a thick sauce, formed into small shapes, breaded and deep-fried.

Crostini (kroh-STEE-nee) 1. Italian for little toasts and used to describe small, thin slices of toasted bread, usually brushed with olive oil.2.

Canapes of thin toasted bread with a savory topping.

Croutons used for soups or salads.

Croute, En (awn KROOT) A food wrapped in pastry and baked.

Crouton (KROO-tawn) 1. A small piece of bread, often seasoned, that has been toasted, grilled or fried; it is used as a garnish for soups or salads.2. A small piece of aspic, usually in a decorative shape, used to garnish a cold dish.

Crown Roast 1. A fabricated cut of the lamb primal rack; it is formed by tying the ribs in a circle; after roasting, the tips can be decorated with paper frills and the hollow center section filled with a stuffing.2. A fabricated cut of the pork primal loin; similar to the lamb cut.

Crudites (krew-dee-TAY) Raw vegetables usually served as hors d’ oeuvres accompanied by a dipping sauce.

Cruller (KRUHL-uhr) A Dutch doughnut-type pastry made from a twisted strip of deep-fried dough topped with sugar or sugar glaze.

Crumb the texture of a food, especially breads or baked goods.

Crumbly A tasting term for a food that has a tendency to fall apart or break into small pieces.

Crumpet A small, thin, round, yeast-leavened British batter bread cooked on a griddle or stove top, similar to an English muffin.

Crush 1. To reduce a food to its finest form; it is often done with a mortar and pestle.2. To smash an ingredient such as garlic or ginger with the side of a knife or cleaver to release their flavors or facilitate cooking.

Crust 1. The hardened outer layer of a food such as a bread or a casserole.2. A pie or tart shell.

Crustacean One of the principal classes of shellfish; they are characterized by a hard outer shell and jointed appendages; includes crabs, lobsters and shrimp.

Crystallization The process of forming sugar crystals. Crystallized Fruits Small fruits or segments of larger ones soaked in a thick sugar syrup heated to 220-224 degrees F, drained and dried; sugar crystals are left on the fruits.

Cubanelle Pepper A long, tapered sweet pepper with a yellow or red color.

Cuisine (kwih-ZEEN) 1. French for the art of cookery.2. French for kitchen. Culinary Of or relating to a kitchen or the activity of cooking.

Cultured Used to describe any dairy product made from milk inoculated with certain bacteria or molds to achieve flavor, aroma and texture characteristics in the final product. Curdle The separation of milk or egg mixtures into liquid and solid components; generally caused by excessive heat, overcooking or the presence of acids.

Curing Any of several methods of processing foods, particularly meats and fish, to retard spoiling.

Currants Dried Zante grapes; seedless, they resemble very small, dark raisins and are used in baked goods and for snacking.

Custard Any liquid thickened by the coagulation of egg proteins; its consistency depends on the ratio of eggs to liquid and the type of liquid used; it can be baked in the oven in a bain marie, or on the stove top.

Cut In A technique for combining solid fat with dry ingredients until the mixture resembles small crumbs; it is done with a pastry fork, pastry blender, two knives, fingers, a food processor or an electric mixer.

Cutlet A relatively thick, boneless slice of meat.

Cutting and Folding The process of repeatedly moving a spatula or spoon vertically through a mixture, lifting the ingredients and turning the ingredients over to achieve a uniform disbursement; often used in the context of adding beaten egg whites; also known as folding.

Daiquiri (dak-ree) A cocktail traditionally made of rum, lime juice and sugar; sometimes pureed fruit are blended into the mix.

Dairy Products Include cow’s milk and foods produced from cow’s milk such as butter, yogurt, sour cream and cheese; sometimes other milks and products made from them are included (e.g., goat’s milk cheese).

Dandelion A plant with bright green jagged-edged leaves that have a slightly bitter, tangy flavor and are used in salads or cooked like spinach.

Danish Pastry A breakfast pastry made with a sweet, buttery, flaky yeast dough filled with fruit, nuts or cheese and sometimes glazed.

Dark Beer A full-bodied, deep-colored and creamy-tasting beer usually produced by adding roasted barley to the mash during the initial brewing stages.

Dark Meat The leg and thigh flesh of a chicken or turkey; it has a dark grayish-brown color when cooked and more connective tissue and fat than light meat; the darker color is the result of the increased myoglobin content in these frequently used muscles; other birds, such as duck or goose, are all dark meat.

Dash A traditional measure of volume; it refers to a small amount of a seasoning that is added to a dish by a quick, downward stroke of the hand and is approximately 1/16 or 1/8 teaspoon.

Date The fruit of a palm tree native to the Middle East and Mediterranean region; most varieties are long and ovoid (some are more spherical) with a thin, papery skin that is green and becomes yellow, golden brown, black or mahogany red when ripe; it has an extremely sweet flesh with a light brown color, a chewy texture and a single, long, narrow seed; eaten fresh or dried.

Daube (doab) A French dish consisting of beef, red wine, vegetables and seasoning braised in a daubiere.

Debone To remove the bones from a cut of meat, fish or poultry.

Decanter The glass container into which wine is decanted before serving; it usually has a stopper and a capacity of 750 or 1500 ml.

Deep-Dish A sweet or savory pie made in a deep pie dish or a shallow casserole and having only a top crust.

Deep-Frying A dry-heat cooking method that uses convection to transfer heat to a food submerged in hot fat; foods to be deep-fried are usually first coated in batter or breading.

Deglaze To swirl or stir a liquid (usually wine or stock) in a pan to dissolve cooked food particles remaining on the bottom; the resulting mixture often becomes the base for a sauce.

Degrease To skim the fat from the top of a liquid such as a sauce or stock. Dehydrate To remove or lose water.

Demi-Glace (deh-me-glass) French for half-glaze and used to describe a mixture of half brown stock and half brown sauce reduced by half.

Demi-Sec (deh-mee-seck) French for half dry; applied to sparkling wines or Champagne, it indicates a relatively sweet wine with 3.5-5% sugar.

Density The compactness of a substance; the degree of opacity of any translucent medium.

Deposit The sediment a wine forms during bottle aging; sometimes referred to as a crust.

Dessert The last course of a meal; a sweet preparation, fruit or cheese is usually served.

Dessert Wine A sweet wine served with dessert or after a meal; it includes those whose grapes were affected by the noble rot, wines made from dried or partially dried grapes and fortified wines.

Deveining The process of removing a shrimp’s digestive tract.

Developing Dough Mixing a dough to make it smoother; the dough is developed when it pulls away from the sides of the bowl.

Deviled Eggs Hard-boiled eggs whose yolks are removed from the white, mashed, seasoned and bound with mayonnaise; the mixture is then returned to the white using a pastry tube or spoon.

Devil’s Food Cake A very rich, moist chocolate cake leavened with baking soda, which gives the cake a reddish-brown color.

Dewberry Any of a variety of blackberries grown on trailing vines; the berry is smaller than an ordinary blackberry and has fewer and larger drupelets.

Diable, Sauce (dee-AHB-luh) A French compound sauce made from a demi-glaze flavored with shallots, white wine, vinegar, herbs, dry mustard, black pepper and cayenne and garnished with parsley.

Diagonal Slicing A cutting method in which the food is sliced at an angle of approximately 60 degrees.

Dice 1. To cut food into cubes.2. The cubes of cut food.

Dietary Fiber Carbohydrates such as cellulose, lignin, and pectin that are resistant to digestion but nutritionally significant because they add bulk to the diet by absorbing large amounts of water and facilitate elimination by producing large stools; also known as roughage.

Dijon (deh-zjohn) A French prepared mustard made in the Dijon region from black or brown mustard seeds blended with salt, spices and white wine verjuice; it has a clean, sharp, medium-hot flavor, a yellow-gray color and a creamy texture.

Dilute To reduce a mixture’s strength or flavor by adding a liquid, usually water.

Dip A thick creamy sauce or condiment to accompany raw vegetables, crackers, processed snack foods such as potato chips or the like, especially as an hors d’ oeuvre; usually made with a mayonnaise, sour cream or cream cheese base and flavorings.

Dirty Rice A Cajun dish of rice cooked with chicken livers or gizzards and onions and flavored with bacon fat.

Disjoint To divide two bones (with flesh attached) at their joint.

Distilled White Vinegar A vinegar made from a grain alcohol mixture; clear and colorless, it has a rather harsh, biting flavor.

Docking Pricking small holes in an unbaked dough or crust to allow steam to escape and to prevent the dough from rising when baked.

Double-Acting Baking Powder A chemical leavening agent that releases carbon dioxide gas when moistened and again when heated.

Double Crust A pie, cobbler or other pastry prepared with both a top and bottom layer of dough.

Double-Frying Process A moist-heat cooking method in which a food is first deep-fried at one temperature and then deep-fried again at a higher temperature, causing the food to puff up.

Dough A mixture of flour and other ingredients used in baking and often stiff enough to cut into shapes; it has a low moisture content and gluten forms the continuous medium into which other ingredients are embedded; it generally has less fat, sugar and liquid than a batter.

Dough Cutter; Dough Scaper A thin, rectangular piece of unsharpened stainless steel topped with a wooden or plastic handle; used to cut portions of dough, to clean wooden worktables; and to lift or move foods; also known as a bench scraper.

Dough Divider A stainless steel tool composed of several cutting wheels attached to metal bars on an expandable, accordian-like frame; used to cut several evenly sized strips of dough at once; also known as a Danish cutter or an expandable pastry cutter.

Doughnut; Donut A small round or ring-shaped cake of sweet, leavened dough that is deep-fried, often coated with glaze, sugar or frosting and sometimes filled.

Drain 1. To allow a liquid to withdraw from, pour out of or pour off an item, sometimes with the use of a strainer or colander. 2. To blot fat from a food. A device facilitating or channeling the withdrawing liquid. Dredging Coating a food with flour or finely ground crumbs; usually done prior to sauteing or frying or as the first step of the standarized breading procedure.

Dress 1. To prepare game, foul or fish for cooking by eviscerating, plucking, trussing, cleaning, scaling and so on.2. To add a vinaigrette or other salad dressing to a salad.3. To set and decorate a table or room for a festive occasion.,br> 4. To add an unexpected touch to a dish or meal.

Dried Fruit Fruit from which most of the moisture has been removed through a natural or artificial dehydration process. Dried fruit usually has 4-5 times the calories by weight as fresh fruit and can be stored for 1 year.

Dried Milk; Dry Milk Powder A product made from whole milk from which the water has been extracted, leaving the milkfat and milk solids in a dried, powdery form. Dried Milk, Nonfat; Dry Milk Powder, Nonfat A product made from skim milk from which the water has been extracted, leaving the milk solids in a dried, powdery form.

Drip Pan A shallow pan used in a smoker to catch dripping fat or basting runoff. Drippings The melted fat and juices released when meat is roasted; used as a flavoring, a sauce, a gravy base or a cooking medium; also known as pan drippings.

Drizzle To pour a liquid in a very fine stream over a food or plate.

Drop Cookie A cookie made by dropping spoonfuls of soft dough onto a baking sheet.

Dry 1. A tasting term for an alcoholic beverage, except Champagne or sparkling wine, that retains very little if any detectable sugar.2. A Champagne or sparkling wine that is medium sweet.

Dry Aging The process of storing meat under specific temperature and humidity conditions for up to 6 weeks to increase tenderness and flavor; it is the start of the natural decomposition process and can result in significant moisture loss.

Dry Curing A method of curing meat or fish by packing it in salt and seasonings.

Dry-Heat Cooking Methods Cooking methods, principally broiling, grilling, roasting and baking, sauteing, pan-frying and deep-frying, that use air or fat to transfer heat through conduction and convection; dry-heat cooking methods allow surface sugars to caramelize.

Dry Ice The proprietary name of a form of crystallized carbon dioxide used as a coolant; it passes directly from a solid to a gas, absorbing a great deal of energy.

Duchess Potatoes; (duh-shees) A puree of cooked potatoes, butter and egg yolks, seasoned with salt, pepper and nutmeg; it can be eaten as is or used to prepare several classic potato dishes.

Duck One of the principal kinds of poultry recognized by the USDA; any of several varieties of domesticated webfooted swimming birds used for food; it has a high percentage and a rich flavor; significant varieties include the Long Island duck and muscovy duck.

Duckling A young duck. Du Jour (doo-zhoor) French for of the day and used to introduce a menu item that is a special for a particualr day, such as a soup.

Dumpling 1. A dessert made by covering a piece of fruit or fruit mixture with sweet dough and baking.2. A dessert consisting of a small mound of sweet dough poached in a sweet sauce, usually served with cream.

Dust 1. To coat a food or utensil lightly with a powdery substance such as flour or confectioners’ sugar.2. The smallest size of broken tea leaves or tea particles; generally used in tea bags.

Dusting Flour Flour sprinkled on a workbench or other surface to prevent dough from sticking to the surface when being rolled or formed.

Earthenware Any of a variety of vessels or containers used for cooking, service or storage that are made of low-fired clays that are slightly porous and are usually glazed; they tend not to conduct heat well, but once hot, they will retain the heat.

Eclair (ay-clahr) An oblong, finger-shaped French pastry made with choux dough, filled with pastry cream and topped with icing or glaze.

Edible flowers

Egg The ovoid, hard-shelled reproductive body produced by a bird, consisting principally of a yolk and albumen; it is a good source of protein, iron, sulfur and vitamins A, B, D and E, but also relatively high in cholesterol.

Egg, Quail A small egg with speckled brown shell and a rich flavor.

Egg Custard A dessert made with eggs, sugar and vanilla, usually baked in individual molds or cups.

Eggnog A rich beverage made of eggs, cream or milk, sugar, spices and spirits (usually rum, brandy or whiskey).

Eggplant A member of the nightshade family, its fruit is used like a vegetable; the fruit has a dense, khaki-colored flesh with a rather bland but sometimes bitter flavor that absorbs other flavors during cooking; also known as a guinea squash.

Egg Roll A deep-fried Chinese pastry made from a thin flour and water dough wrapper folded around a savory filling of vegetables and sometimes meat.

Egg Roll Skins Wafer-thin sheets of dough made from flour, eggs and salt and used to wrap fillings; available in squares or circles and used in Chinese and other Asian cuisines.

Egg Separator A small cuplike vessel with a slot running midway around the perimeter; the egg white slides through the slot, leaving the yolk in the cup.

Egg Slicer A utensil with a hinged upper portion tautly strung with stainless steel wires and a base with an oval depression with slats that correspond to the wires; an egg is placed in the base and the top portion is brought down, cutting the egg into even slices.

Egg Substitute A liquid product usually made of egg white, food starch, corn oil, skim milk powder, artifical coloring and other additives; it does not contain cholesterol and is generally used like real eggs.

Egg Wash A mixture of beaten eggs (whole eggs, yolks or whites) and a liquid, usually milk or water, used to coat doughs before baking to add sheen.

Eggs Benedict A brunch dish consisting of an English muffin topped with ham or Canadian bacon, a poached egg and hollandaise sauce.

Elastin A protein found in connective tissues, particularly ligaments and tendons, that does not dissolve when cooked; it often appears as the white or silver covering on meats known as silverskin.

Elephant Garlic A member of the leek family; the very large cloves have a white outer layer, a pinkish-white interior and mild garlicky flavor.

Empanadas (ehm-pah-NAH-dah) Deep-fried turnovers of various sizes, usually filled with meat, vegetables or a sweet filling; they are part of many South and Central American cuisines. Emulsification The process by which generally unmixable liquids, such as oil and water, are forced into a uniform distribution.

Emulsion 1. A uniform mixture of two unmixable liquids, often temporary.2. A flavoring oil, such as those from citrus fruits, mixed into water with the aid of emulsifiers.

Enchilada (en-chuh-LAH-dah) A Mexican dish consisting of a soft corn tortilla wrapped around fish, shellfish, poultry, meat or cheese and topped with a tomato-based salsa, cheese, guacamole and/or sour cream; enchiladas are also served stacked, topped with a fried egg.

Endive (ehn-deeve) A plant with curly dark green leaves and a slightly bitter flavor; also known as curly endive and imprecisely known as chicory.

Endosperm The largest part of a cereal grain and a source of protein and carbohydrates (starch); the part used primarily in milled products.

English Cucumber A long, virtually seedles cucumber with a mild flavor and dark green skin; also known as a hothouse cucumber.

English Muffin A thin, round bread made with yeast dough and baked on a griddle, usually split and toasted for service.

Enrich To thicken or enhance a sauce by adding butter, egg yolks or cream just before service.

Entree (ahng-tray) 1. In the United States, the main dish of a meal and often consisting of meat, poultry, fish or shellfish accompanied by a starch and/or vegetable.2. In many European countries, the first course. Escargot (ays-skahr-go) French for snail.

Escoffier, Auguste A chef known for refining and defining French cuisine and dining during the late 19th century; he operated dining rooms for the finest hotels in Europe, including the Savoy and the Carlton in London and the Place Vendome in Paris, and authored several culinary texts, including Ma Cuisine (1934) and a treatise for professional chefs, Le Guide Culinaire (1903).

Espagnole, Sauce (ess-spah-noyl) A French leading sauce made of brown stock, mirepoix and tomatoes and thickened by brown roux; it is often used to produce a demiglaze; also known as brown sauce and Spanish sauce.

Espresso (ess-PRESS-o) An Italian coffee-brewing method in which hot water is forced through finely ground and packed coffee (usually very dark roasted beans) under high pressure; the resulting beverage is thick, strong, rich and smooth, not bitter or acidic.

Espresso Powder A powder made from dried roasted espresso beans; it is used to give a rich coffee flavor and aroma to pastries, desserts and confections.

Essential Oils The volatile oils that give plants their distinctive fragrances; these oils, usually composed of esters, can be extracted or distilled from some flowers, leaves, seeds, resins or roots and used as aromatics and flavorings in cooking and the production of alcoholic beverages.

Ethnic Cuisine The cuisine of a group of people having a common cultural heritage, as opposed to the cuisine of a group of people bound together by geography or political factors.

Evaporation The process by which heated water molecules move faster and faster until the water turns to gas (steam) and vaporizes; evaporation is responsible for the drying of foods during cooking.

Extracts 1. Concentrated mixtures of ethyl alcohol and flavoring oils such as vanilla, lemon and almond.2. Concentrated flavors obtained by distilling, steeping and/or pressing foods.3. Sugars derived from malt during the mashing process in brewing and distillation.4. Nonvolatile and nonsoluble substances in wine such as acids, tannins and pigments; to the tester, they indicate the presence of elements that add flavor and character.

Extra Lean A food-labeling term approved by the FDA to describe meat, poultry, game, fish or shellfish that contains less than 5 g. of fat, less than 2 g. of saturated fat and less than 95 mg of cholesterol per serving or per 100 g.

Eyes The holes found in some cheeses; they are formed by gases released during aging.

Fabricate To cut a large item into smaller portions; often refers to the butchering of fish or shellfish.

Fajitas (fah-HEE-tuhs) A Mexican-American dish consisting of strips of skirt steak marinated in lime juice, oil, garlic and red pepper, and then grilled; the diner wraps the meat in a flour tortilla and garnishes it with items such as grilled onions and peppers, guacamole, pico de gallo, refried beans, sour cream and salso; chicken, pork, fish and shellfish (usually shrimp) can be substituted.

Fatback The layer of fat that runs along a hog’s back just below the skin and above the eye muscle; usually available unsmoked and unsalted; used for lard and lardons and to prepare charcuterie items.

Fats 1. A general term used to describe a class of organic nutrients that includes the lipid family of compounds: triglycerides (fats and oils), phospholipids and sterols. 2. Nutrients composed of glycerol and 3 units of fatty acid; they occur naturally in animals and some plants and are used principally in the body to store energy from food eaten in excess of need (1 g. of fat delivers 2.25 times the calories delivered by 1 g. of carbohydrates of protein).3. Lipids that are solid at room temperature.4. A general term for butter, lard, shortening, oil and margarine used as cooking media or ingredients.

Fava Bean (FAH-vuh) A large, flat, kidney-shaped bean with a tough pale green skin when fresh that turns brown when dried; the skin is usually removed before cooking; the interior is light green when fresh and cream colored when dried; available fresh, dried or canned and used in Mediterranean and Middle Eastern cuisines; also known as broad bean.

Fennel, Florence A perennial plant with a broad, bulbous root, white to pale green celerylike stalks and bright green, feathery foliage; it has a flavor similar to but sweeter and more delicate than that of anise; the root is cooked like a vegetable, the foliage is used as a garnish or flavor enhancer and the stalks are used in salads or cooked; also known as finocchio and sweet fennel and known as finocchio and sweet fennel and known imprecisely as sweet anise.

Fermentation 1. The process by which yeast converts sugars to alcohol and carbon dioxide; this process is fundamental to the making of leavened breads, beers, wines and spirits.2. The period that yeast bread dough is left to rise. 3. The process of souring milk with certain bacteria to create a specific dairy product.

Feta (FEH-tah) 1. A soft Greek cheese made from ewe’s milk (or occasionally goat’s milk) and pickled in brine; it has a white color, a crumbly texture, and a salty, sour, tangy flavor.2. A soft, white, flaky American feta-style cheese made from cow’s milk and stored in brine.

Fettuccine Alfredo (feht-tuh-CHEE-nee) An Italian dish of fettuccine mixed with a rich sauce of butter, cream and Parmesan and sprinkled with black pepper.

Fiasco (vee-ASK-co) The hand-blown, round-bottomed bottle with a woven straw covering associated with Chianti; these bottles are now rarely used because of their expense.

Fiber Also known as dietary fiber; indigestible carbohydrates found in grains, fruits and vegetables; fiber aids digestion.

Fig A variety of oblong or pear-shaped fruits that grow in warm climates; generally, they have a thick, soft skin that is green, yellow, orange or purple, a tannish-purple flesh, a sweet flavor, and many tiny edible seeds; available fresh or dried.

Fig Leaves The dark green leaves of the fig tree; they are used in Mediterranean cuisines to wrap fish or poultry for grilling.

File Powder (fih-LAY; FEE lay) The ground leaves of the sassafras tree; used in Cajun and Creole cuisines as a seasoning and thickener.

Filet Mignon (fee-lay me-NYON) A fabricated cut of the short end of the tenderloin found in the beef short loin and sirloin primals; it is cut from the center of the tenderloin and is lean, very tender, flavorful and larger than a tournedo; also known as a beef filet.

Fillet (FILL-eh) 1. To fabricate a boneless cut of fish.2. The side of a fish removed intact, boneless or semiboneless, with or without skin.

Finger Foods Small portions of foods or small foods comfortably eaten in one bite; usually served as hors d’ oeuvre.

Fingerlings Any of a variety of small, long, thin potatoes.

Finish To add butter to a sauce nearing completion to impart shine, flavor and richness.

Fish Sauce A thin, dark brown liquid made from anchovy extract and salt; used as a flavoring, it has a very salty flavor and a strong, pungent aroma.

Fish Veloute A veloute sauce made from fish stock.

Flake 1. To separate pieces of food into small slivers.2. A small sliver.

Flambe (flahm-bay) Foods served flaming; the flame is produced by igniting the brandy, rum or other alcoholic beverage poured on or incorporated into the item; also known as flamed.

Flan (flahn) 1. A shallow, open-faced French tart, usually filled with fruit or custard.2. A custard baked over a layer of caramelized sugar and inverted for service.3. Spanish for creme caramel.

Flank Steak A fabricated cut of the beef primal flank; this tough, somewhat stringy cut is very flavorful.

Flan Tin A tart pan with a removable bottom.

Flash-Frozen Describes food that has been frozen very rapidly using metal plates, extremely low temperatures or chemical solutions.

Flatbread; Flat bread A category of thin breads that may or may not be leavened, with textures ranging from chewy to crisp; these products tend to be more common in regional or ethnic cuisines.

Flatfish Fish with asymmetrical, compressed bodies that swim in a horizontal position and have both eyes on the top of the head; include sole, flounder and halibut.

Flauta (FLAUW-tah) A Mexican dish consisting of a corn tortilla rolled around a savory filled and deep-fried; often garnished with guacamole, sour cream and salsa.

Flavonoid A naturally occurring pigment that predominates in red, purple and white vegetables such as cauliflower, red cabbage and beets.

Flavor 1. To add seasonings or other ingredients to a food or beverage to improve, change or add to the taste. 2. The distinctive taste of a food or beverage.3. A quality of something that affects the sense of taste.

Flesh 1. When referring to fruits and vegetables, it is typically the edible area under the skin or other outer covering; also known as the pulp.2. The muscles, fat and related tissues of an animal.

Fleuron (fluh-rawng) A crescent-shaped piece of puff pastry used as a garnish.

Float V. 1. To pour a shot of distilled spirits on top of a finished drink or coffee without stirring or mixing it in.2. To pour or place a garnish on top of a food without stirring or mixing it in. 3.A scoop of ice cream in a carbonated beverage, such as root beer.

Florentine (FLOOR-en-teen) A very thin, crisp cookie or candy made with honey, sugar, nuts and candied fruit; the underside of the cooled confection is usually coated with chocolate.

Floret One of the closely clustered small flowers that comprise a composite flower or curd.

Flour A powdery substance of varying degrees of fineness made by milling grains such as wheat, corn or rye.

Flowers, Edible Flowers used as an ingredient (e.g., squash blossoms), a flavoring (e.g., pansies, nasturtiums, violas, roses and chive flowers) or an edible garnish (e.g., borage, lovage, lavender, chamomile, citrus, peach, plum and mimosa).

Flute 1. To make a decorative pattern on the raised edge of a pie crust.2. To carve grooves, slashes or other decorative markings into vegetables and fruits.3. A stemmed glass with an elongated, V-shaped bowl; used for sparkling wines.4. A thin, slightly sweet, flute-shaped cookie served with ice cream, pudding or the like.5. A long, thin loaf of French bread.

Foamed Milk Milk that is heated and frothed with air and steam generated by an espresso machine; it will be slightly cooler than steamed milk.

Foaming The process of whipping eggs to incorporate air.

Focaccia (foh-CAH-chee-ah) Italian flat bread leavened with yeast and flavored with olive oil and herbs; traditionally made with potato flour.

Foguete (fo-gha-tay) Portuguese pastries consisting of a deep-fried pastry tube filled with pineapple, cashews and raisins flavored with rosewater, often dipped in a sweet syrup and dusted with confectioners’ sugar.

Foie Gras (fwah grah) The enlarged liver of a duck or goose (the birds are methodically fattened through force-feeding of a corn-based diet); it has two smooth, rounded lobes with a putty color and an extremely high fat content.

Fold 1. To incorporate light, airy ingredients into heavier ingredients by gently moving them from the bottom up over the top in a circular motion.2. A measurement of the strength of vanilla extract.

Fond (fahn) 1. French for stock.2. French for bottom and used to describe the concentrated juices, drippings and bits of food left in pans after foods are roasted or sauteed; they are used to flavor sauces made directly in the pans in which the foods were cooked.

Fondant (FAHN-dant) A sweet, thick, opaque sugar paste commonly used for glazing pastries or making candies.

Fondue (fahn-DOO) 1. Traditionally, a hot dish of melted cheeses into which diners dip pieces of bread or other foods to be coated and consumed. 2. A hot preparation of other melted foods, such as chocolate, into which diners dip pieces of food to be coated and consumed.

Fontina, American An American Fontina-style cheese made from whole cow’s milk.

Food Danger Zone The temperature range of 40-140 degrees F, which is most favorable for bacterial growth; also known as the temperature danger zone.

Food Mill A tool used to strain and puree foods simultaneously; it consists of a hopper with a hand-crank mechanism that forces the food through a perforated disk; most models have interchangeable disks with various-sized holes.

Food Processor An appliance used to puree, chop, grate, slice and shred foods; it consists of a bowl that sits atop a motorized driveshaft; an S-shaped blade on the bottom of the bowl processes food that can be fed into the bowl through an opening or tube on top; some models can be fitted as a juicer and/or pasta maker.

Forcemeat A mixture of ground cooked or raw meats, fish, shellfish, poultry, vegetables and/or fruits combined with a binder, seasoned and emulsified with fat; it is the primary ingredient in charcuterie items such as pates, terrines, galantines and sausages; there are three principal styles: basic, countrystyle and mousseline.

Formaggio (fohr-MAH-jee-oh) Italian for cheese.

Formula The bakeshop term for a recipe.

Fortified Wine A wine that has had its alcohol content enhanced with brandy or rectified alcohol to create a distinctively new product such as port, sherry, Madeira or Marsala.

Fragrant A tasting term for an agreeable floral, fruity, vegetal, herbal or spicy aroma or bouquet.

Framboise (frahm-bwahz) 1. French for raspberry.2. A brandy made in France’s Alsace region from wild raspberries. 3. A raspberry lambic beer.

Frangipane A sweet almond and egg filling cooked inside pastry.

Frappe (fra-PAY) 1. Fruit juice or other flavored liquid frozen to a slushy consistency; it can be sweet or savory and served as a drink, appetizer or dessert. 2. French for very cold when used as a wine term.3. A liqueur served over shaved ice.4. Italian for milk shake.

Free-Range Chickens Chickens allowed to move freely and forage for foods; as opposed to chickens raised in coops.

Freezer Burn The surface dehydration and discoloration of food that result from moisture loss at below-freezing temperatures.

French, To 1. To cut meat or vegetables into long, slender strips.2. To remove the meat from the end of a chop or rib, thereby exposing the bone; also known as frenched.

French Buttercream A rich, creamy frosting made by whipping whole eggs or egg yolks into a thick foam with hot sugar syrup, then beating in softened butter and flavorings.

French Dressing Classically, a vinaigrette dressing made from oil, vinegar, salt and pepper. In the United States the term also refers to a commercially prepared dressing that is creamy, tartly sweet and red-orange in color.

Frenched A roast, rack or chop of meat, especially lamb, from which the excess fat has been removed, leaving the eye muscle intact, and all meat and connective tissue have been removed from the rib bone.

French Toast A breakfast dish of bread dipped in egg and milk, sauteed in butter, sometimes garnished with fruit, and served with syrup or confectioners’ sugar.

Fresh-Frozen Describes a food that has been frozen while still fresh.

Fricassee (FRIHK-uh-see) A white stew in which the meat is cooked in fat without browning before the liquid is added.

Fried Rice A Chinese and Chinese-American dish of cold cooked rice seasoned with soy sauce and fried; egg, meat, shellfish, poultry and/or vegetable garnishes are usually added.

Frill A fluted paper ornament slipped over protruding bones as a decoration; typically used on a crown roast of pork or lamb, lamb chop and leg of lamb.

Frisee (free-zay) A variety of endive with yellowish-green curly leaves; also known as chicoree frisee. Frittata (free-tah-ta) An open-faced omelet of Spanish-Italian heritage.

Fritter A small, sweet or savory, deep-fried cake made by either combining chopped foods with a thick batter or dipping the food into the batter.

Fromage (froh-MAJH) French for cheese.

From Scratch; Scratch To make an item, usually baked goods, from the raw ingredients, without using a mix or processed convenience products (other than items such as baking powder).

Frosting Also known as icing, a sweet decorative coating used as a filling between the layers or as a coating over the top and sides of a cake.

Froth Foam; a formation of tiny bubbles.

Fruit The edible organ that develops from the ovary of a flowering plant and contains one or more seeds (pips or pits).

Fruitcake A Christmas cake made with candied fruit, dried fruit and nuts bound with a relatively small amount of a dense, spicy batter.

Fruit Salad A salad of various fresh, frozen and/or canned fruits; the natural fruit juices used for the dressing are sometimes flavored with a sweet liqueur and lemon juice.

Fruity 1. A cheese-tasting term for the sweet, appealing flavor or aroma of a cheese, usually a monastery cheese or a firm mountain cheese.2. A wine-tasting term for a wine with a pleasing aroma reminiscent of fresh, ripe fruit but not necessarily of grapes.

Frying A dry-heat cooking method in which foods are cooked in hot fat; includes sauteing and stir-frying, pan-frying and deep-frying.

Fuji Apple A medium-sized apple with a yellow, orange and red-streaked skin, a crisp, white flesh, and a sweet flavor.

Fumet (fyoo-maht) A concentrated stock usually made from fish bones and/or shellfish shells and vegetables; used for sauces and soups.

Fungi A large group of plants ranging from single-celled organisms to giant mushrooms; the most common are molds and yeasts.

Funnel A conical-shaped tool with a short, straight tube at the tip; used to transfer liquids into a narrow-mouthed container; some are equipped with strainers in the bottom to clear the liquid of small particles.

Funnel Cake A deep-fried Pennsylvania Dutch pastry made by pouring batter through a funnel into hot fat with a spiral motion; the fried dough is served with confectioners’ sugar or honey.

Fusilli (foo-SEEL-lee) Italian for twists and used to describe long, spiral-shaped pasta; usually served with thick sauces.

Fusilli Bucati (foo-SEEL-ee boo-cah-tee) Italian for twists with a hole and used to describe long spirals of pasta tubes.

Fusion Cuisine A style of cooking that draws on elements from European and Asian cuisines; generally, the application of Asian preparation techniques to European or American ingredients; also known as Ea st meets West

Galantine (GAL-uhn-teen) A forcemeat of poultry, game, fish, shellfish or suckling pig, wrapped in the skin of the bird or animal, if available, and poached in an appropriate stock; usually served cold in aspic.

Galette (gah-leht) 1. A round, flat, thin French cake made with puff pastry or a yeast-leavened dough, usually sprinkled with sugar before baking.2. A thin, round cake made from potatoes or cereal grains; also known as a buckwheat crepe in Normandy.3. A small shortbread cookie. Game Wild mammals, birds or fish hunted for sport or food as well as the flesh of these animals; common game include deer, rabbit, hare, bear, boar, duck, goose, pheasant, quail and pigeon, many of which are also ranch raised and available commercially.

Ganache (ga-nosh) A rich blend of chocolate and heavy cream and, optionally, flavorings, used as a pastry or candy filling or as a frosting.

Garam Masala (gah-RAHM mah-SAH-lah) A flavorful and aromatic blend of roasted and ground spices used in Indian cuisines (usually added toward the end of cooking or sprinkled on the food just before service); the blend usually contains peppercorns, cardamom, cinnamon, cloves, coriander, nutmeg, turmeric and/or fennel seeds; also known as a gorum moshla and masala.

Garde-Manager Section One of the principal work sections of a food services facility; it typically contains a salad station, cold foods station, sandwich station and charcuterie station.

Garlic A member of the lily family; the highly aromatic and strongly flavored edible bulb (called a head) is covered in a papery layer and is composed of several sections (called cloves), each of which is also covered with a papery membrane; used as a distinctive flavoring in cuisines around the world.

Garlic Butter Softened butter mixed with minced or crushed garlic; used as a cooking medium, flavoring or spread.

Garlic Powder Finely ground dehydrated garlic; used as a seasoning; also known as powdered garlic.

Garlic Salt A blend of garlic powder, salt and an anticaking agent or humectant; used as a seasoning.

Garnish 1. To use food as an attractive decoration. 2. Food used as an attractive decoration.3. A subsidiary food used to add flavor or character to the main ingredient in a dish.

Gastrique (gas-strek) Caramelized sugar deglazed with vinegar and used in fruit-flavored savory sauces and tomato-based sauces.

Gastronome, Sauce (GAS-truh-nohm) A French compound sauce made from a Madeira sauce flavored with a meat glaze, seasoned with cayenne pepper and finished with Champagne.

Gastronomy The art and science of eating well.

Gaufrette (goh-FREHT) A thin, crisp fan-shaped French wafer, often served with ice cream.

Gazpacho (gahz-PAH-choh) A cold Spanish soup made of uncooked tomatoes, cucumbers, sweet peppers, onions, oil and vinegar and traditionally thickened with bread crumbs or slices of bread.

Gelatin; Gelatine A colorless, odorless and flavorless mixture of proteins from animal bones, connective tissues and other parts as well as from certain algae (agar-agar); when dissolved in a hot liquid and then cooled, it forms a jelly-like substance that is used as a thickener and stabilizer in molded desserts, cold soups, chaud-froid creations and the like and as a fining agent in beer and wine.

Gelatin, Granulated A granular form of unflavored, unsweetened gelatin.

Gelato (jah-laht-to) An Italian-style ice cream that is denser than American-style ice cream.

Generic 1. A class or group of products with predominating common characteristics such as usage, origin, principal ingredients and so on.2. A product (usually a house brand) that closely resembles a well-known brand name product.

Genoa Salami A large sausage from Genoa, Italy, made from pork and beef, highly seasoned with garlic, white peppercorns and other spices; it is cured and air-dried.

Genoise (zhen-waahz) 1. A form of whipped-egg cake that uses whole eggs whipped with sugar. 2. A French sponge cake. German Chocolate; German’s Sweet Chocolate Baking chocolate with sugar, milk and vanilla added.

German Potato Salad A salad made with cooked potatoes, bacon, onions celery and green pepper bound with a dressing of bacon fat, vinegar, seasonings and sometimes sugar; served hot, room temperature or cold.

Gewurztraminer (geh-VAIRTZ-tra-MEE-ner 1. A white wine grape grown principally in France’s Alsace region, Germany, Austria, Italy and California.2. A white wine made from this grape; it has a perfumed aroma reminiscent of rose petals; the wine ranges from dry and flavorful to spicy.

Ghee (gee) 1. Hindi for fat or buttermilk.2. A form of clarified butter (after the moisture has evaporated, the milk solids are allowed to brown) originating in India but now mass-produced worldwide and used as an ingredient and cooking medium; it has a long shelf life, high smoke point and a nutty, caramel-like flavor; ghee flavored with ginger, peppercorns or cumin is available.

Gherkin (gerr-ken) A small, dark green pickling cucumber; usually harvested before it ripens and pickled in vinegar.

Giblets The edible internal organs of a bird; in the United States, these include the heart, liver and gizzard as well as the neck; in France, they also include the cockscomb and kidneys.

Gild To brush pastry or other foods with egg yolk so that the brushed surface will brown when cooked.

Gin A clear spirit distilled from grain and flavored with juniper berries; it has a high alcohol content.

Ginger; Gingerroot The gnarled, bumpy rhizome (called a hand) of a tall flowering tropical plant native to China; it has a tan skin, an ivory to greenish-yellow flesh, a peppery, fiery slightly sweet flavor with notes of lemon and rosemary and a spicy, pungent aroma; used to flavor beverages and in sweet and savory dishes in Asian and Indian cuisines; available fresh, powdered, preserved in sugar, crystallized, candied or pickled.

Ginger Ale A sweetened carbonated beverage flavored with a ginger extract.

Gingerbread A sweet cake or cookie flavored with ginger and other spices.

Gingersnap A thin, crisp cookie flavored with ginger and molasses.

Ginseng (JIHN-sing) A plant of the ivy family native to China; the forked reminiscent of fennel, and is used in tisanes, as a flavoring for soups, and as a tonic believed by some to be an aphrodisiac and restorative.

Glace (glahs-say) French for glazed and used to describe both a fruit dipped in a syrup that hardens when cold and a cake with a shiny, sweet surface (icing). Glaze 1. To apply a shiny coating to a food.2. Any shiny coating applied to a food or created by browning.3. The dramatic reduction and concentration of a stock.4. A thin, flavored coating poured or dripped onto a cake or pastry.

Glazed 1. Food that has been dipped in water and then frozen; the ice forms a glaze that protects the item from freezer burn.2. Food that has been coated with a glaze.

Global Cuisine Foods (often commercially produced items) or preparation methods that have become ubiquitous throughout the world, for example, curries and French-fried potatoes.

Glucose 1. A monosaccharide occurring naturally in fruits, some vegetables and honey with about half the sweetness of table sugar; used as the principal source of energy for most body functions; also known as dextrose, blood sugar, corn sugar and grape sugar.2. A food additive used as a nutritive sweetener in processed foods such as confections and candies.

Gluten An elastic-like network of proteins created when glutenin and gliadin (proteins found in wheat flour) are moistened and kneaded; it is this network that traps gases inside the batter or dough, causing it to rise.

Gluten Flour A flour made from hard wheat flour from which a large percentage of the starch has been removed; usually used for making bread for diabetic individuals and others who abstain from starch or to add protein to flours, such as rye, that do not produce gluten naturally.

Gnocchi (NYOH-kee) Italian for dumplings and used to describe irregularly shaped balls or small concave oval disks made from a dough of potatoes, flour, semolina flour, cornmeal and/or rice flour, with or without eggs; they are boiled or baked.

Goat’s Milk Cheeses Cheeses made from goat’s milk; usually pure white with an assertive, tangy, tart flavor; their texture can range from soft, moist and creamy to dry, firm and crumbly and their shape from small- to medium-sized cones, cylinders, disks or pyramids; they are left ungarnished or covered with black ash, leaves, herbs or pepper.

Golden Nugget Squash A small, pumpkin-shaped winter squash with a dull orange skin, an orange flesh and a sweet, slightly bland flavor.

Golden Raisins Small seedless raisins with a pale gold color made from sultana grapes and used in confectionery and for table use; also known as white raisins and sultanas.

Gold Leaf The pure metal beaten into a gossamer-thin square and sold in packages interleaved with tissue paper; edible in small quantities, it is used to decorate rice dishes in Indian cuisines, and desserts, confections and candies; also known as vark and varak.

Gold Powder 22- to 24- karat gold that is ground to dust and used to decorate desserts, pastries and confections.

Gooseberry A large berry originally grown in northern Europe; it has a smooth or furry green, yellow, red or white skin and a tart flavor; available dried or fresh and used in preserves and baked goods.

Gordita (gohr-DEE-tah) Spanish for little fat one and used to describe a thick tortilla made of masa, lard and water, fried and then filled with ground pork or chorizo; it is topped with cheese, lettuce and the like.

Gorgonzola (gohr-guhn-ZOH-lah) An Italian cheese made from cow’s milk; it has an ivory interior streaked with blue-green veins and a slightly pungent flavor when young that grows stronger as it ages (it also becomes drier and more crumbly as it ages).

Gouda (GOO-dah) A semisoft to firm Dutch sweet curd cheese made from cow’s milk; it has a yellow interior and a mild, nutty flavor (it is sometimes flavored with cumin or other herbs and spices); marketed in large wheels with a yellow wax coating.

Goulash (GOO-lahsh) A Hungarian stew made with beef and vegetables and flavored with paprika; also known as Hungarian goulash.

Gourd 1. The nonedible fruit of various plants of the gourd family; generally, they have a tough, hard shell that can be used as a utensil or storage unit once the flesh is removed and the shell is dried.2. British for several edible squashes. Check out my gourmet ebooks!

Gourmet (goor-may) A connoisseur of fine food and drink.

Gourmet Foods a term used imprecisely to denote foods of the highest quality, perfectly prepared and beautifully presented.

Graham Cracker A sweetened whole wheat cracker.

Grains 1. Grasses that bear edible seeds, including corn, rice and wheat.2. The fruit of such grasses. Grainy A tasting term for a food with a gritty or mealy texture.

Gram (g) The basic measure of weight in the metric system; 28.35 g equal 1 oz., and 1000 g equal 2.2 lb.

Granada (grah-NAH-dah) Spanish for pomegranate.

Grande Cuisine The rich, intricate and elaborate cuisine of the 18th and 19th century French aristocracy and upper classes; it was based on the rational identification, development and adoption of strict (and very often elaborate) culinary principles.

Grand Marnier (GRAN mahr-NYAY) An orange-flavored French liqueur made in two styles: Cordon Rouge (has a light amber color and is made from Cognac and aged for 18 months) and Cordon Jaune (a paler variety made with a lesser-quality brandy).

Granita (grah-nee-TAH) An Italian frozen mixture made with water, sugar and a flavoring such as fruit juice or wine; stirred frequently while freezing, it has a grainy texture.

Granny Smith Apple Named for an Australian gardener, Maria Ann Smith, and originally grown in Australia, South Africa and New Zealand; a good all-purpose apple with a rich, almost emerald green skin, a tart, sweet flavor, and a firm flesh.

Granola A mix of grains, nuts and dried fruits, sometimes coated with oil and honey, eaten for breakfast or as a snack.

Granulated Sugar Fine, white sucrose crystals, a general-purpose sweetener; also known as table sugar.

Grape Leaves The large dark green leaves of the grapevine; used in Mediterranean and Middle Eastern cuisines to wrap foods for cooking or as a garnish; available fresh or packed in brine; also known as vine leaves.

Grape Seed Oil An oil obtained from grape seeds; it has a pale color, a delicate, neutral flavor and high smoke point and is used for frying and other culinary purposes.

Grape Tomato A very small, ovoid tomato with a bright red or golden yellow color and a very sweet flavor.

Grasshopper Pie A light, creamy pie flavored with green creme de menthe and white creme de cacao.

Grate To reduce food to small pieces by scraping it on a rough surface.

Grater A tool used to reduce hard foods to small pieces or long thin strips by passing the food over the sharp raised edges of various-sized holes or slits.

Gratin, Au (GRAW-ten, oh) A dish that is topped with cheese or bread crumbs and baked until browned; usually served in the baking dish.

Gratuity Money given voluntarily in return for or anticipation of service.

Gravlax (GRAHV-lahks) A Swedish dish of salmon cured in a sugar, salt and dill mixture, sliced thin and served on dark bread with a dill and mustard sauce. Gravy A sauce made from meat or poultry juices combined with a liquid and a thickening agent.

Gravy Boat An elongated, boat-shaped pitcher used to serve gravy; it usually sits on a plate, which is sometimes attached, and has a ladle; also known as a sauceboat.

Gravy Separator A clear plastic cup with a long spout set low in the cup; pan drippings are poured into the cup, the fat rises to the top, and the desirable underlying liquid can be poured off through the spout; generally available in 1.5 to 4 cup capacities.

Grease 1. To rub fat or a fat substitute on the surface of a cooking utensil or item of cookware.2. Rendered animal fat, such as bacon, beef or chicken fat.

Great Northern Bean A large, flat, kidney-shaped white bean; it has a delicate flavor and is generally available dried.

Green Chile Stew A Native American dish of lamb cooked with onions, tomatoes, garlic, roasted green chiles and pinto beans and flavored with oregano and cumin; generally served on fry bread and topped with chopped onions and grated cheese.

Green Meats Freshly slaughtered meats that have not had sufficient time to age and develop tenderness and flavor.

Greens 1. A general term for the green, leafy parts of various plants that are eaten raw or cooked.2. Members of the cabbage family, such as kale, spinach and chard, that have edible leaves.

Green Salad A salad consisting of a variety of salad greens often combined with garnishes such as croutons, cheese and bacon and dressed with a vinaigrette or mayonnaise-based dressing.

Green Tea One of the three principal types of tea; the leaves are steamed and dried but not fermented; the beverage is generally a greenish-yellow color with a slightly bitter flavor suggestive of the fresh leaf.

Gremolada (greh-moa-LAH-dah) An aromatic garnish of chopped parsley, garlic and lemon zest used for osso buco.

Grenadine (GREN-a-deen) A sweet, thick red syrup made from pomegranates; used in cocktails or consumed diluted with water.

Griddle 1. A cooking surface similar to a flat top but made of thinner metal; foods are usually cooked directly on its surface. 2. A pan, usually made of cast aluminum or cast iron and sometimes with a nonstick coating, used to fry foods and available with a long handle or two hand grips.

Grilling A dry-heat cooking method in which foods are cooked by heat radiating from a source located below the cooking surface; the heat can be generated by electricity or by burning gas, hardwood or hardwood charcoals.

Grill Pan A round or rectangular pan with a ridged bottom, usually made of cast iron or anodized aluminum, and used to grill meats on a stove top.

Grind 1. To reduce an object to small particles, usually by pounding, crushing or milling.2. The size, texture or other characteristic of a ground object.

Grinder Any of a variety of manual or electrical devices used to reduce food to small particles of varying degrees by the action of rotating blades; also known as a mill.

Grits Ground dried hominy; they have a bland flavor and a gritty texture; those tiny white granules are available in three grinds: fine, medium and coarse; also known as hominy grits.

Grosse Piece A centerpiece consisting of a large piece of the principal food offered; for example, a large wheel of cheese with slices of the cheese cascading around it.

Gruyere (groo-YAIR) 1. A Swiss cheese, now also produced in France, made from cow’s milk; it has a golden brown rind, a pale yellow interior, well-spaced very large holes, and a rich, sweet, nutty flavor. 2. A term used imprecisely, especially in France for almost any cooked, compressed cheese sold in large rounds, including Emmental, Beaufort and Comte.

Guacamole (gwah-kah-MOH-lee) A Mexican dip, sauce or side dish made from mashed avocado flavored with lemon or lime juice and chiles; sometimes chopped tomatoes, green onion and cilantro are added.

Guava A medium-sized tropical fruit; it has a spherical to plump pear shape, a smooth or rough greenish-white, yellow or red skin, a pale yellow to bright red flesh, small gritty seeds and an acidic, sweet flavor; eaten raw or used for preserves.

Guinea; Guinea Fowl One of the principal kinds of poultry recognized by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the domesticated descendant of a game bird; it has light and dark meat, very little fat, a tender texture and a strong flavor.

Guinea Squash Another name for eggplant.

Gumbo A Louisianan stewlike dish of meat, poultry and/or shellfish, okra, tomatoes and onions flavored with bay leaves, Worcestershire sauce and cayenne.

Gummy A tasting term for a food with a undesirable gooey, sticky or tough texture.

Gum Paste A smooth dough of sugar and gelatin that can be colored and used to make decorations, especially for pastries.

Gyro (JEER-oh) A Greek dish consisting of spiced minced lamb molded around a spit and roasted vertically; it is sliced, folded in a pita, and topped with grilled onions, sweet peppers, tomatoes and a cucumber-yogurt sauce; marinated chicken is sometimes used instead of lamb.

Habanero (ah-bah-NEH-roh) A squat cylindrical chile with a dark green to orange skin that becomes red when mature and an exceptionally hot flavor; also available dried.

Half-and-Half 1. A mixture of equal parts light cream and milk; it does not contain enough fat to whip into a foam.2. An English drink of equal parts stout and ale.

Ham Hock The lower portion of a hog’s hind leg, consisting of bone, flesh and connective tissue and usually available in 2- to 3- in. lengths, smoked, cured or fresh; used to flavor soups and cooked vegetables.

Hand Pies Small, hand-sized pies made with a biscuit or pie dough crust enclosing a filling of stewed dried fruit; they can be baked or fried; also known as fried pies.

Hard-ball Stage A test for the density of sugar syrup; the point at which a drop of boiling sugar forms a rigid ball when dropped in ice water; this is equivalent to 250-265 degrees F on a candy thermometer.

Hard-Boiled Egg An egg simmered in its shell until it reaches a hard consistency, usually 12-15 minutes.

Hard-Crack Stage A test for the density of sugar syrup: the point at which a drop of boiling sugar will separate into brittle threads when placed in ice water; equivalent to 300-310 degrees F on a candy thermometer.

Hash 1. To cut food into very small, irregularly shaped pieces.2. A dish of chopped meat, potatoes and sometimes green pepper, celery and onions; pan-fried and often served with a poached or fried egg on top.

Hash Browns Chopped or grated cooked potatoes fried in fat, traditionally bacon fat, pressed into a cake, and fried on the other side.

Hasty Pudding A dish of cornmeal mush made with water or milk and sweetened with honey, maple syrup or molasses; it is served hot with milk or cream as a breakfast dish or dessert; also known as Indian pudding.

Havarti (hah-VAHR-tee) A semisoft Danish cheese made from cow’s milk; it has a pale yellow interior with small irregular holes and a mild, tangy flavor that intensifies as it ages; also known as Danish Tilsit and Dofino.

Hazelnut The nut of the wild hazel tree found in the northern United States; shaped like a smooth brown marble, the nut has a rich, sweetish, distinctive flavor and is used in a variety of dishes, especially in baked goods and desserts containing chocolate or coffee flavors.

Hearts Of Palm The inner part of the stem of the tropical cabbage palm; it has an ivory color, many concentric layers, and a delicate flavor reminiscent of an artichoke; usually available canned and used in salads; also known as chou coco, chou glou glou, chou palmiste, palm hearts and swamp cabbage.

Heat Diffuser A metal grid, approximately 1 in. tall, placed on a stove top to raise a pot farther from the heat source to help maintain a very slow simmer.

Herbs Any of a large group of annual and perennial plants whose leaves, stems or flowers are used as a flavoring; usually available fresh and dried.

Hero 1. A large sandwich consisting of a small loaf of French or Italian bread filled with cold cuts and garnished with tomatoes, lettuce, pickles and peppers; also known as grinder, hoagie, po’boy, and submarine sandwich.2. Any large sadwich built on a small loaf of French or Italian bread and filled with hot or cold foods such as meatballs or tuna salad.

Heuvo (WEH-voh) Spanish for egg. Hickory Nut The nut of any of several trees of the genus Carya, including the pecan; the common hickory nut has a very hard shell and a rich, buttery flavor and can be used instead of the thinner-shelled pecan.

Hogs 1. The collective name for all domesticated swine, including pigs, sows and boars.2. Domesticated swine weighing more than 120 lb. and raised for their flesh.

Hoisin (HOY-sihn) A thick, reddish-brown, sweet-and-spicy sauce made from soybeans, garlic, chiles and various spices and used as a condiment and flavoring in Chinese cuisines; also known as Peking sauce, red vegetable sauce and ten-flavored sauce.

Hollandaise Sauce (ohl-lahn-dez) A French leading sauce made from an emulsification of butter, egg yolks and flavorings; also known as Dutch sauce.

Home Fries Slices of raw or boiled potatoes that are pan-fried, sometimes with onions and green peppers; also known as cottage fries.

Hominy Dried corn kernels from which the hull and germ have been removed by either mechanical methods or soaking the grains in hydrated lime or lye; the white or yellow kernels resemble popcorn and have a soft, chewy texture and a smoky-sour flavor.

Homogenization The process by which milk fat is prevented from separating out of milk products.

Honey A sweet, usually viscous, liquid made by bees from flower nectar and stored in the cells of the hive for food; generally contains 17-20% water and 76-80% sucrose; consumed fresh or after processing, it is usually used as a nutritive sweetener.

Honeybun A flat, spiral-shaped yeast breakfast roll glazed with honey.

Honeydew Melon A slightly ovoid, large muskmelon; it has a smooth, creamy-yellow rind with a pale green, juicy flesh and a sweet flavor.

Hopping John A dish from the American South consisting of black-eyed peas cooked with a ham hock and served over white rice.

Hors d’oeuvre (ohr durv) Americanized also hors d’ oeuvres. A very small portion of a hot or cold food served before a meal to stimulate the appetite or at a social gathering in lieu of a meal.

Horseradish A plant with a large, white root that has a sharp, biting, spicy flavor; the root is peeled and grated and used as a condiment.

Horseradish Sauce An English sauce made from horseradish, vinegar, sugar, dry mustard, cream, salt and pepper; usually served with roast beef or fish.

Hot Buttered Rum A cocktail made of hot rum, water, sugar, cloves, cinnamon and lemon peel; garnished with nutmeg and butter.

Hot Cross Buns Round, sweet yeast rolls containing candied fruit or raisins and marked on top with a cross of white confectioners’ sugar icing; traditionally served on Good Friday.

Hotel Pan A rectangular stainless steel pan with a lip; it is designed to rest in a steam table or rack and is used to cook, drain, ice, store or serve foods; a full-sized pan is 12 x 20 in. with pans one-half, one-third, and so on of this size available; depth is standardized at 2 in. intervals (a 2 in.-deep pan is known as a 200 pan); also known as a steam table pan.

Hot Fudge A thick, rich sauce made with chocolate, butter, sugar and cream; served warm as an ice cream or dessert topping.

Hot Pack A canning term used to describe food that is pre-cooked and packed into canning jars while still hot, sealed, and processed in a boiling water bath.

Hot Plate 1. An electrically heated lidded pan for cooking or warming food.2. A tabletop cooking device with one or two electric or gas burners.

Hot Sauce A seasoning sauce, usually commercially made, containing chile peppers, salt and vinegar.

Hot Smoker, Indoor A metal smoke box with a sliding cover; 15 x 11 x 3 in.; it sits on a single burner that heats a small amount of wood shavings in the bottom of the box whose fumes waft up and around a drip-pan insert with an inset rack holding the food.

Hot Toddy A cocktail made of sugar syrup, boiling water, cinnamon, cloves, lemon, nutmeg and whiskey, brandy, rum, gin or vodka.

Hot Water Dish An assemblage used to keep food warm at the table, either as a serving piece or as part of a place setting; consists of a covered plate set on a shallow bowl filled with hot water.

House Wine The wine served by a restaurant or bar when no particular wine is specified; often served by the glass, carafe or half carafe with no identifying characteristics given other than grape variety; it can also be specially blended, bottled and labeled for the establishment.

Huevos Rancheros (WEH-vohs rahn-CHER-ohs) A Mexican dish of fried eggs set on a tortilla and covered with a tomato and chile salsa.

Hull Also known as the husk, the outer covering of a fruit, seed or grain.

Hummus (HOOM-uhs) A Middle Eastern sauce made from mashed chickpeas seasoned with lemon juice, garlic and olive or sesame oil; usually served as a dip.

Hush Puppy A deep-fried cornmeal dumpling flavored with onions, traditionally served with fried fish, especially in the American South.

Husk The outermost protective covering found on most grains; usually a dry, thin, papery wrapper.

Hybrid The offspring of plants or animals of different breeds, varieties, species or genera.

Hydrogenation The process used to harden oils; hydrogen atoms are added to unsaturated fat molecules, making them partially or completely saturated and thus solid at room temperature.

Hydroponics The science of growing plants in a liquid nutrient solution rather than soil.

Hygroscopic Describes a food that readily absorbs moisture from the air.

Hyssop An herb with dark green leaves and deep blue or pink flowers; the leaves have a strong mint and licorice flavor and aroma and are used in salads and with fatty meats and fish.

Ice Bath A mixture of ice and water used to chill a food or beverage rapidly.

Iceberg Lettuce A variety of crisp head lettuce with a compact spherical head of pale green leaves that become whitish-yellow toward the center; developed in the United States at the end of the 19th century.

Ice Chipper A metal ice-carving tool resembling a small rake; it has a 2-in. wide band with six 1-in. long spikes.

Ice Cream A rich, frozen dessert made with dairy products, sugar, eggs and various flavorings; the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) requires products labeled ice cream to contain at least 10% milkfat and 20% milk solids.

Iced Coffee A beverage of coffee, a sweetener and milk or cream; served chilled with ice in a glass.

Ice Milk a frozen dessert made with dairy products, sugar, eggs and flavoring; similar to ice cream but made with less milkfat, sugar and milk solids. Icing A sweet covering or filling such as buttercream or ganache; used for cakes and pastries; also known as frosting.

Icing Stencil A flat plastic disk with words and/or designs cut out of it; it is pressed onto the cake top, leaving an indention that provides a pattern to be followed when squeezing icing from a pastry bag.

Imitation Cheese A dense, rubbery, cheeselike food product made from dairy by-products and soy products mixed with emulsifiers, flavoring agents and enzymes; it tends to have little flavor other than salty.

Immersion Blender A small, narrow, handheld blender with a rotary blade at one end; portable, it has variable speeds and can be immersed directly into a pot; whisk attachments are available.

Individually Quick Frozen (IQF) A preservation method in which each individual item of food (e.g., a slice of fruit, berry or fish) is rapidly frozen before packaging; IQF foods are not packaged with syrup or sauce.

Induction Cooking A cooking method that uses a special coil placed below the stove top’s surface in combination with specially designed cookware to generate heat rapidly with an alternating magnetic field.

Infrared Cooking A heating method that uses an electric or ceramic element heated to such a high temperature that it gives off waves of radiant heat that cook the food.

Infuse To steep a seasoning or food in a hot liquid until the liquid absorbs the item’s flavor.

Injected Meat A cut of meat that has had a curing solution introduced throughout it by injection or pumping; also known as pumped meat.

In Season A menu term indicating that the product is readily available in its fresh state.

Instant A processed food or a food from which water has been removed; it is ready to use or consume once rehydrated with the appropriate amount of hot or cold water or other liquid.

Instant Coffee 1. A powdered soluble extract made by heat-drying freshly brewed coffee.2. The reconstituted beverage, usually hot, made from the extract.

Instant Read Thermometer A thermometer used to measure the internal temperature of foods; the stem is inserted in the food, producing an instant temperature readout.

In The Rough A lobster cooked whole and served in the shell, usually outdoors.

Iodine 1. A trace mineral principally used as a component of the thyroid hormone thyroxine that helps regulate growth, development and metabolic rate; significant sources include iodized salt, fish, shellfish and many plant foods. 2. A food additive used as a nutrient supplement, principally in table salt.

Iodized Salt Table salt (sodium chloride) containing potassium iodide, a source of the essential nutrient iodine.

Iron A trace mineral principally used for forming hemoglobin and myoglobin and to assist energy utilization; significant sources include red meat, fish, shellfish, eggs, legumes and dried fruits as well as foods to which iron has been added as a nutrient supplement.

Italian Bread An American term for a variety of chewy, hard-crusted yeast breads made with flour, water, yeast and salt.

Italian Buttercream A creamy frosting made by beating softened butter into cooled

Italian meringue; also known as meringue buttercream.

Italian Dressing A salad dressing consisting of olive oil and wine vinegar or lemon juice and seasoned with oregano, basil, dill, garlic and fennel.

Italian Menu terms:
Acciughe: anchovies Aceto: vinegar Aglio: garlic Agnello: lamb Agnolotti: crescent-shaped, meat-filled pasta Agrodolce: sweet-and-sour Amaretti: crunchy almond macaroons Anatra: duck Anguilla: eel Aragosta: spiny lobster Arrosto: roasted meat Baccalá: dried salt cod Bagna cauda: hot, savory dip for raw vegetablesBierra: beer Biscotti: cookies Bistecca (alla fiorentina): charcoal-grilled T-bone steak (seasoned with pepper and olive oil) Bolognese: pasta sauce with tomatoes and meat Bresaola: air-dried spiced beef; usually thinly sliced, served with olive oil and lemon juice Bruschetta: toasted garlic bread topped with tomatoes Bucatini: hollow spaghetti Calamari (calamaretti): (baby) squid Calzone: stuffed pizza-dough turnover Cannellini: white beans Cappelletti: meat- or cheese-stuffed pasta (‘little hats’) Carbonara: pasta sauce with ham, eggs, cream and grated cheese Carciofi (alla giudia): (flattened and deep-fried baby) artichokes Carpaccio: paper thin, raw beef (or other meats) Cassata: ice cream bombe Cavolfiore: cauliflower Ceci: chickpeas Cipolla: onion Conchiglie: shell-shaped pasta Coniglio: rabbit Coppa: cured pork fillet encased in sausage skin Costata: rib steak Costoletta (alla milanese): (breaded) veal chop Cozze: mussels Crespelle: crêpes Crostata: tartFagioli: beans Fagiolini: string beans Farfalle: bow-tie pasta Fegato: liver Fegato alla veneziana: calf’s liver sautéed with onions Fichi: figs Finocchio: fennel Focaccia: crusty flat bread Formaggio: cheese Frittata: Italian omelet Fritto misto: mixed fry of meats or fish Frutti di mare: seafood (especially shellfish) Funghi (trifolati): mushrooms (sautéed with garlic and parsley) Fusilli: spiral-shaped pasta Gamberi: shrimp Gamberoni: prawns Gelato: ice cream Gnocchi: dumplings made of cheese (di ricotta), potatoes (di patate), cheese and spinach (verdi), or semolina (alla romana) Grana: hard grating cheese Granita: sweetened, flavored grated ice Griglia: grilledInsalata: saladInvoltini: stuffed meat or fish rolls Lenticchie: lentils Maccheroni: macaroni pasta Manzo: beef Mela: apple Melanzana: eggplant Minestra: soup; pasta course Minestrone: vegetable soup Mortadella: large, mild  Bolognese pork sausage Mozzarella di bufala: fresh cheese made from water-buffalo milk Noce: walnut Orecchiette: ear-shaped pasta Osso buco: braised veal shanks Ostriche: oysters Pane: breadP anettone: briochelike sweet bread Panna: heavy cream Pancetta: Italian bacon Pappardelle: wide, flat pasta noodles Pasta asciutta: pasta served plain or with sauce Pasticceria: pastry; pastry shop Pasticcio: pie or mold of pasta, sauce and meat or fish Patate: potatoes Pecorino: hard sheep’s-milk cheese Penne: hollow, ribbed pasta Peperoncini: tiny, hot peppers Pepperoni: green, red or yellow sweet peppers Pesca: peach Pesce: fishP esce spada: swordfish Pesto: cold pasta sauce of crushed basil, garlic, pine nuts, parmesan cheeseand olive oil Piccata: thinly sliced meat with a lemon or Marsala sauce Pignoli: pine nuts Polenta: cornmeal porridge Pollo: chicken Polipo: octopus Pomodoro: tomato Porcini: prized wild mushrooms, known also as boletus Prosciutto: air-dried ham Ragú: meat sauce Ricotta: fresh sheep’s-milk cheese Rigatoni: large, hollow ribbed pastaRiso: riceRisotto: braised rice with various savory items Rucola: arugula Salsa (verde): sauce (of parsley, capers, anchovies and lemon juice or vinegar) Salsicce: fresh sausage Saltimbocca: veal scallop with prosciutto and sage Sarde: sardines Semifreddo: frozen dessert, usually ice cream, with or without cake Sgombro: mackerel Sogliola: sole Spiedino: brochette; grilled on a skewer Spumone: light, foamy ice cream Tartufi: truffles Tiramisú: creamy dessert of rum-spiked cake and triple-crème Mascarpone cheese Tonno: tuna Torta: cake Tortelli: pasta dumplings stuffed with greens and ricotta Tortellini: ring-shaped dumplings stuffed with meat or cheese and served in broth or in a cream sauce Trenette: thin noodles served with potatoes and pesto sauce Trota: trout Uovo (sodo): egg (hard-boiled) Uva: grapes Uva passa: raisins Verdura: greens, vegetables Vitello: (Tonatto): veal (in a tuna and anchovy sauce) Vongole: clams

Cooking Term
al forno – baked (you’ll often see lasagne al forno, which just means it has been baked in the oven)  arrosto/a – roasted bollito/a – boiled stufato/a – braised (usually a stew) fritto/a – fried (fritto misto appears on many Italian menus. It’s basically a mixed fry – with all sorts of mixed fish and shellfish) alla griglia (or sometimes ‘ai ferri’) – grilled saltata/o – sauteed piccante – spicy (used to describe a spicy sauce, for instance) ripiena/o – stuffed impanata/o – in breadcrumbs cruda/o – raw al sangue – rare (basically ‘bloody’) ben cotta/o – well done

Italian Meringue A fluffy, shiny meringue made by slowly beating hot sugar syrup into whipped egg whites; when used as a cake frosting, known as boiled icing.

Italian Parsley A variety of parsley with flat, darker green leaves and a stronger, coarser flavor than curly parsley; generally used fresh as a flavoring; also known as flat-leaf parsley.

Italian Sausage A style of pork sausages seasoned with garlic and fennel seeds; available in medium-sized links, there are two principal types: hot (flavored with red chiles) and sweet (without the chiles).

Jalapeno (hah-lah-PEH-nyoh) A short, tapering chile with a thick flesh, a moderately hot, green vegetal flavor and a dark green color (a red version is also available; it is a green chile that has been allowed to ripen); available fresh or canned and named for the Mexican city of

Jalapa. Jam A fruit gel made from fruit pulp and sugar.

Jambalaya (juhn-buh-LI-yah) A Creole dish of ham, shrimp, crayfish and/or sausage cooked with rice, tomatoes, green peppers, onions and seasonings.

Jarlsberg (YAHRLZ-behrg) A Norwegian Emmental-style cheese made from cow’s milk; it has a pale yellow interior with large holes and a delicate, sweet, nutty flavor.

Jars, Mason Glass containers with threaded necks made especially for home canning, pickling and preserving; they range in size from 4 oz. to 1/2 gallon; most brands use two-part self-sealing lids; tapered Mason jars, larger at the mouth than at the base, can be used for freezing and canning.

Jasmine Flowers The aromatic white to pale yellow flowers of several jasmine shrubs or vines that can be used in fruit salads or as flavoring for ice creams, sorbets and tisanes.

Jasmine Rice A young, tender rice with a strong flowerlike aroma and a delicate flavor; used in Thai and Vietnamese cuisines.

Jasmine Tea A blend of Chinese black and green teas scented with jasmine petals; the beverage is light and fragrant and best served without milk or lemon.

Jelly 1. A clear, shiny mixture of cooked fruit juice and sugar thickened with pectin; its texture is soft but firm enough to hold its shape when unmolded; used as a spread for bread or a glaze on pastries.2. British for any gelatin dessert.

Jelly Roll Cake A thin sheet of sponge cake spread with jam, jelly or other fillings, then rolled up; the cake is cut crosswise into pinwheel slices.

Jelly Roll Pan A rectangular baking sheet with 1-in. deep sides; used for baking a thin cake.

Jerky Thin strips of meat, usually beef or turkey, dried in the sun or an oven; they typically have a salty flavor and a tough, chewy texture.

Jerusalem Artichoke Not related to the artichoke, this member of the sunflower family has a lumpy, multipronged, brown-skinned tuber that has a crunchy texture and a nutty, sweet flavor; it can be eaten raw, cooked or pickled; also known as a girasol and sunchoke.

Jicama (HEE-kah-mah) A legume that grows underground as a tuber; this large, bulbous root vegetable has a brown skin, a white flesh, a crisp, crunchy texture, and a sweet, nutty flavor; peeled, it is eaten raw or cooked; also known as ahipa, Mexican potato and yam bean.

Jigger 1. A standard 1.5-fl. oz. measure used for mixed drink recipes, usually for the amount of liquor; also known as a shot.2. The glass, metal, plastic or ceramic vessel used to measure this amount.3. A whiskey glass of this size.

Johannisberg Riesling (yoh-HAHN-ihss-berk) 1. The true Riesling wine grape grown in Germany; the name is used in California to distinguish this grape from other varieties that are not true Rieslings; also known as White Riesling (especially in Oregon and other states).2. A white wine made from this grape; generally fruity, it can range from light and crisp to full bodied and rich.

Johnnycake 1. A griddle cake made of cornmeal, salt and boiling water or cold milk; also known as a hoecake. 2. A Caribbean breakfast food made from flour, water, salt and baking powder, shaped into balls and fried.

Jonathan Apple An all-purpose apple native to North America with a bright red skin, a tender flesh and a sweet-tart flavor.

Jug Wine A wine, usually an inexpensive table wine of no particular character, sold in a large bottle such as a magnum or Jeroboam.

Juice 1. To extract the juice of a fruit or vegetable.2. The liquid released or squeezed from any raw food, whether animal or vegetable, but particularly fruit.3. The blood and other liquids that run from meat or poultry during cooking.4. The liquid surrounding the flesh of certain shellfish, such as an oyster, when first opened; also known as liquor.

Julep 1. A cocktail made from gin, rum or a distilled spirit and sometimes flavored with citrus juice.2. A cocktail made from bourbon, sugar and mint served with finely crushed ice; also known as a Mint Julep.

Julienne (ju-lee-en) 1. To cut a food into a julienne shape.2. Foods cut into a matchstick shape of approximately 1/8 X 1/8 X 1/2 in. 3. A garnish of foods cut in such a shape.

Juniper Berry The dried, aromatic, blue-black berry of an evergreen bush; used to flavor gin and savory dishes; also known as a box huckleberry.

Jun Jing (june geeng) Chinese for dragon well and used to describe a very fine green tea from Chinkiang province; the beverage is lightly colored and freshly flavored.

Jus (zhoo) French for juice. Jus Lie (zhoo lee-ay) A sauce made by thickening brown stock with cornstarch or similar starch and often used like a demi-glaze, especially to produce small sauces; also known as fond lie.

Kaffir Lime A citrus fruit; the medium-sized fruit has a knobby dark green skin; the leaves look like a figure eight, with two leaves joined together base to tip; the sharply aromatic, citrus-flavored leaves and the fruit’s rind are used as flavorings in Thai cuisine, and the leaves are used in Indonesian cuisine.

Kahlua (kah-LOO-ah) A dark brown, coffee-flavored Mexican liqueur.

Kaiser Roll A large, round yeast roll with a crisp crust, used for making sandwiches or served as a breakfast roll; also known as a hard roll or Vienna roll.

Kalamata (kahl-uh-MAH-tuh) A large blue-black olive native to Greece; usually packed in olive oil or vinegar and slit to better absorb the marinade.

Kale A member of the cabbage family with curly leaves arranged in a loose bunch; the leaf colors, which depend on the variety, range from pale to deep green tinged with lavender, blue or purple to white shaded with pink, purple or green; although all are edible, the green varieties are better for cooking, and the more colorful varieties are better used for garnish.

Kebab (kah-BEHB) Minced meat or cubes of meat on a skewer, usually marinated before cooking and typically grilled.

Ketchup A spicy sauce or condiment; it is usually made with the juice of cooked fruits or vegetables such as tomatoes, walnuts and mangos as well as vinegar, sugar and spices; the name may be derived from the Chinese ke-tsiap, which means brine of pickled fish.

Kettle 1. A large metal pot with a lid and a wire loop handle, usually made of iron.2. An imprecisely used term for a teakettle.

Key Lime A small lime with a greenish-yellow skin and a very tart flavor; also known as the Mexican lime, West Indies lime and true lime.

Key Lime Pie A cream pie made with tart Key limes, usually in a graham cracker- or cookie-crumb crust and topped with whipped cream.

Kid A goat slaughtered when approximately 6 months old; the lean flesh has a tender texture and delicate flavor similar to that of lamb.

Kidney Bean A medium-sized, kidney-shaped bean with a dark red skin, cream-colored firm flesh, and bland flavor; available fresh, dried and canned; also known as red kidney bean.

Kielbasa (kihl-BAH-sah) 1. A general term used for most Polish sausages.2. A Polish sausage made from pork flavored with garlic; smoked, usually precooked, and sold in medium to large links; also known as Polish sausage.

King Crab A variety of very large crab found off Alaska that can grow to 10 lb.; it has an average market weight of 7 lb., a flesh that is white with red edges, and a sweet flavor and coarse texture; also known as Alaskan king crab.

Kirsch (kersch) A clear cherry brandy; double distilled from small semisweet cherries gathered in Germany’s Black Forest, France’s Vosges region and areas of Switzerland; it has a characteristic bitter almond flavor that comes from the oils derived from the cherries’ crushed stones; also known as Kirschwasser in Germany.

Kitchen Shears A pair of strong scissors used to cut fish, poultry, meat and produce, crack nuts and remove packaging materials such as bottle caps; sometimes it has tabs to be used as a screwdriver or lever.

Kiwi (KEE-wee) A small, barrel-shaped fruit native to New Zealand; it has a greenish-brown skin covered with fuzz, a brilliant green flesh that becomes yellower toward the center, many small, edible black seeds, and a sweet-tart flavor; named for the flightless bird of New Zealand; also known as the Chinese gooseberry.

Knackwurst (KNAAK-voost) A plump German sausage made from beef and pork and seasoned with garlic; the casing makes a cracking sound at first bite; also known as Knockwurst.

Knead 1. To work a dough by hand or in a mixer to distribute ingredients and develop gluten.2. To press, rub or squeeze with the hands.

Knife A sharp-edged instrument used to cut or spread food; it generally consists of a blade and handle.

Kobe Beef (KOH-bay) Beef from cattle raised in Kobe, Japan; the cattle, massaged with sake and fed a diet that includes large amounts of beer, produce meat that is tender and full flavored.

Kolacky; Kolachke (koh-LAH-chee) A small, sweet, flaky Polish pastry made with either a yeast dough or cream cheese dough, filled with poppy seeds, jam, nuts or crushed fruit.

Kombu; Konbu (KOME-boo) Dark brown to grayish-black kelp that is sun-dried and folded into sheets; it is used in Japanese cuisine as a flavoring, stock base and for sushi.

Kosher 1. The Jewish dietary laws, as found in the Torah (the first five books of the Old Testament) and subsequent interpretations; these laws (1) identify kosher foods and ingredients and (2) define basic dietary principles; also known as kashrus.2. A menu or labeling term indicating that the product has been prepared or processed in accordance with Jewish dietary laws.3. A food prepared in accordance with Jewish dietary laws.

Kosher Foods Those who keep kosher can only eat (1) meat from animals with split hooves and that chew their cud (cattle, goats and some game; no hogs); (2) poultry that is not a bird of prey; (3) fish with gills and scales (no shellfish); (4) dairy products, provided the animal from which the milk comes is kosher; and (5) all fruits, vegetables and grains, provided animal fat is not used in processing.

Kosher Salt Purified coarse rock salt; approved for use on kosher meats.

Kringle 1. A multilayered Christmas pastry filled with fruit or nuts; it is flat, wide and very flaky.2. A buttery, lemon-flavored Christmas cookie.

K’sra (k’shrah) A Moroccan round loaf bread made with a sourdough-type starter and a mix of whole wheat, barley and unbleached flours and garnished with caraway seeds.

Kuchen (koo-chen) Yiddish for something baked and used to describe a yeast dough pastry studded with nuts and raisins and topped with streusel.

Kumquat A small ovoid to spherical citrus fruit with a soft, thin, golden orange rind, and orange flesh with small seeds, and a tart flavor; the entire fruit is eaten fresh or used for preserves and pickles.

Lactose 1. A disaccharide occurring naturally in mammalian milk; it is the least sweet of the natural sugars, and many people cannot tolerate it in varying quantities; during digestion it is hydrolyzed into its component single sugars; glucose and galactose; also known as milk sugar.2. A food additive used as a surface-finishing agent in processed foods such as baked goods.3. Subject to FDA regulations, a filler in pharmaceutical products.

La Cuite (lah kweet) A thick, dark sugar syrup cooked until just before it burns and turns bitter; it is used in the American South as a candy, a topping for bread or in baked goods.

Ladle 1. To move portions of a food using a ladle. 2. A utensil with a cuplike bowl and a long hooked or pierced handle and available in various sizes (the capacity is often stamped on the handle); used to pour sauces and liquids and to push sauces and other foods through a sieve.

Ladyfinger A flat, finger-shaped cookie made from a light, sponge cake batter; used as a petit four or to line a pan or mold for desserts.

Lamb The meat of a sheep slaughtered when less than 1 year old; it is generally tender and has a mild flavor; also known as a yearling.

Lamb Chop A fabricated cut of the lamb primal rack; it usually contains one rib (called a single chop) or two ribs (a double chop) and the flavorful, tender rib eye muscle.

Lambrusco (lam-BROOS-co) 1. A red wine grape grown in Italy.2. A lightly sparkling and somewhat sweet red wine made from this grape through the Charmat process; a dry version is also available.

Lamination The technique of layering fat and dough through a process of rolling and folding; this procedure is used to make puff pastry, croissant dough and Danish pastry dough.

Langoustine (lahn-goo-STEEN) 1. A variety of small lobster found in the North Atlantic; it has a yellowish-pink shell, no claws, and a lean white flesh with a sweet flavor.2. French for prawn.

Lard 1. To insert long, thin strips of fat into a dry cut of meat to increase its moistness and tenderness after cooking; also known as interlard.2. Rendered, clarified and purified pork fat; used as an ingredient and cooking medium; it is very rich.

Lardon Diced, blanched, fried bacon.

Lasagna (luh-ZAHN-yuh) 1. Wide, flat Italian pasta sheets with ruffled or smooth edges.2. An Italian dish made with boiled lasagna layered with cheese (usually ricotta and mozzarella) and meats and/or vegetables and topped with a tomato, meat and/or bechamel and baked.

Late Harvest 1. A wine (usually from California) made from very ripe grapes or ones affected by the noble rot; generally a sweet white wine made from Johannisberg Riesling, Gewurztraminer, Semillon, Sauvignon Blanc or Chenin Blanc grapes.2. The benchmark of a labeling system for such wines based on the grape sugar content:Late Harvest, Select Late Harvest and Special Select Late Harvest.

Lattice Strips of pastry dough arranged in a crisscross pattern, usually laid on top of a pie or tart.

Lattice Cutter 1. A plastic or metal stencil used to cut a diamond-shaped lattice pattern into rolled-out dough.2. A rolling cutter with a 6-in. wide axle holding several notched cutting wheels; used to cut a uniform lattice pattern in rolled-out dough; also known as lattice dough roller.

Lavender An herb with spikes of aromatic purple flowers and gray-green leaves, principally used for the strong fragrance of its essential oils; the flowers have a sweet, lemony flavor and are also used fresh in Middle Eastern and French cuisines or crystallized and used as a garnish, especially for baked goods.

Lavender Honey A thick, deep golden-colored honey with a strong, perfumed flavor; principally made from lavender blossoms in France’s Provence region.

Layer Cake Any cake with two or more layers of cake product joined with an icing or filling; the layers may be baked separately or as one large layer that is sliced horizontally into thinner layers after baking.

Leading Sauces Also known as mother sauces, the foundation for the entire classic repertoire of hot sauces; the five leading sauces (bechamel, veloute, espagnole (also known as brown), tomato and hollandaise) are distinguished by the liquids and thickeners used to make them; they can be seasoned and garnished to create a wide variety of small or compound sauces.

Lean A food-labeling term approved by the FDA to describe meat, poultry, game, fish or shellfish that contains less than 10 g. of fat, less than 4 g. of saturated fat and less than 95 mg. of cholesterol per serving or per 100 g.

Leaven 1. To increase the volume of a dough or batter by adding air or other gas.2. A leavening agent.

Leavening Agent 1. A substance used to leaven a dough or batter; it may be natural (air or steam) , chemical (baking powder or baking soda) or biological (yeast).2. A type of food additive used to produce or stimulate production of carbon dioxide in baked goods to impart a light texture.

Lecithin A natural emulsifier found in egg yolks.

Leek A member of the lily family; it has a thick, cylindrical, white stalk with a slightly bulbous root end and many flat, dull dark green leaves; the tender white stalk has a flavor that is sweeter and stronger than that of a scallion but milder than that of an onion and is used in salads and as a flavoring.

Legumes A large group of plants that have double-seamed pods containing a single row of seeds; depending on the variety, the seeds, the pod and seeds together or the dried seeds are eaten.

Lemon A citrus fruit with a bright yellow skin, an ovoid shape with a bulge at the blossom end, a juicy yellow flesh and a very tart, distinctive flavor.

Lemon Curd A soft, thick custard made from lemon juice, sugar, eggs and butter; used to fill tarts and cakes and as a spread for sweet breads and scones.

Lemongrass A tropical grass with long, greenish stalks and serrated leaves; the white to pale green inner stalks have a strong lemonlike flavor and aroma and are used fresh in Southeast Asian cuisines; also known as citronella grass.

Lemon Grater A grater with a flat or slightly convex grating surface with fine teeth; used to remove the zest from citrus fruit.

Lemon Oil The oil obtained from the lemon; it is used as a flavoring agent, especially in reconstituted lemon juice.

Lemon Verbena An herb with light green pointed leaves and white or lilac blossoms; it has a strong lemonlike flavor and aroma and is used in tisanes and desserts; also known as verbana.

Lentils The small flat seeds of a variety of legumes; sold shelled, dried or cooked.

Lettuce, Head A general name for any lettuce with leaves that grow in a moderately loose to dense rosette; the two principal categories of head lettuce are butterhead and crisp head.

Lettuce, Leaf Any variety of lettuce whose ruffle-edged leaves are loose rather than bunched in a head and have a mild flavor; also known as looseleaf lettuce.

Liaison (lee-yeh-zon) A mixture of egg yolks and heavy cream used to thicken and enrich sauces.

Licorice 1. A feathery-leafed plant grown in Europe and Asia; its dried root and an extract taken from the root have a distinctive, sweet flavor similar to that of anise or fennel; used as a flavoring in candies, confections, baked goods and beverages.2. A candy flavored with licorice extract, usually colored red or black.

Light 1. A food-labeling term approved by the FDA to describe a nutritionally altered food with at least 33% fewer calories, 50% less fat or 50% less sodium than the regular or reference food. 2. A wine-tasting term for a wine that is neither full bodied nor heavy.

Lima Bean (LY-muh) A flat, kidney-shaped bean native to Peru; it has a pale green color that becomes creamy yellow as it matures and a waxy texture; available fresh, dried, canned or frozen; the mature bean is also known as the butter bean and calico bean.

Lime An ovoid citrus fruit with a thin, green skin; smaller than a lemon, it has a juicy, pale green pulp and a very tart flavor.

Limequat A hybrid of the lime and kumquat; a small citrus fruit with a pale yellow-green rind, a yellowish flesh and a sharp, fragrant flavor, the entire fruit is eaten or used in preserves.

Limon (lee-MON) A citrus fruit native to Mexico and the American Southwest; similar to a lemon, it is traditionally served with tequila drinks.

Linguine (lihn-GWEE-nee) Italian for small tongue and used to describe long, narrow, slightly flattened strands of pasta.

Liqueur (lih-kuer) A strong sweet drink made from a distilled spirit base sweetened, flavored and sometimes colored with fruits and aromatics; it generally has a high alcohol content, is viscous and sticky and is sometimes aged; often consumed after a meal or used as an ingredient in a cocktail; also known as a cordial.

Liquidize To reduce a food to a liquid in a blender or food processor.

Liquid Smoke A basting or flavoring ingredient with an artificial smoky flavor and aroma.

Liquor 1. A potable liquid containing ethyl alcohol; generally used to refer only to distilled spirits. 2. In brewing beer, the liquid at any stage of the process.3. The liquid or juice found in oysters.

Liter The measure for volume in the metric system; 11 equals 1000 cubic centimeters of water at 20 degrees C or 33.8 U.S. fl. oz. at 68 degrees F.

Littleneck Clam An Atlantic hard-shell clam that is under 2 in. across the shell; the shells are tannish-gray and the chewy meat has a mild flavor; often served on the half shell.

Liverwurst (LIHV-uhr-wurst) Any of several varieties of seasoned sausages made from pork meat and pork liver; the texture can be semifirm to soft; available smoked or cooked in links, loaves and slices.

Loaf 1. A shaped mass of bread baked in one piece. 2. A shaped, usually rounded or oblong, mass of food, cooked or otherwise prepared in one piece. 3. A mass of otherwise shapeless or loosely shaped food cooked in a loaf pan.

Lobster Any of several varieties of crustaceans found in saltwater areas worldwide; generally, they have a jointed body and limbs encased in a reddish-brown to blue-black shell, a large tail, large front claws, and a firm white flesh with a rich, sweet flavor; significant varieties include the Maine lobster, Norway lobster and spiny lobster.

Lobster Thermidor (THUHR-mih-dohr) A dish of lobster meat bound with a bechamel flavored with white wine, shallots, tarragon and mustard and returned to the shells; it is sprinkled with Parmesan and broiled or covered with a Mornay sauce and glazed under the broiler.

London Broil A fabricated cut of the beef primal flank; it is a flank steak that is lean and somewhat tough; sometimes lean slabs of meat from the beef round and chuck primals are imprecisely called London broil.

Longhorn A Cheddar-style cheese made in Wisconsin; it has an orange color and a mild flavor; available in rectangles, cylinders and half-moons.

Lozenges Diamond-shaped pieces, usually of firm vegetables.

Macadamia (mak-uh-DAY-mee-uh) The nut of an Australian evergreen tree; shaped like a small marble, the nut has a very rich, buttery, slightly sweet flavor and a high fat content; because of the extremely hard shell, it is usually available shelled and raw or roasted; also known as Queensland nut.

Macaroni 1. Dried pasta made from a dough of wheat flour and water.2. In the United States, short, elbow-shaped tubes of pasta.

Macaroon 1. A chewy cookie made with sugar, egg whites and almond paste or ground alomonds; a variation is made with coconut.2. A French confection made from two small almond or meringue cookies sandwiched together with jam or chocolate.

Mace The lacy, reddish-orange outer covering of the nutmeg seed; it is used ground as a spice; it has a flavor and an aroma simialr to those of nutmeg but is milder and more refined.

Macerate (MAS-uh-rayt) To soak foods in a liquid, usually alcoholic, to soften them.

Madeira (muh-DEH-rah) A Portuguese fortified white wine similar to a sherry made from Malmsey, Boal, Sercial or Verdelho grapes; produced through the solera system and matured in an estufa, the wine is baked in its cask, imparting a caramelized flavor.

Madeleine (mad-ah-lynn) A French sponge cake baked in a small, shell-shaped mold and eaten as a cookie, especially with tea or coffee.

Maine Lobster A variety of lobster found off New England; it has a brown to blue-black shell, large claws, and a firm white flesh with an exceptionally rich, sweet flavor.

Maltaise, Sauce (mahl-TEEZ) A French compound sauce made from a hollandaise blended with Maltese orange juice and grated Maltese orange rind; used with vegetables, especially asparagus and green beans.

Mancha (mahn-t’shah) The highest grade of Spanish saffron.

Manchego (mahn-CHAY-goh) A firm Spanish cheese made from ewe’s milk; it has a golden color and a full, mellow flavor; two versions are generally available: Manchego Curado, which is aged for 3-4 months, and the longer-aged Manchego Viejo.

Mandarin (MAN-duh-rihn) 1. Any of several varieties of a small citrus fruit native to China, including the mandarin, dancy, tangerine, clementine and satsuma. 2. A citrus fruit; it generally has a somewhat flattened spherical shape, a loose yellow to reddish-orange rind, and orange flesh and a sweet flavor that is less acidic than that of an orange.

Mandoline (MAHN-duh-lihn) A manually operated slicer with adjustable blades; it has a narrow, rectangular body holding a blade and pressed against the blade to obtain uniform slices, matchstick shapes or waffle cuts.

Mango A medium- to large-sized tropical fruit native to India; it has a spherical to ovoid shape with a slight ridge on one side and a point at one end; the skin can be yellow or orange with a red blush, greenish-yellow, or golden yellow; the flesh, which is golden orange, encases a large, flat seed and has a sweet, resinous flavor.

Manicotti (man-uh-KOT-tee) Italian for muffs and used to describe long, wide pasta tubes; they are usually boiled, stuffed with a meat or cheese mixture, covered with a sauce and baked

Maple Syrup A reddish-brown, viscous liquid with a sweet distinctive flavor, it is made by reducing the sap of the North American maple tree.

Maraschino Cherry (mar-uh-SHEE-noh) 1. A cherry marinated in Maraschino liqueur and used for garnishing cocktails, desserts and baked goods. 2. A pitted cherry macerated in a flavored sugar syrup and dyed red or green; it is used for the same purposes as a maraschino cherry marinated in Maraschino liqueur.

Marble Cake A moist, buttery cake made by swirling vanilla and chocolate batters together to create a marblelike pattern.

Marble Slab A large, smooth piece of marble used for rolling out doughs and working with chocolate and sugar; it is useful because marble stays cool and does not absorb moisture.

Marbling The whitish streaks of inter- and intramuscular fat found in muscles; it adds to the meat’s flavor and tenderness and is a principal factor in determining its quality grade.

Margarine A butter substitute made from animal or vegetable fats or a combination of such fats mixed with flavorings, colorings, emulsifiers, preservatives and vitamins and firmed through hydrogenation; like butter, it is approximately 80% fat and 16% water; also known as oleo.

Margarita A cocktail made of tequila, lime juice and an orange-flavored liqueur; traditionally served in a glass that has had its rim dipped in lime juice and then coated with salt.

Marinade A seasoned liquid, usually containing an acid, herbs and/or spices, in which raw foods (typically meat, poultry, fish, shellfish or vegetables) are soaked or coated to absorb flavors and become tender before cooking or serving.

Marinara (mah-ree-NAIR-uh) An Italian pasta sauce made from tomatoes, garlic, onions and oregano.

Marjoram (MAHR-juhr-uhm) An herb and member of the mint family native to the Mediterranean region; it has short, oval, pale green leaves, a sweet flavor reminiscent of thyme and oregano and a strong aroma; also known as sweet marjoram and knotted marjoram.

Marlborough Pie An applesauce custard pie flavored with nutmeg and sherry.

Marmalade (MAHR-mah-laid) A citrus jelly that also contains unpeeled slices of citrus fruit.

Marrying 1. The process or concept of combining (serving or cooking) foods with complementary or contrasting flavors, aromas, textures, shapes and/or colors to achieve a more balanced or interesting flavor, dish or presentation. 2. The process or concept of combining (serving) foods with a specific wine to achieve a complementary or contrasting flavor combination. 3. The process or concept of mixing together different grape varieties in a must to obtain a better balance of body, aroma, acidity and flavor in the resulting wine.4. The practice of combining opened containers of the same foods or beverages into one container.

Marsala (mar-SAH-lah) An Italian fortified white wine made from Catarratto, Grillo and Inzolia grapes; it has an amber to brown color and is available in three styles: fine (the sweetest), mosto cotto (with a caramelized flavor) and superiore (the driest, aged for at least 2 years in casks).

Marshmallow 1. A perennial herb with a yellow, branched root, a leafy stem with toothed leaves and white or pinkish flowers; the leaves and flowers are used for medicinal, ornamental and culinary purposes; the root has a slightly sweet flavor and is cooked like a root vegetable; the mucilage from the roots was used to make the spongy sweets known as marshmallows.2. A light, spongy confection made with egg whites, corn syrup and gum arabic or gelatin and formed into a small pillow-shaped candy.

Marzipan (MAHR-zih-pan) A sweet, pliable paste made of ground almonds, sugar and egg whites; often colored and shaped into three-dimensional decorations or used as a candy filling or cake coating.

Masa (MAH-sah) 1. Spanish for dough.2. A Mexican dough made of dried corn kernels that have been soaked and cooked in lime water.

Masa Harina (MAH-sah ah-REE-nah) 1. Spanish for dough flour. 2. Flour made by grinding dried masa dough; used in Mexican and U.S. cuisines for breads, tortillas, tamales and other foods.

Masala (ma-SAH-la) Hindi for spice, spices, spice blend and blend of seasonings.

Mascarpone (mas-cahr-POHN-ay) A soft, double or triple cream cheese made in Switzerland and Italy’s Lombardy and Tuscany regions from cow’s milk; it has an ivory color and a sweet, slightly acidic flavor and is often blended with either sweet or savory flavorings.

Mason Jar A glass jar with a removable threaded lid and rubber gasket designed to keep the contents airtight and prevent spoilage; it is used for preserving foods.

Matzo; Matzoh (MAHT-suh) A thin, brittle, unleavened bread made with only water and flour and traditionally eaten during the Jewish Passover holiday; it can be ground into meal and used for matzo balls, pancakes and other dishes.

Maui Onion A large onion with a golden yellow outer layer, a moist white flesh and a mild, sweet flavor; grown in the delimited area of Maui, Hawaii.

Mayonnaise A cold, thick, creamy sauce consisting of oil and vinegar emulsified with egg yolks; used as a spread or base for a salad dressing or dip.

McIntosh Apple A medium-sized apple with red-striped green or yellow skin, a soft, juicy flesh and a sweet-tart flavor; and all-purpose apple, it tends to fall apart when cooked.

Mealy Having a texture similar to meal: dry, grainy, crumbly, powdery and/or soft.

Meat Grinder; Meat Mincer A tool used to grind meat; the meat is placed in a hopper and forced through a rotating blade, then through a perforated disk (various sizes are available) and extruded; manual or electric, it can be fitted with attachments.

Meatloaf A loaf-shaped mixture of ground meat or poultry, seasonings and usually onions, bound with bread crumbs and/or eggs and baked; served hot or cold.

Meat Pounder A metal tool used for flattening and tenderizing meat; it has a flat, broad face with a 5- x 4- in. striking surface and weighs 1.5-7 lb.

Meat Tenderizer A preparation of enzymes applied to meat before cooking to help break down connective tissues; unlike a marinade which can contain a meat tenderizer, it is not intended to add flavor.

Medallion A small, round piece of meat or fish.

Melba Toast Very thin slices of white bread baked in a low oven until golden brown and very crisp.

Melon Baller A tool used to scoop smooth or fluted spheres or ovoids from melons, cucumbers or other foods; available with a single scoop on a handle or a handle with a scoop at either end, one larger than the other.

Melting The process by which certain foods, especially those high in fat, gradually soften and then liquefy when heated.

Meringue A mixture of stiffly beaten egg whites and sugar; depending on the ratio of sugar to egg whites, a meringue may be soft (used as a fluffy topping for pies or cakes) or hard (baked into crisp cookies, disks or shells for use in pastries and desserts).

Meringue Powder A fine, white powder made with dried egg whites, sugar and gum; used to replace fresh egg whites when making icings and meringues.

Merlot (mair-lo) 1. A red wine grape grown in France, Italy, California and other regions; it is often used as a blending grape with Cabernet to add softness, fruit and suppleness. 2. A red wine made from this grape; it is generally soft, with a dark, rich color and an earthy, fruity flavor.

Mesclun (MEHS-kluhn) A mixture of several kinds of salad greens, especially baby lettuces; although there is no set standard, the mixture usually includes baby red romaine, endive, mache, oak leaf, radicchio and rocket, among others.

Mesquite (meh-SKEET) A hardwood tree native to the American Southwest and Mexico; when burned for cooking or smoking foods, it imparts a distinctive aroma and a slightly sweet flavor.

Meter (m) The basic measure of length in the metric system; 1 m equals 39.37 in.

Mexican Coffee A cocktail made of tequila, Kahlua or sugar syrup and strong hot black coffee; served in a large mug and garnished with whipped cream.

Mexican Wedding Cookies Small, round, buttery cookies made with ground nuts and rolled in confectioners’ sugar after baking; also known as Russian tea cakes.

Mezzaluna (mehz-zuh-LOO-nuh) A two-handled knife with one or more thick, crescent-shaped blades used to chop or mince vegetables; also known as a mincing knife.

Microwave Cooking A heating method that uses radiation generated by a special oven to penetrate the food; it agitates water molecules, creating friction and heat; this energy then spreads throughout the food by conduction (any by convection in liquids).

Migas (MEE-gahth) 1. A Spanish dish consisting of small squares of bread soaked in milk and fried in oil.2. Spanish for bread crumbs.

Milanaise, Sauce A French compound sauce made from a demi-glaze flavored with tomatoes and garlic and garnished with mushrooms.

Milano (me-LAHN-noh) A soft Bel Paese-style cheese made in Lombardy, Italy, from cow’s milk; also known as Bella Milano.

Milk, Sweetened Condensed A thick, sweet, slightly caramel-flavored milk product made from sweetened whole milk from which 60% of the water has been evaporated; usually sold canned, it cannot generally be substituted for whole or evaporated milk because of the sugar; also known as condensed milk.

Milk Chocolate Sweetened chocolate containing not less than 12% milk solids and not less than 10% chocolate liquor; used for candies, creams and confections.

Mill 1. To grind, pulverize or break down into smaller particles.2. To agitate or stir until foamy.3. A building equipped with machinery for grinding grain into flour or meal; the device that does so. 4. A device that reduces a solid or coarse substance into pulp or minute grains by crushing, grinding or pressing.5. A device that releases the juice of fruits and vegetables by pressing or grinding.

Mimosa (mih-MOH-suh) 1. A cocktail made of equal parts orange juice and sparkling wine, served cold.2. A garnish of finely chopped hard-cooked egg yolk; so named because of its resemblance to the yellow mimosa flower.

Mince To cut or chop a food finely.

Mincemeat A rich, finely chopped mixture of dried fruit, nuts, beef suet, spices and rum or brandy; used as a filling for pies, tarts and cookies; traditionally, lean meat was included in the mixture.

Minestrone (mee-ness-TROH-nay) Italian for big soup and used to describe a vegetable soup flavored with herbs and sometimes garnished with pasta; there are variations made with rice, bacon, tomatoes, sage and cheese, with navy beans and with beans, sauerkraut, potatoes, cumin seeds and garlic.

Mint 1. A large family of herbs known for their aromatic foliage, many of which have flavors and/or aromas reminiscent of fruits and other flavorings.2. A candy flavored with mint, often used as a breath freshener; it can be a hard candy or a soft patty with a hard candy or chocolate coating.

Mirepoix (meer-pwa) A mixture of coarsley chopped onions, carrots and celery used to flavor stocks, stews and other foods; generally, a mixture of 50% onions, 25% carrots and 25% celery, by weight, is used. Good cooking begins with good preparation. Let me show you how to become a gourmet cook!

Mise En Place (meez ahn plahs) French for putting in place and used to describe the preparation and assembly of all necessary ingredients and equipment for cooking.

Miso (ME-so) A thick paste made by salting and fermenting soybeans and rice or barley and then inoculating the mixture with yeast; it is used in Japanese cuisines as a flavoring and thickener; the lighter the color, the sweeter the flavor.

Mission Fig A fig with a purple-black skin; it was brought to California by Franciscan missionaries from Spain; also known as a black Mission fig.

Mix 1. To combine ingredients in such a way that they are evenly dispersed throughout the mixture.2. To create or form something by combining ingredients.3. A mixture of ingredients that usually requires only the addition of water and/or yeast to produce a batter or dough. 2. A commercially packaged mixture of ingredients that usually requires only the addition of a liquid and/or a fresh product such as eggs, meat or fish and heating to produce a completed dish.

Mocha (moh-kah) A flavor created by combining coffee and chocolate, widely used in pastries and confections.

Mocktail A cocktail prepared without the customary alcoholic beverages; also known as a virgin drink.

Modeling Chocolate A stiff dough made with melted chocolate and glucose or corn syrup; it is used for creating pastry decorations and garnishes.

Moist-Heat Cooking Methods Cooking methods, principally simmering, poaching, boiling and steaming, that use water or steam to transfer heat through convection; moist-heat cooking methods are used to emphasize the natural flavors of foods.

Mojo Criollo A citrus and herb marinade used in Latino cuisines; several bottled brands are available from Hispanic markets.

Molasses 1. A thick, sweet, brownish-black liquid that is a by-product of sugar refining; used in breads, cookies and pastries for its distinctive, slightly bitter flavor and dark color. 2. A syrup made from boiling down sweet vegetable or fruit juices.

Molasses, Blackstrap A molasses removed after the third boiling of the sugarcane in the sugar-refining process; darker, thicker and less sweet than light molasses, it is generally used as a flavoring.

Mold 1. To shape a food by using a vessel.2. A vessel into which foods are placed to take on the container’s shape; molds are available in a wide range of shapes and sizes, many of which are associated with a particular dish. 3. A food shaped by such a vessel.

Mole A Mexican sauce usually served with poultry; it consists of onions, garlic, chiles, ground pumpkin or sesame seeds and Mexican chocolate.

Mollusks One of the principal classes for shellfish; they are characterized by a soft, unsegmented body with no internal skeleton; includes univalves, bivalves and cephalopods.

Monkey Bread A sweet yeast bread made by piling small balls of dough in a tube pan; raisins, nuts, sugar and cinnamon are usually added, and then the dough is allowed to rise; after baking, the mounds can be pulled apart for service.

Monterey Jack A cooked and pressed cheese traditionally made in Monterey, California, from whole, skimmed or partly skimmed cow’s milk; it has an ivory color, a semisoft texture and a rather bland flavor (varieties flavored with peppercorns, spices, herbs or jalapenos are available); it is high in moisture and melts easily; also known as Jack or California Jack, especially if not produced near Monterey.

Monter Au Beurre (mohn-tay ah burr) To finish a sauce by swirling or whisking in butter (raw or compound) until it is melted; used to give sauces shine, flavor and richness.

Montrachet (mohn-truh-SHAY) A soft cheese made in France’s Burgundy region from goat’s milk; it has a creamy texture and a mild, tangy flavor; usually sold in white logs, sometimes covered with a gray, salted ash.

Moo Goo Goi Pan (moo goo gahi pan) A Chinese dish of boneless chicken stir-fried with mushrooms and flavored with garlic and ginger.

Moon Pie The proprietary name for a confection that consists of two large, round, flat cookies with a marshmallow filling and chocolate or other flavored coating.

Mopping Sauce Liquids brushed on meat during barbecuing to add flavor and moisture; the sauce is usually applied with a small, moplike cotton utensil.

Mornay, Sauce (mor-nay) A French sauce made by adding grated cheese to a basic white sauce; served with fish, shellfish, vegetables and chicken.

Mortar and Pestle A tool, usually made of stone, wood or ceramic, used for grinding foods; the bat-shaped pestle presses and rotates the food against the sides of the bowl-shaped mortar.

Mousse (moos) 1. French for foam.2. French for the head that forms on sparkling wine or beer.3. A soft, creamy food, either sweet or savory, lightened by adding whipped cream, beaten egg whites or both.

Mousseline (moos-uh-leen) 1. A delicately flavored forcemeat based on white meat, fish or shellfish lightened with cream and egg whites.2. A sauce or cream lightened by folding in whipped cream.3. A tall cylinder of brioche bread, usually baked in a coffee can or similar mold.

Mozzarella (maht-suh-REHL-lah) 1. A southern Italian pasta filata cheese, originally made from water buffalo’s milk but now also from cow’s milk; it has a white color and a mild, delicate flavor; used mostly for cooking.2. An American version usually made from cow’s milk; it is drier and stringier than the fresh water buffalo’s milk variety and becomes very elastic when melted; also known as pizza cheese.

Mud Pie A dessert that consists of a chocolate cookie crust filled with chocolate, vanilla and coffee ice cream and drizzled with chocolate sauce.

Muenster (MUHN-stuhr) Munster cheese produced in the United States or other areas outside France’s Alsace region; it has a light yellow interior, an orange rind and a bland flavor.

Muesli (MYOOS-lee) A breakfast cereal made from raw or toasted cereal grains, dried fruits, nuts and dried milk solids and usually eaten with milk or yogurt; sometimes known as granola.

Muffin 1. To give someone a gift basket containing muffins and/or other baked goods.2. A tender quick bread baked in small, cup-shaped pans; the batter is often flavored with nuts or fruit.3. An English muffin.4. In Great Britain, a small yeast-leavened product baked on a griddle.

Muffuletta (muhf-fuh-LEHT-tuh) A New Orleans hero-style sandwich consisting of a round loaf of Italian bread that is split and filled with layers of provolone, salami and ham and topped with a mixture of chopped green olives, pimientos, celery, garlic, capers, oregano, olive oil and red wine vinegar.

Mull To heat a beverage such as wine, cider or beer with herbs, spices, fruit and sugar and serve it hot.

Mulled Cider A beverage made of hot apple cider, brown sugar, allspice berries, cloves, cinnamon and dried apple rings.

Mulligan Stew (MUHL-ee-gahn) A stew of various meats, potatoes and vegetables.

Munster A semisoft cheese made in France’s Alsace region from cow’s milk; it has a smooth, yellow interior with small holes, a red or orange rind and a flavor that ranges from mild when young to assertive when old.

Muscat (mus-cat) 1. A grape grown throughout the Mediterranean region, California and Australia and used for eating out of hand, raisins and wine making.2. A wine made from this grape; it can range from pale, delicate, fruity and low in alcohol to dark amber, sweet and fortified.

Mushrooms Any of many species of cultivated or wild fleshy fungus, usually consisting of a stem, cap and mycelium; available fresh or dried and eaten raw, reconstituted or cooked.

Muskmelon A category of melons characterized by a dense, fragrant flesh, a central fibrous seed cavity, a hard rind that can be netted or smooth, rind colors that include ivory, yellow, lime green and salmon; also known as sweet melon.

Musli (MYOOS-lee) A breakfast cereal made from raw or toasted cereals, dried fruits, nuts, bran, wheat germ, sugar and dried milk solids and usually eaten with milk or yogurt; sometimes imprecisely known as granola.

Mussels Any of several varieties of bivalve mollusks found in the shallow waters of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and Mediterranean Sea; they generally have a dark blue shell with a violet interior, an average length of 2-3 in. and tough meat with a slightly sweet flavor; significant varieties include blue mussels and greenshell mussels.

Mustard, American A smooth, somewhat runny prepared mustard made from white or yellow mustard seeds, sugar, vinegar and turmeric; it has a mild, slightly sharp flavor and a bright yellow color; also known as ballpark mustard.

Mustard, Ground A blend of finely ground mustard seeds; it has a bright yellow color; also known as powdered mustard and dry mustard.

Mustard, Whole Grain A coarse prepared mustard made from ground and slightly crushed whole mustard seeds; it has a hot, earthy, nutty flavor.

Mustard Greens The large, dark green leaves of the mustard plant; they have a peppery, pungent flavor.

Mustard Seeds The seeds of three different varieties of mustard plants; all are small, hard spheres with a bitter flavor and no aroma; white and yellow seeds have the mildest flavor, and black seeds have the strongest flavor; brown seeds are moderately hot and generally have their husks attached; fine to coarsely ground mustard seeds are used for the condiment prepared mustard or as a spice.

Mutton The meat of sheep slaughtered after they reach the age of one year.

Nacho A Mexican and American Southwest snack of a crisp tortilla or tortilla chips topped with melted cheese and chiles, sometimes with salsa, sour cream, refried beans or other garnishes.

Nage, A’la (Nahj, Ah lah) A French preparation method, especially for shellfish; the principal items are cooked in a court bouillon flavored with herbs and are then served with the bouillon, either hot or cold.

Napa Cabbage A member of the cabbage family with a stout, elongated head of relatively tightly packed, firm, crinkly, pale yellow-green leaves with a thick white center vein and a mild, delicate flavor; also known as chard cabbage. Chinese cabbage and snow cabbage.

Napa Valley A grape-growing and wine-producing region located in Napa County, near San Francisco, that incorporates nearly the entire county; the principal grapes grown are Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay and, to a lesser extent, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Sauvignon Blanc, Johannisberg Riesling, Zinfandel and Chenin Blanc.

Napoleon A French pastry made with rectangular sheets of puff pastry layered with pastry cream, whipped cream and fruit or chocolate ganache, the top is then dusted with powdered sugar or coated with fondant glaze; also known as mille-feuille. Nappe (Nap) To coat food with sauce. The consistency of a liquid, usually a sauce, that will coat the back of a spoon.

Nasturtium An annual or perennial herb. The leaves have a peppery flavor and can be used like watercress; the yellow-to rust colored flowers also have a peppery flavor and can be used in salads, as a flavoring or garnish, and the immature flower buds can be pickled and used like capers.

Navarin A brown ragout generally made with turnips, other root vegetables, onions, peas and lamb.

Navel Orange A variety of large orange with a thick, bright orange rind, an orange meaty flesh, a sweet, citrusy flavor and few if any seeds.

Navy Bean A variety of kidney bean; small and ovoid with a white skin and flesh; a staple of the U.S. Navy since the 1880’s, it is also known as the beautiful bean, Boston bean and Yankee bean.

Nectar A sugary liquid secreted by many flowers and attractive to bees. In the United States, undiluted fruit juice or a mixture of fruit juices. In France, the diluted, sweetened juice of peaches, apricots, guavas, black currants or other fruits, the juice of which would be too thick or too tart to drink straight.

Nectarine A medium-sized stone fruit with a smooth red and yellow skin, a firm yellowish-pink flesh and a peachy flavor with undertones of almond; available as freestone and clingstone.

Needling A process used to tenderize meat; the meat is penetrated by closely spaced, thin blades with sharp points, the muscle fibers are thus cut into shorter lengths; also known as pinning.

Neufchatel (noo-shuh-TELL) A soft, unripened cheese made in France’s Normandy region from cow’s , milk (the milkfat content varies); it has a white color and a slightly salty flavor that becomes more pungent as it ages; sold as small cylinders, rectangles or hearts. An American cheese made from pasteurized milk or a mixture of pasteurized milk and cream; similar to cream cheese and smoother than its French inspiration.

New American Cuisine A late-20th-century movement that began in California but has spread across the United States; it stresses the use of fresh, locally grown, seasonal produce and high-quality ingredients simply prepared in a fashion that preserves and emphasizes natural flavors.

New Brunswick Stew A Canadian casserole of roasted lamb or beef, smoked ham, string beans, wax beans, new potatoes, onions, green peas and carrots cooked in the oven.

Newburg A dish consisting of cooked shellfish (lobster, shrimp or crab) in a rich sauce of cream and egg yolks flavored with sherry; usually served over toast points.

New England Chowder A fish, clam or corn chowder containing salt port, potatoes and onions.

New Mexico Red Chile, Dried A dried New Mexico red chile; it has a dark red to brown color and a medium hot to hot flavor; available as crushed flakes or powder; also known as chile Colorado and dried California chile.

New Mexico Red Chile, Fresh A ripened New Mexico green chile; it has a dark red color, a thick flesh and a medium to medium hot, sweet flavor. New Potato A small, immature red potato.

Nibs Cleaned, roasted cocoa kernels that are ready for processing. See chocolate-making process.

Nicoise A tiny black olive native to the Mediterranean region.

Nicoise, Salad A salad from Nice, France, consisting of tomatoes, green beans, black olives, tuna, hard-cooked eggs and herbs, dressed with olive oil and garlic.

Nog Generic term for eggnog or any other drink made with beaten egg, milk and spirits. A traditional English term for strong ale.

Nondairy Creamer A product used to lighten and dilute coffee and tea; made from a hydrogenated oil or saturated fat such as coconut or palm oil, sweeteners, preservatives and emulsifiers; it is available in powdered, liquid or frozen form; also known as coffee whitener.

Nonreactive A term used to describe cooking and serving utensils made of materials that do not react with acids and brine (a salt and water solution) to discolor foods or form toxic substances; nonreactive saucepans and pots include all of those with undamaged nonstick interiors, plus pots and pans made from flameproof glass, glass ceramic, stainless steel, enameled steel and enameled iron; uncoated iron and copper form toxic substances when used for cooking high-acid foods; uncoated aluminum darkens some fruits and may become pitted if salty mixtures are left standing in them.

Nonstick Plastic;

Nonstick Coating; Nonstick Finish A polymer such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) that is applied to the surface of some cookware; it provides a slippery, nonreactive finish that prevents foods from sticking and allows the use of less fat; easily scratched.

Noodles Ribbons of various lengths, widths and thicknesses made from a dough of wheat flour, water and egg (or egg yolks) and generally boiled; also known as egg noodles.

Nori (NOH-ree) Dark green, purple or black paper-thin sheets of dried seaweed with a sweet, salty ocean flavor; used in Japanese cuisine to wrap sushi or as a garnish or flavoring.

Nose A wine-tasting term for a wine’s bouquet or aroma. A tasting term for a person with a highly developed and discerning sense of smell.

Nougat (noo-guht) A French confection made with a cooked sugar or honey syrup mixed with roasted nuts and candied fruit; sometimes the confection is made with egg whites, which produce a white, chewy, taffylike candy. Nut The edible single-seed kernel (the meat) of a fruit surrounded by a hard shell (e.g.hazelnut); it has high protein and fat contents and is used for snacking or to provide flavor and texture to foods.

Nutella The proprietary name for a paste made from hazelnuts, cocoa and sugar; it is used as a spread for bread or toast and as a flavoring for pastries and confections.

Nut Flour A flour made of finely ground nuts and used in certain cakes and other pastries.

Nut Meat; nutmeat The edible kernel of a nut.

Nutmeg The hard seed of a yellow fruit from a tree (Myristica frangrans) native to the East Indies; it has an oval shape, a smooth texture and a strong, sweet aroma and flavor; used ground (grated) in sweet and savory dishes.

Nutmeg Grater A grater used for reducing a whole nutmeg to a powder; the grating surface can be flat or convex.

Nutty A food containing an abundance of nuts or having the pronounced flavor of nuts. A cheese-tasting term for a cheese with a flavor reminiscent of nuts, especially hazelnuts or walnuts. A wine-tasting term for the characteristic nutlike aroma and flavor of Madeira, Marsala, sherry, Vin Santo or wines that have oxidized.

Oaky A wine-tasting term for the characteristic toasty or spicy, vanilla-like aroma and flavor of a wine that has been aged in oak barrels; a moderate amount is desirable, an excessive amount is not.

Oatmeal Coarsely ground oats that are cooked as a hot cereal and used in baking.

Oats A cereal grass (Avena sativa) with a highly nutritious grain kernel.

Oats, Instant Rolled oats that have been partially cooked and then dried before rolling.

Oats, Quick-Cooking Rolled oats cut into smaller pieces to reduce cooking time.

Oats, Rolled Steamed oat groats rolled into flat flakes; also known as old-fashioned oats.

Oblique Cuts Also known as roll cuts; small pieces of food, usually vegetables, with two angle-cut sides.

Octopus Any of several varieties of cephalopod mollusks found in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and the Mediterranean Sea; generally, they have a large head and tentacles but no cuttlebone; the skin is gray when raw and turns purple when cooked and the lean, white flesh has a firm, somewhat rubbery texture and a mild flavor; also known as devilfish.

Offset Spatula A tool with a flat, unsharpened stainless steel blade with a bend or step near the handle, forming a Z shape; the end of the blade is rounded and blunt; available in a variety of lengths and widths; used for spreading batter, filling and frosting cakes and pastries and moving items from one place to another, depending on the size of the blade, an offset spatula may also be referred to as a grill spatula or a cake spatula.

Oignon Pique (ohn-nawng pee-KAY) French for “pricked onion”; a bay leaf tacked with a clove to a peeled onion; used to flavor sauces and soups.

Oils Fats (generally derived from plants) that are liquid at room temperature.

Oily A tasting term used to describe the greasy surface of some foods, created by excessive use of oil in their preparation or the presence of natural oils (e.g.,hard cheeses).

Okra The seed pod of a tropical plant (Abelmoschus esculentus) of the hollyhock family native to Africa; the oblong, tapering pod has ridged green skin and a flavor reminiscent of asparagus and is used like a vegetable in African and southern U.S. cuisines; because it develops a gelatinous texture if cooked for long periods, it is also used as a thickener; also known as gumbo and ladies’ fingers.

Old Bay Seasoning The proprietary name of a spice blend containing celery salt, dry mustard, paprika and other flavorings; used in shellfish preparations.

Olive The small fruit of a tree (Olea europaea) native to the Mediterranean region; it has a single pit, a high oil content, a green color before ripening and a green or black color after ripening and an inedibly bitter flavor when raw; it is eaten on its own after washing, soaking and pickling or pressed for oil; available in a range of sizes, including (from smallest to largest) medium, colossal, supercolossal and jumbo.

Olive Oil An oil obtained by pressing tree-ripened olives; it has a distinctive fruity, olive flavor and is graded according to its degree of acidity; used as a cooking medium, flavoring and ingredient.

Olive Oil, Extra Virgin Olive oil produced from the first cold pressing, the finest and fruitiest; it has a pale straw to bright green color and not more than 1% acid.

Olive Oil, Light An olive oil resulting from the last pressing; it has a very mild flavor, light color, high smoke point and up to 3% acid.

Olive Oil, Pure An olive oil that has been cleaned, filtered and stripped of much of its flavor and color by using heat and mechanical devices during the refining process; it has up to 3% acid.

Olive Oil, Virgin Olive oil with 2% acid; it has a less fruity flavor than extra virgin olive oil and a pale yellow to medium yellow-green color.

Omelet; Omelette (AHM-leht) A dish made from beaten eggs, seasonings and sometimes milk or water, cooked in butter until firm; it can be plain or filled with sweet or savory fillings and served flat or folded.

Omelet Pan A shallow pan with gently curved sides, a flat bottom and a single long handle; available with a nonstick surface and in 6-to 10-in. diameters.

One-Two-Three-Four Cake A simple American yellow cake with a recipe that is easy to remember: 1 cup shortening, 2 cups sugar, 3 cups flour and 4 eggs plus flavoring and leavening.

Onion 1. Any of a variety of strongly aromatic and flavored bulbous vegetables of the lily family (genus Allium) and native to central Asia; flavors range from relatively sweet to strongly pungent, the color of the outer papery layer ranges from white to yellow to red, the shape ranges from spherical to ovoid and sizes vary depending on the variety (larger onions tend to be sweeter and milder); an onion can be eaten raw, cooked like a vegetable or used as a flavoring.2. Commonly, a medium-sized to large spherical to slightly ovoid onion (Allium cepa) with a bright golden yellow outer layer, crisp white flesh and strong, pungent flavor; also known as a yellow onion.

Onion Flakes Onions that have been dried and cut into flakes.

Onion Pique (ohn-nawng peeKAY) French for “pricked onion”; a bay leaf tacked with a clove to a peeled onion; used to flavor sauces and soups.

Onion Powder Dehydrated grated onions.

Onion Salt A mixture of dried powdered onions and salt.

On The Half Shell Raw shellfish served in their bottom shell, usually on a bed of crushed ice with lemon juice, cocktail sauce, horseradish, ketchup or other condiments.

Opaque Not transparent. A beer- and wine- tasting term for a product such as a stout or a dark red wine through which light does not penetrate.

Open-Faced Sandwich A slice of bread topped with foods such as cheese, cucumbers, sliced meats and so on; served cold or hot (it is usually heated by pouring hot gravy over it).

Organic 1. Traditionally used to describe the class of compounds found in or derived from plants or animals; now also included are all other carbon compounds.2. Foods, usually plant foods sold fresh or minimally processed, that are grown without chemicals or other incidental food additives such as pesticides.

Organic Farming A method of farming that does not rely on synthetic pesticides, fungicides, herbicides or fertilizers. Orzo Italian for barley and used to describe rice-shaped pasta Osetra A very flavorful caviar; the medium-sized crispy eggs are golden yellow to brown and quite oily.

Osso Buco; Ossobuco (AW-soh BOO-koh) An Italian dish consisting of veal shanks braised in olive oil, white wine, stock, onions, tomatoes, garlic, carrots, celery and lemon peel, garnished with gremolada and served with risotto.

Ostrich A large flightless bird native to Africa; its meat is lean and purple, turning brown when cooked, and has a flavor similar to that of lean beef.

Oven-Dried Tomato A tomato that has been dried in an oven; it has a dark red color, a chewy texture and a flavor that is not quite as strong as that of a sun-dried tomato.

Oven Frying A method of frying without turning; the food usually meat, is dredged in flour, rolled in melted fat, placed on a baking sheet and baked in a hot oven; also known as ovenizing.

Ovenproof A description for a baking dish or other item of cookware, usually made of glass, pottery or ceramics, that can withstand an oven’s high temperatures.

Oven Spring The rapid rise of yeast goods in a hot oven, resulting from the production and expansion of trapped gases.

Ovenware Heat-resistant dishes of glass, pottery or ceramics used for baking and serving foods.

Overproof To allow a yeast dough to rise (ferment) too long.

Oxidation 1. A chemical reaction between a substance and oxygen; it changes the nature of the substance, usually to its detriment.2. An energy-releasing metabolic process during which a nutrient breaks down and its components combine with oxygen.

Oxtail A fabricated cut of the beef primal round or veal primal leg; it is a portion of the tail and contains many bones but is quite flavorful.

Oyster A member of a large family of bivalve mollusks found in saltwater regions worldwide; generally, they have a rough gray shell (the top shell is flat and the bottom is somewhat convex) and a grayish tan flesh with a soft texture and briny flavor; they are eaten raw or cooked; there are four principal types of domestic oysters: Atlantic oysters, European flat oysters, Olympia oysters and Pacific oysters.

Oyster Cracker A small, round, slightly hard cracker; it is traditionally served with oyster stew.

Oyster Knife A knife used to pry open oyster shells; it has a fat, 3-in.-long, pointed, arrow shaped blade and usually a protective flange for the hand; also known as a shucking knife.

Oysters Rockefeller An American dish of oysters served hot on the half shell with a topping of spinach, bread crumbs and seasonings.

Paella (pah-AY-lyah) A rustic Spanish dish of rice, vegetables, sausages, poultry, fish and shellfish seasoned with saffron.

Paella Pan A wide, shallow pan with slightly sloping sides and two handles; often made of metal or earthenware, it is used for cooking paella.

Paiola (pah-ee-oh-lah) A Portuguese sausage made with pork and fat and seasoned with paprika, pepper and garlic.

Panada; Panade 1. Something other than fat added to a forcemeat to enhance smoothness, aid emulsification or both; it is often béchamel, rice or crustless white bread soaked in milk.2. A mixture for binding stuffings and dumplings, notably quenelles; it is often choux pastry, bread crumbs, fangipane, pureed potatoes or rice.

Pan-Broiling A dry-heat cooking method that uses conduction to transfer heat to food resting directly on a cooking surface; no fat is used and the food remains uncovered.

Pancake A flat, round, leavened bread cooked on a griddle and served with butter and sweet syrup, especially for breakfast; also known as griddle cake and flapjack.

Pancetta (pan-Cheh-tuh) An Italian pork belly bacon cured with salt, pepper and other spices (it is not smoked); available rolled into a cylinder and used to flavor items such as pasta dishes, sauces and forcemeats.

Pandoro An Italian Christmas bread from Verona; similar to panettone and baked in a star-shaped mold; the eggs and butter give it a golden color.

Pan-Dressed A market form for fish in which the viscera, gills and scales are removed and the fins and tail are trimmed.

Pan Dulces (pahn dool-chays) Mexican and Latin American sweet breads eaten for breakfast.

Panettone (PAH-neh-TOH-nay) A sweet Italian yeast bread filled with raisins, candied citrus peel and pine nuts; traditionally baked in a rounded cylindrical mold and served as a breakfast bread or dessert.

Pan-Frying A dry-heat cooking method in which the food is placed in a moderate amount of hot fat.

Pan Gravy A sauce made by deglazing pan drippings from roasted meat or poultry.

Panko Large-flaked, unseasoned Japanese bread crumbs.

Panna Cotta (PAHN-nah COTT-ta) An Italian dessert consisting of a simple molded custard made with gelatin, usually served with fresh fruit or chocolate sauce.

Pansies A wide variety of edible flowers (genera Achimenes and Viola) with a flavor reminiscent of grapes and used as a garnish.

Papaw A slightly elongated and curved medium-sized fruit native to North America; it has a smooth yellowish skin, a pale yellow flesh, a custardlike texture, many seeds and a flavor and aroma reminiscent of a banana and pear.

Papaya A large pear-shaped tropical fruit (Carica papaya); it has a yellowish skin, a juicy orange flesh (that contains papain) and a central mass of black seeds encased in a gelatinous coating; the peppery seeds are edible, and the flesh has a sweet, astringent flavor.

Papillote, en A food (e.g., fish with a vegetable garnish) enclosed in parchment paper or a greased paper wrapper and baked; the paper envelope is usually slit open table side so that the diner can enjoy the escaping aroma.

Paprika A blend of dried red-skinned chiles; the flavor can range from slightly sweet and mild to pungent and moderately hot and the color can range from bright red-orange to deep blood red; used in central European and Spanish cuisines as a spice and garnish; also known and Hungarian sweet pepper.

Paraffin The wax coating applied to the rinds of some cheeses to protect the cheeses during transport and increase shelf life; generally the paraffin is red, black, yellow or clear.

Parboiling Partially cooking a food in a boiling or simmering liquid; similar to blanching, but the cooking time is longer.

Parchment Paper Heavy grease-resistant paper used to line cake pans or baking sheets, to wrap foods for baking en papillote and to make disposable piping bags.

Parcooking Partially cooking a food by any cooking method. Pare To remove the thin outer layer of foods such as fruits (e.g.,apple) and vegetables (e.g.,potato) with a small, short-bladed knife known as a paring knife or with a vegetable peeler.

Parfait (pahr-FAY) A dessert composed of layers of ice cream, sauce and whipped cream served in a tall, narrow glass. 2. A French frozen custard or water ice usually flavored with fruit.

Paring Knife A small knife used for trimming and peeling produce or detail work; it has a 2- to 4-in.-long rigid blade.

Parisienne; Parisian The smaller scoop on a two-scoop melon ball cutter; 2. Small spheres of fruit or vegetables cut with a tiny melon ball cutter.

Parker House Rolls A white flour yeast roll shaped by folding each individual round of dough in half along an off-center crease before baking; named for the Parker House Hotel in Boston.

Parmesan (PAHR-muh-zahn) 1. A Parmigiana-Reggiano-style cheese made from cow’s milk in places other than Italy.2. An imprecisely used term to describe any grana or grana-style grating cheese.3. A dish whose main ingredient (e.g.,veal cutlet) is dipped in an egg mixture and then bread crumbs, Parmesan and seasonings, sautéed, and covered with a tomato sauce; sometimes a slice of mozzarella is melted on top before adding the tomato sauce.

Parmigiano-Reggiano A hard grana cheese made in Italy’s Parma region from cow’s milk; it has a golden yellow interior, a hard, oily rind and a spicy, rich, sharp flavor; aged for 2-3 years, it is used for grating;also known as Geniune Parmigiano and Parmigiano.

Parsley An herb (Petroselium crispum) with long, slender stalks, small, curly, dark green leaves and a slightly peppery, tangy fresh flavor (the flavor is stronger in the stalks, which are used in a bouquet garni); generally used fresh as a flavoring or garnish; also known as curly parsley.

Parsnip A root vegetable (Pastinaca sativa) with bright green, feathery leaves; the long, tapering root has a creamy-white skin and flesh and a slightly sweet flavor reminiscent of a carrot.

Pasilla A name used incorrectly for the fresh poblano and its dried forms, the ancho and mulato.

Passion Fruit A small ovoid tropical fruit (Passiflora edulis); it has a wrinkled, purple skin, a soft, golden flesh with tiny edible seeds and a tropical sweet-tart flavor; often used as a flavoring for sauces and beverages; also imprecisely known as granadilla.

Pasta 1. Italian for dough or pastry.2. An unleavened dough formed from a liquid (eggs and/or water) mixed with a flour (wheat, buckwheat, rice or other grains or a combination of grains) and cut or extruded into tubes, ribbons and other shapes; flavorings such as herbs, spices and vegetables (e.g. tomatoes and spinach) can be added to the dough; pasta is usually boiled and served with a sauce.3. The second course of an Italian meal, served after the antipasto.

Pasta Fork A long, scooplike fork with 1-in-long blunt tipped prongs with slots between; used to lift and drain pasta and portion single servings of already sauced pasta; also known as a spaghetti fork or spaghetti rake.

Pasta Machine, roller-type An electrical or manual tool with a series of smooth rollers that roll, flatten and thin pasta dough; the dough is then passed through notched rollers, which cut it into ribbons.

Pasta Pot A tall pot with a capacity of 6-8 qt; it has a perforated basket insert that holds the pasta and, removed from the water, acts as a strainer.

Pasta Primavera An American dish of pasta with a sauce of sautéed vegetables. Pasteurize To sterilize a food, especially milk, by heating it to a temperature of 140-180 F (60-82.2 C) for a short period to kill bacteria.

Pastillage (Pahst-tee-azh) A paste made of sugar, cornstarch and gelatin; it may be cut or molded into decorative shapes.

Pastrami A cut of beef (usually from the plate, brisket or round), rubbed with salt and a seasoning paste containing garlic, peppercorns, red pepper flakes, cinnamon, cloves and coriander seeds, then dry cured, smoked and cooked.

Pastry 1. A dough made with flour and shortening and used for the crust of pies, tarts and the like.2. A food made with such a dough.3. A term used broadly and imprecisely for all fancy sweet baked goods, including cakes, sweet rolls and cookies.

Pastry Bag A cone-shaped bag with two open ends, the smaller of which can be fitted with a plastic or metal tip; the bag is filled with icing, cream, dough or batter, which is squeezed through the tip in decorative patterns or designs; available in a range of sizes and variety of materials; also known as a piping bag.

Pastry Blender A tool with several U-shaped metal wires attached to a wooden or plastic handle; used to cut cold fat into flour.

Pastry Brush A small brush used for applying glaze, egg wash and the like to doughs, buttering pans and brushing excess flour from dough; available in a variety of sizes, with either a round or flat head and natural or nylon bristles.

Pastry Cream A rich, thick custard made with milk, eggs, sugar and flour or cornstarch, and cooked on the stove top; used to fill éclairs, tarts, cakes and other pastries; also known as crème patissiere.

Pastry Tip A small cone-shaped metal or plastic insert for a pastry bag; the small end of each tip is cut, bent or perforated so that the mixture forced through it will form various designs or patterns; used for piping creams, fillings, frostings and other soft mixtures into decorative shapes and patterns.

Pastry Wheel A small tool with a thin, sharp wheel (plain or fluted) attached to a short handle; used for cutting doughs.

Pate (pah-TAY) 1. French for pie.2. Traditionally, a fine savory meat filling wrapped in pastry, baked and served hot or cold.3. A pork, veal, lamb, beef, game, fish, shellfish, poultry and/or vegetable forcemeat that is seasoned and baked; it is served hot or cold.

Pate A Choux (path uh SHOO) French for cream puff dough or choux pastry.

Pate Brisee French for a rich, flaky short dough used as a crust for sweet or savory dishes.

Pate En Croute A pate baked in a pastry dough such as pate au pate.

Pate En Croute Mold, oval fluted An oval metal mold with hinged sides embossed with a fluted pattern; the sides lock in place along the rim of the bottom plate and are easily removed when the pate is finished; traditionally used for meat and game pates en croute.

Pate Sucree (paht soo-kray) A dough containing sugar that produces a very rich, crisp (not flaky) baked product; also known as sweet dough, it is used for tart shells.

Patty Melt A dish that consists of a ground beef patty on a slice of bread, garnished with grilled onions and cheese, topped with another slice of bread and grilled until the cheese melts.

Paupiette (po-pee-et) A thin slice of meat, poultry or fish spread with a savory stuffing and rolled, then braised or poached.

Paysanne Foods cut into flat squares of approximately 0.5 X 0.5 in. and 0.25 in. thick (12 X 12 X 6 mm).

Peach A medium-sized stone fruit (Prunus persica) native to China; it has a fuzzy, yellow-red skin, a pale orange, yellow or white juicy flesh surrounding a hard stone and a sweet flavor; available as clingstone and freestone.

Peach Melba A dessert made with poached peach halves, vanilla ice cream and raspberry sauce; created by the French chef Auguste Escoffier for the opera singer Nellie Melba.

Peanut A legume and not a true nut (Arachis hypogea); it is the plant’s nutlike seed that grows underground, the hard seed has a papery brown skin and is encased in a thin, netted tan pod; the seed is used for snacking and for making peanut butter and oil; also known as a groundnut, earthnut, gober (from Africa word nguba) and goober pea.

Peanut Butter A paste made of ground peanuts, vegetable oil (usually hydrogenated) and salt; available in smooth and chunky styles.

Peanut Oil A clear oil obtained by pressing peanuts; it has a delicate flavor and a high smoke point and is used as an all-purpose culinary oil.

Pear A spherical to bell-shaped pome fruit (Pyrus communis), generally with a juicy, tender, crisp, off-white flesh, a moderately thin skin that can range in color from celadon green to golden yellow to tawny red and a flavor that can be sweet to spicy; pears can be eaten out of hand or cooked and are grown in temperate regions worldwide.

Pearl Onion A small onion with a white to yellow outer layer, a white flesh and a mild flavor; it is usually cooked like a vegetable or used in stews and soups.

Pearl Sugar A coarse granulated sugar used for decorating pastries and confections; also known as sanding sugar and crystal sugar.

Pear Tomato A small pear-shaped tomato with a bright red or golden yellow color; eaten raw or used as a garnish.

Peas The edible seeds contained within the pods of various vines of the family Leguminosae (Fabaceae); the seeds are generally shelled and the pod discarded; although available fresh, peas are usually marketed canned or frozen.

Pecan The nut of a tree of the hickory family (Carya oliviformis) native to North America; it has a smooth, thin, hard, tan shell enclosing a bilobed, golden brown kernel with a beige flesh and a high fat content.

Pecan Pie A dessert from the American South made with a single flaky crust filled with a very sweet, rich mixture of butter, eggs, brown sugar and pecans, then baked until firm.

Peck A unit of volume measurement equal to ¼ bushel; in the U.S. system, it is equal to approximately 538 cu. in. or 8 dry quarts.

Pecorino An Italian term referring to any cheese made from only ewe’s milk; most are aged have a white to pale yellow color and a sharp, pungent flavor and are classified as grana.

Pecorino Romano A ewe’s milk Romano.

Pectin 1. A polysaccharide present in plant cell walls.2. A gummy, water-soluble dietary fiber that can lower blood cholesterol levels by modest amounts.3. A food additive used as a thickener in foods such as jams and jellies.

Peel To remove rind or skin. A wooden or metal tool with a long handle and large blade used to transfer pizzas and yeast breads to and from a baking or baking sheet in the oven; also known as a baker’s peel or pizza paddle.

Peking Duck A Mandarin Chinese dish consisting of a duck whose skin is separated from the meat by means of an air pump; the duck cavity is stuffed with a mixture of soy sauce, garlic, leeks, brown sugar and ginger, trussed and hung, coated with flour and honey and then roasted.

Penne Italian for pen or quill and used to describe short to medium-length straight tubes (ridged or smooth) of pasta with diagonally cut ends.

Peperoncini (peh-peh-rohn-CHEE-neh) Italian small, sweet, green or red peppers, usually pickled.

Peperoncino Italian for chile pepper.

Pepper The fruit of various member of the Capsicum genus; native to the Western Hemisphere, a pepper has a hollow body with placental ribs (internal white veins) to which tiny seeds are attached (seeds are also attached to the stem end of the interior); a pepper can be white, yellow, green, brown, purple or red and can have a flavor ranging from delicately sweet to fiery hot, the genus includes sweet peppers and hot peppers.

Peppercorn The berry of the pepper plant (Piper nigrum), a climbing vine native to India and Indonesia; it has a brown color when fully ripened and is available in three principal varieties; black, green and white Peppercorn, Black A peppercorn picked when green and dried in the sun until it turns black; it has a slightly hot flavor with a hint of sweetness; whole or ground, it is the most commonly available peppercorn.

Peppercorn, Green An unripened peppercorn that is either freeze-dried or pickled in brine or vinegar; it has a soft texture and a fresh, sour flavor similar to that of capers.

Peppercorn, White A peppercorn allowed to ripen on the vine; the berry is then fermented and its red-brown skin removed; it has a light white-tan color and milder flavor and aroma than those of a black peppercorn; available whole or ground.

Pepper Grinder; Pepper Mill A grinder used to crush peppercorns; many can be adjusted to produce fine to coarse granules.

Peppermint An herb and member of the mint family (Mentha piperita); it has thin, stiff, pointed, bright green, purple-tinged leaves and a pungent, menthol flavor, used as a flavoring and garnish.

Peppermint Oil The essential oil of peppermint; it has a sharp, menthol flavor and is used as a flavoring for sweet dishes.

Peppermint Schnapps A mint-flavored distilled spirit; it has a lighter body than crème de menthe.

Pepperoni A slender, firm , air-dried Italian sausage made from beef or pork, seasoned with chiles and red and black pepper.

Pepper Steak 1. Beef steak coated with coarsely ground black peppercorns; it is sautéed in butter and served with a sauce made from the drippings, stock wine and cream; sometimes flamed with brandy or Cognac.2. A Chinese stir-fry dish consisting of beef, green pepper and onions cooked with soy sauce and other seasonings.

Pequin; Piquin A small, conical dried chile with an orange-red color, a thin flesh and a sweet, smoky flavor.

Perishable Foods and beverages that can spoil or deteriorate rapidly, even under appropriate storage conditions.

Pernod (pair-noh) A French licorice-flavored pastis; similar to absinthe but made with oil of wormwood.

Perrier The proprietary name of a French mineral water.

Persillade (payr-se-yad) 1. A food served with or containing parsley.2. A mixture of bread crumbs, parsley and garlic used to coat meats, usually lamb.

Persimmon A spherical fruit with a glossy yellow to bright red skin, an orange-red flesh, a jelly-like texture and a sweet flavor when ripe; also imprecisely known as kaki and Sharon fruit.

Pesto An Italian pasta sauce made from basil, garlic, olive oil, pine nuts and Parmesan or Pecorino. 2. In the United States, a term imprecisely used to describe a sauce or spread made principally from one herb (e.g., basil or cilantro) mixed with olive oil and a sharp, hard cheese, with pine nuts sometimes added.

Petite Syrah; Petit Sirah (peh-teete sih-RAH) 1. A red wine grape planted in California; derived from the Durif variety grown in France’s Rhone Valley, it is sometimes used as a blending grape.2. A red wine made from this grape; it generally has a full body, an intense, spicy aroma and a light to deep red color.

Petit Four A French term for any bite-sized cake, pastry, cookie or confection served after a meal or with coffee or tea. A French confection consisting of a small piece of filled sponge cake coated with fondant icing and elaborately decorated.

Petroleum Wax A food additive refined from petroleum and used as a chewing gum base or protective coating on cheese and raw fruits and vegetables.

Pfeffernuesse (FEF-ferr-noos) A hard, round, spicy German Christmas cookie flavored with honey and black pepper.

Phyllo; Filo Pastry dough made with very thin sheets of a flour-and-water mixture; several sheets are often layered with melted butter and used in sweet or savory preparations Picante Spanish and Portuguese for spicy.

Piccata An Italian dish of thinly sliced chicken or veal, lightly floured, sautéed in butter and sprinkled with lemon juice.

Pickle To preserve food in a brine or vinegar solution.

Pickling Spices A spice blend used to flavor the solution used to pickle foods or as a seasoning; generally the blend contains whole or coarsely broken allspice, red chile flakes, bay leaves, peppercorns, mustard seeds, cardamom seeds, coriander seeds, cloves and ginger.

Pico De Gallo (PEE-koh day GI-yoh) Spanish for rooster’s beak and used to describe a relish of finely chopped jicama, onions, bell pepper, oranges, jalapenos and cucumbers.

Pie 1. A pastry consisting of a sweet filling in a pastry crust baked in a slope-sided pan, it may have a bottom crust only or a top and bottom crust.2. A savory meat or vegetable filled turnover or pastry.3. A sweet fruit mixture baked in a deep dish with only a top crust (e.g., cobbler).

Pierogi (peer-OH-gee) A Polish dish consisting of dumplings or noodles stuffed with mixtures such as pork, onions, and cottage cheese or cabbage, mushrooms, potatoes and rice and boiled, baked or fried.

Pig The young swine of either sex weighing less than 120 lb. Pig, Suckling A pig slaughtered when it is 6-8 weeks old; the meat has a light-colored flesh with a succulent flavor and a tender texture.

Pigment A substance that contributes color to a food or processed food; either naturally occurring (e.g., the yellow-orange beta-carotene pigment found in carrots) or a chemical additive.

Pigs In Blankets 1. Sausages (usually small cocktail sausages) wrapped in pie or bread dough.2. Breakfast sausages wrapped in pancakes.

Pilaf (PEE-lahf) A cooking method for grains; the grains are lightly sautéed in hot fat and then a hot liquid (usually stock) is added; the mixture is simmered without stirring until the liquid is absorbed.

Pimiento A large, heart-shaped pepper with a red skin and a sweet flavor; used in paprika and to stuff olives.

Pimento cheese Any cheese (typically cheese spreads, Neufchatel-style cheese and cream cheese) to which chopped pimientos have been added.

Pina (PEE-nayh) Spanish for pineapple.

Pina Colada A cocktail made of rum, pineapple juice and cream of coconut served over ice and garnished with a pineapple chunk.

Pinch A traditional measure of volume; refers to the amount of a seasoning or other food one can hold between the thumb and forefinger, approximately 1/16 teaspoon.

Pineapple A tropical fruit (Ananas comosus) with a spiny, diamond-patterned, greenish-brown skin and swordlike leaves; the juicy yellow flesh surrounds a hard core and has a sweet-tart flavor.

Pineapple Corer A tall tool with two concentric rings with serrated teeth; as the corer is pressed down over the pineapple, one ring separates the flesh from the skin and the other separates the core from the flesh.

Pine Nut The nut of various pine trees (genus Pinus); it has a shell that covers ivory-colored meat, a rich distinctive flavor and a high fat content; also known as a pine kernel and Indian nut.

Pink Peppercorn The dried berry of a South American rose plant; it has a rose color and a bitter, pinelike flavor and is available dried or pickled in vinegar.

Pink Salmon A variety of salmon found in the Pacific Ocean from California to Alaska; it has a bluish-green skin with numerous black blotches, a lean, soft pink flesh and a mild flavor and is generally used for canning; also known as a humpback salmon.

Pinot Blanc (PEE-noh BLAHN) 1. A white wine grape considered to be a true Pinot and planted in France (Alsace), Germany, Austria, Italy and California; also known as Weissburgunder (in Germany and Austria) and Pino Bianco (in Italy).2. A white wine made from this grape; dry and crisp but with less flavor than a Chardonnay; because of its high acidity, it is suitable for making sparkling wine.

Pinot Gris (pee-noh gree) A white wine grape grown in Italy, Germany, France and parts of central Europe; the resulting wine is generally full bodies; also known as Pinot Grigio (Italy), Tokay d’Alsace (Alsace) and Rulander (Germany). Pinot Noir (PEE-noh n’wahr) 1. A red wine grape grown worldwide, including, France’s Champagne and Burgundy regions, Germany, Italy, central Europe, California and Oregon; also known as Spatburgunder (in Germany) and Pinot Nero (in Italy).2. A red wine made from this grape; it has a medium to deep ruby red color and a minty or black cherry medium to deep ruby red color and a minty or black cherry aroma; also used to make a rose wine and sparkling wines.

Pinto Bean A medium-sized pale pink bean with reddish-brown streaks; available dried; also known as a crabeye bean and a red Mexican bean.

Piping Forcing a material, such as icing, chocolate, buttercream or choux pastry, from a pastry bag in a steady and even manner to form specific shapes or decorative designs.

Piping Gel A sweet but flavorless, colored transparent substance made from sugar, corn syrup and vegetable gum; used for decorating cakes and pastries.

Pirouettes (pir-oh-ET) Thin wafer cookies that are curled tightly around a dowel while still hot; the ends are often dipped in melted chocolate.

Pistachio A pale green nut (Pistacia vera) encased in a hard, tan shell that is sometimes dyed red with food coloring or blanched until white; it has a delicate, subtle flavor.

Pita; Pita Bread; Pitta; Pitah An oval-or round-shaped, hollow Middle Eastern flatbread leavened with yeast; it is often split open or cut crosswise to form a pocket, then filled with a stuffing; also known as pocket bread.

Pith The bitter, white membrane found in citrus fruit between the rind (zest) and the pulp. Pitted A fruit such as a plum or apricot that has had its pit removed.

Pitter A tool used to remove stones from cherries and olives; it has two handles; the top one has a metal shaft and the bottom one is ring shaped and holds the fruit; when squeezed together, the shaft pushes the pit through the fruit and out the hole; also known as a stoner.

Pizza An Italian dish consisting of a flat pie or tart made from bread dough topped with any of a variety of foods, but principally tomato sauce and cheese (often mozzarella) and baked.

Pizza Dough A yeast dough used as the crust for pizzas; it may be thick and bready or thin and crisp.

Pizzelle (peets-TSEH-leh) A large, crisp, round Italian cookie made from a rich batter of butter, eggs, sugar, flour and vanilla; the batter is cooked on a pizzelle iron.

Pizzelle Iron Similar to a waffle iron, it is a tool with two embossed or intricately carved 5-in-wide disks hinged together and attached to a long handle and used to make pizelle; the iron is heated on the stove top, the batter is poured in and it is all returned to the stove to bake; the pattern imprints onto the cookies.

Plank; Planked A method of cooking and serving meat or fish on a seasoned board; some of the wood flavor is imparted to the food.

Plantain; Plantain Banana A starchy banana (Musa paradisiacal) with a green skin, a fairly firm pinkish flesh, a fatter, longer shape than an eating banana and a squashlike flavor; used for cooking much like a squash; also known as a cooking banana.

Plat Du Jour (pla duh zjur) French menu term for the speciality of the day. See my plated entrees Plate To place foods on a plate; it can be done with extreme care to create an appealing visual impression.

Plattar (PLAH-tar) Small Swedish pancakes, traditionally served with lingonberries.

Pluck To remove the feathers from poultry and gamebirds.

Plum A small to medium-sized ovoid or spherical stone fruit (genus Prunus) that grows in clusters; it has a smooth skin that can be yellow, green, red, purple or indigo blue, a juicy flesh, a large pit and a sweet flavor.

Plump, To A cooking technique to which dried fruit is soaked in a liquid until the fruit softens and swells slightly from absorbing the liquid.

Plum Pudding A steamed breadlike British dessert containing spices, prunes and other dried fruit; usually served warm, flamed with rum or brandy and accompanied by hard sauce.

Plum Sauce A spicy, fruity sauce made from plums, chiles, vinegar and sugar; used in Chinese cuisine as a dip and flavoring; also known as duck sauce.

Plum Tomato A medium-sized ovoid tomato with a meaty flesh and a red skin (a yellow variety is also available); also known as an Italian tomato or Roma tomato.

Poaching A moist-heat cooking method that uses convection to transfer heat from a hot (approximately 160-180F (71-82C) liquid to the food submerged in it.

Poblano (poh-BLAh-noh) A long, tapering fresh chile with thick flesh, a medium to hot flavor and a dark green color tinged with purple or black; sometimes known imprecisely as pasilla.

Pod The outer covering of certain seeds such as peas and beans.

Polenta (poh-LEHN-tah) 1. Italian for cornmeal.2. An Italian dish made by cooking cornmeal with a liquid until it forms a soft mass; it is eaten hot or cooled, cut into squares and grilled or fried.

Pomegranate A medium-sized fruit (Punica granatum) with a thin, red to pink-blushed yellow, leathery skin and many seeds encased in a pinkish translucent flesh separated by an ivory-colored, bitter membrane; the flesh has a sweet-tart flavor and the seeds are crunchy.

Pomegranate Syrup A thick sweet-sour syrup made by boiling the juice of sour pomegranates; also known as grenadine molasses.

Popcorn 1. A variety of corn that explodes when it is exposed to dry heat (the moisture and air inside the kernel expands, forms steam, splits the hull and turns the kernel inside out); available as unpopped seeds and fully popped, plain or flavored.2. Small pieces of battered and deep-fried shrimp, chicken, clams and the like.

Popover A batter quick bread baked in a muffin shape; the crust is crisp and brown and the interior moist and almost hollow.

Popover Pan A heavy baking pan used for making popovers and Yorkshire pudding; similar to a muffin pan but with deeper, tapered indentions that are spaced farther apart.

Poppy Seed The tiny, round, hard, blue-gray seed of the poppy (genus Papaver); it has a sweet, nutty flavor and is used in baked goods or processed for oil.

Poppy Seed Oil Oil made from poppy seeds; it has a pale color and a pleasant, delicate flavor and is used principally as an ingredient or flavoring.

Pork The flesh of hogs, usually slaughtered under the age of 1 year.

Pork Loin Roast, full A subprimal cut of the pork primal loin; it is a roast taken from either end of the loin or can be the entire trimmed loin.

Pork Sausage Any of several varieties of fresh sausage made from ground pork and pork fat, typically seasoned with pepper and sage; sold as links, patties or in bulk and also available smoked. Try my 25 Favorite Pork Tenderloin Recipes Pork Tenderloin A subprimal cut of the pork primal loin; it is the tender, lean tenderloin muscle and can be used as is or further fabricated into medallions.

Port A sweet fortified wine made in northern Portugual from red and white wine grapes such as Tinta Roriz, Tinta Francisca, Tinta Cao, Touriga Nacional, Mourisco and Shite Malvasia; traditionally served with dessert or after a meal.

Portabella A very large crimini; the mushroom has a dense texture and a rich, meaty flavor.

Porterhouse Steak A fabricated cut of the beef primal short loin; this tender cut contains a distinctive T-shaped portion of the backbone and large portions (on either side of the center bone) of the loin eye muscle and tenderloin; also known as a king steak.

Potato The starchy tuber of a succulent, nonwoody annual plant (Solanum tuberosum) native to the Andes Mountains; it is cooked like a vegetable, made into flour, processed for chips and used for distillation mash.

Potato, Mealy Any of a variety of potatoes (e.g., russet) with a high starch content, low sugar content, low moisture content and thick skin; used principally for baking, deep-frying and making into whipped or pureed potato dishes; also known as a baker or starchy potato.

Potato, Waxy Any of a variety of potatoes (e.g., red potato) with a low starch content, high moisture content, high sugar content and thin skin; used principally for boiling; also known as a boiling potato.

Potato Buds A form of dehydrated mashed potatoes; the granules or nuggets require some stirring for reconstitution.

Potato Chips Very thinly sliced, deep-fried potatoes, usually salted; also called Saratoga chips because they were first made in Saratoga Springs, New York; also known as potato crisps.

Potato Flour An ultrafine, soft, white powder that is the pure starch obtained by either soaking grated potatoes in water or grinding cooked, dried potatoes; used as a thickener or for baking (alone or blended with wheat flour); also called potato starch.

Potato Masher A utensil with an inflexible zigzag wire and a wooden or metal handle; it is used to reduce high-starch vegetables such as potatoes or parsnips to a soft, fluffy mass.

Potato Nest A dish consisting of shredded potatoes deep-fried in hot fat in a potato nest basket; it is used as a container for serving certain foods.

Potato Nest Basket An assemblage of two wire baskets, one smaller than the other; shredded potatoes are placed in the larger basket, and the smaller basket is placed on top of the potatoes; the assemblage is submerged in hot fat and cooked; available in various sizes.

Potato Salad A dish of cooked, sliced or diced potatoes bound with mayonnaise and flavored with ingredients such as onions, green peppers, cooked eggs, herbs and spices; usually served chilled.

Potato Salad, German A dish of cooked, sliced or diced potatoes bound with a vinegar dressing, flavored with bacon, bacon fat and onions and served warm.

Potpie; Pot Pie A casserole dish of meat or poultry and vegetables in a rich sauce topped with a crust and baked.

Pot Roast To cook a piece of meat by first browning it in hot fat and then braising it in a covered pot. A subprimal cut of the beef chuck or round primals; it is usually tough and flavorful.

Pot Stickers Small Chinese dumplings made of won ton wrappers with a meat, fish, shellfish and/or vegetable filling, either fried or browned and then cooked in a broth or steamed; usually served with dipping sauces; also generally known as Chinese dumplings.

Poultry Any domesticated bird used for food; the USDA recognizes six kinds of poultry; chicken, duck, goose, guinea, pigeon and turkey; each includes various classes.

Pound Cake A dense, rich cake originally made with 1 lb each of butter, flour, sugar and eggs.

Praline (PRAY-leen) A rich, fudgelike candy made with cream, brown sugar and pecans, shaped into small flat patties; popular in Louisiana and Texas.

Prawn 1. An anadromous shrimplike crustacean with a narrower body and longer legs than a shrimp; it has an average market length of 3-4 in., firm, pearly white flesh and a sweet, delicate flavor.2. A term used imprecisely to describe any large shrimp.

Precook To cook a food partially or completely before using it to complete a dish.

Preheat To bring an oven, broiler or pan to the desired temperature before putting in the food.

Preserved Lemons Lemon slices or chunks cured in a salt-lemon juice mixture; used as an ingredient or flavoring, especially in Moroccan cuisine.

Pressed A food from which liquids have been extracted under pressure.

Pressure Cooker A pot with a locking lid and a valve for escaping steam, usually available in 4 to 10 qt. capacities and sometimes with a wire basket insert; food is quickly cooked and tenderized under the high heat of steam pressure.

Pressure Cooking A method of cooking food in a pressure cooker at specific levels of pressure; the higher the pressure, the higher the temperature at which water boils; by cooking food in a liquid under pressure, the trapped steam cooks the food in less time than conventional methods of steaming.

Pretzel A hard, crisp snack food made from a slender rope of leavened dough that is coated with salt and baked into a loose knot or stick.

Prick To make small holes in the surface of the food, especially an unfilled pie crust.

Prickly Pear The small barrel- or somewhat pear-shaped fruit of a species of cactus (Opuntia fiscuindica); studded with small sharp pins and stinging fibers, it has a green to purplish-red skin, a soft yellow-green to deep pink flesh with numerous black seeds, a melon-like aroma and a sweet, bland flavor.

Produce Agricultural products such as fruits and vegetables but usually not herbs or grains.

Profiterole (pro-FEHT-uh-rohl) 1. A miniature cream puff filled with either a sweet or savory cream or custard.2. A French dessert consisting of small cream puffs filled with pastry cream, ice cream or Chantilly cream, usually mounded into a low pyramid and topped with chocolate sauce.

Proof To allow shaped yeast dough products to rise a final time before baking. A technique used to determine whether yeast is viable; the yeast is dissolved in a warm liquid with a small amount of sugar, then allowed to rest in a warm place for 5-10 minutes; if the mixture wells and become bubbly, the yeast is active and the mixture can be used to leaven dough.

Proof Box A cabinet or room in which heat and humidity are controlled to create the correct environment for proofing yeast doughs.

Prosciutto (proh-SHOO-toh) Italian for ham and used to describe a seasoned, salt cured, air-dried product that is not smoked.

Prosecoo (pro-SHE-co) An Italian white wine grape grown in the Veneto region. 2. The wine made from this grape can be still, frizzante or spumante; all three can be dry or amabile.

Proteins A group of compounds composed of oxygen, hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen atoms necessary for manufacturing, maintaining and repairing body tissues and as an alternative source of energy (4 calories per gram); protein chains are constructed of various combinations of amino acids.

Provolone An Italian pasta filata cheese traditionally made from water buffalo’s milk but now also cow’s milk; it has a light ivory color, a mild, mellow flavor and a smooth texture that cuts with crumbling; shapes include a sausage, squat pear and piglet.

Prune 1. A dried red or purple plum.2. A variety of plum grown in Italy.3. French for plum.

Pudding 1. A soft, creamy cooked dessert made with eggs, milk, sugar and flavorings and thickened with flour or another starch.2. The dessert course of a British meal.

Pudding Mold, steamed A bucket-shaped mold with plain or fluted sides and a central tube; the lid is clamped in place and has a handle on top; used for steaming puddings.

Puff Pastry A rich flaky pastry made by enclosing fat, usually butter, in a sheet of dough, rolling the dough out, and continuing to fold and roll the dough until many thin layers of fat and dough are created; as it bakes, the layers rise and separate slightly, due to the steam released by the fat; it is used in many preparations, both sweet and savory (e.g., napoleons, palmiers, tart shells, vol-au-vents and fleurons); also known as pasta sfogliata and pate feuilletee.

Pulled Meat Shredded cooked meat, usually barbecued or roasted beef or pork, torn from a larger cooked cut such as a shoulder, it is typically used for sandwiches.

Pulled Sugar Sugar cooked to the hard-crack stage, then kneaded and pulled by hand until it is soft and pliable enough to shape into flowers, ribbons, fruits and other decorative shapes; these decorations are assembled into elaborate centerpieces or displays or used to garnish pastries, especially fancy cakes.

Pulp The flesh of a fruit.

Pulverized A food that has been reduced to a powder or very fine grind.

Pumpernickel 1. Coarsely ground rye flour.2. A coarse, dark German-style bread with a slightly sour flavor; it is made with dark rye flour and molasses; also known as Westphalian rye bread.

Pumpkin A spherical winter squash with a flattened top and base; can range in size from small to very large and has a fluted orange shell (yellow and green varieties are also available) , a yellow to orange flesh with a mild sweet flavor and numerous flat, edible seeds.

Pumpkinseed Oil A thick oil made in Austria from pumpkinseeds; it has a dark brown color and a slightly toasted flavor with a hint of pumpkin.

Punch Down A folding and pressing technique used to deflate fermented yeast dough to expel and redistribute pockets of carbon dioxide and to relax the gluten.

Pungent 1. A sharp, biting, sometimes acrid or bitter aroma or flavor.2. A wine-tasting term for a heavy, penetrating strong aroma, usually indicating a high degree of volatile acids.

Pupu Platter; Pu Pu Platter A tray with a selection of hot and/or cold hors d’oeuvre; it is available at many Chinese and other Asian restaurants in the United States.

Pure Bar A beverage facility that serves only nonalcoholic beverages.

Puree To process food to achieve a smooth pulp. A food that has been processed by mashing, straining or fine chopping to achieve a smooth pulp.

Purge The juices remaining in a package after fresh, cooked or cured meat is removed.

Purple Potato A moderately long, slightly spherical potato with a thick purple skin and bright purple, mealy flesh; similar to a russet potato; also known as a blue potato.

Pyramid Any cone- or pyramid-shaped object or formation used to display or present foods, especially items such as fruits or sweetmeats.

Qouzi (koo-ree) A Middle Eastern dish consisting of a whole lamb stuffed with rice, garlic, onions, almonds, pistachios, pine nuts and cashews and flavored with baharat, turmeric, saffron, lemon juice and rosewater; a special occasion dish, it is usually roasted outdoors on a spit.

Quail, American A small nonmigratory game bird related to the partridge family; it has 1-2 oz. of breast flesh, a light, lean flesh, a delicate texture and a sweet nutty flavor, varieties include the bobwhite, blue quail and Gambel.

Quarter 1. To cut into four equal pieces. A one-fourth portion of something (e.g., a quarter of a pound).2. One leg plus attached parts of a four-legged animal (e.g., a hind quarter).

Quenelle (kuh-NEHL) A small ovoid dumpling made of seasoned ground fish, chicken, veal or game, bound with panada or egg and poached in stock; usually served with a rich sauce or in a soup.

Quesadilla A Mexican and American Southwestern dish of a flour tortilla filled with cheese and sometimes meat, chicken, refried beans or the like, folded in half and grilled; usually served with salsa and sour cream.

Queso Spanish for cheese. Queso Anejo (KEH-soh- ahn-YEA-ho) An aged white Mexican cheese made from whole, partly skimmed or skimmed cow’s milk; it has an ivory-white color and a mild flavor and can be eaten fresh without pressing or after pressing but not aged.

Queso de Crema A semiform, rich Central American (principally Costa Rican) and South American cream cheese-style cheese made from whole cow’s milk and enriched with cream.

Queso Fresco A rather dry cottage cheese-style cheese made in Spain and Latin American countries from goat’s milk.

Quetsch; Quetsche (ketch) A plum grown in France’s Alsace region; it has a mauve skin and yellow flesh and is used in baked goods, preserves and brandy.

Quiche A French dish consisting of a pastry crust filled with a savory custard made with eggs and cream and garnished with ingredients such as cheese, bacon, ham, onions, broccoli, mushrooms and/or shellfish.

Quiche Dish A fluted porcelain dish that is 1.5 in. high and 5-12 in. in diameter.

Quiche Lorraine A quiche garnished with bacon and cheese (usually Gruyere).

Quick Breads A general category of breads and other baked goods made with quick-acting chemical leavening agents, such as baking powder and baking soda; these products are tender and require no kneading or fermentation (e.g., biscuits, scones, muffins and coffee cakes).

Quick Frozen (QF) A general term to describe a product that was rapidly frozen by any of several processes in an attempt to retain flavors, nutritional values and/or other properties.

Quince (kwenc) A spherical or pear-shaped fruit (Cydonia vulgaris or C. oblonga) with a downy yellow skin, hard, yellowish-white flesh and astringent, tart flavor reminiscent of a pear and apple; always used cooked.

Quinoa (KEEN-wah) A grain that was a staple of the ancient Incas; it has a high protein content (contains all essential amino acids), a small beadlike shape, an ivory color and a delicate, almost bland flavor; it is now prepared like rice.

Rabbit, Domesticated Any of a variety of small burrowing mammals with long ears; farm raised, it has a lean flesh with an ivory color, a relatively tender texture and a mild, delicate flavor; the average market weight for a young rabbit is 2.2lb, and for a mature rabbit it is 3-5lb.

Rack A primal section of the lamb carcass; it contains both bilateral portions of eight ribs along with the tender, flavorful rib eye muscle and is usually split in half along the backbone and used as is or further fabricated into chops; also known as a hotel rack and, when split into bilateral halves, as a split rack.

Radiation CookingA heating process that does not require physical contact between the heat source and the food being cooked; instead, energy is transferred by waves of heat or light striking the food. Two kinds of radiant heat used in the kitchen are infrared and microwave.

Radicchio (rah-DEE-kee-oh) A variety of chicory native to Italy; the purple and white cup-shaped leaves have a bitter flavor and can be used in salads, as garnish or cooked like a vegetable; also known as red-leaf chicory.

Radish A member of the mustard family grown for its root (Raphanus sativus); generally, the crisp white flesh has a mild to peppery flavor and is usually eaten raw.

Raft A clump of clearmeat and impurities from the stock formed during clarification; it rises to the top of the simmering stock and releases additional flavors.

Ragout Traditionally, a well-seasoned, rich stew containing meat, vegetables, and wine.

Rainier Cherry (ray-NER) A heart-shaped sweet cherry with a light red-blushed yellow skin, a yellowish-pink flesh and a sweet flavor.

Raisin 1. A sweet dried grape.2. French for grape.

Raita An eastern Indian yogurt salad that consists of yogurt and various chopped vegetables (e.g., cucumbers, eggplant, potatoes or spinach) or fruits (e.g., bananas) and flavored variously with garam masala, black mustard seeds and herbs.

Ramekin, Ramequin A small ceramic soufflé dish with a 4-oz. capacity.

Ramen 1. A Japanese dish of noodles in broth garnished with small pieces of meat and vegetables.2. Packets of such instant noodles and dehydrated broth.

Ranch Beans A dish of dry pinto beans cooked in water and flavored with onions, garlic and bacon.

Ranchero A Spanish term for a dish prepared country style, usually containing tomatoes, peppers, onions and garlic.

Rancidity A chemical change in fats caused by exposure to air, light or heat that results in objectionable flavors and odors.

Rape A vegetable (Brassica napus) related to the cabbage and turnip families; it has a tall, leafy, green stalk with scattered clusters of tiny broccoli-like florets and a pungent, bitter flavor; also known as broccoli rabe, brocoletti di rape and rapini.

Rapeseeds Seeds of the rape; they are used to make a cooking oil marketed as canola oil.

Raspberry A small ovoid or conical berry (Rubus idaeus) composed of many connecting drupelets (tiny individual sections of fruit, each with its own seed) surrounding a central core; it has a sweet, slightly acidic flavor, the three principal varieties are black, golden and red.

Raspberry Sauce A thick pourable mixture of pureed fresh or frozen raspberries blended with sugar and often flavored with Chambord, Kirschwasser or framboise; used for desserts.

Ratatouille (ra-tuh-TOO-ee) A vegetable ragout made in France’s Provence region from tomatoes, eggplant, zucchini, onions, garlic, sweet peppers and herbs simmered in olive oil.

Ravioli Italian for little wraps and used to describe small squares or rounds of pasta stuffed with meat, cheese or vegetables.

Ravioli Mold A metal tray with fluted-edge indentions; the pasta dough is laid on the tray, filled, and another sheet of dough is placed on top; a rolling pin is then used to seal and cut the layered pasta.

Raw Sugar Sugar in the initial stages of refining; according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture. True raw sugar is unfit for direct use as a food ingredient.

Reamer A cone-shaped wooden utensil with a ridged surface; used for extracting juice from fruit, particularly citrus.

Recipe A set of written instructions for producing a specific food or beverage; also known as a formula (especially with regards to baked goods).

Recipe Conversion The adjustment of ingredient quantities to reflect a desired change in a recipe yield.

Reconstitute To build up again by adding back the part or parts that have been subtracted, such as adding back the appropriate amount of water to dry milk solids.

Red Beans and Rice An American Southern dish of red beans cooked with ham and served over white rice.

Red Chile Pepper Paste A spicy puree of hot chiles, blended with oil and used as a condiment or flavoring.

Red Delicious Apple A large native North American apple; it has a brilliant red skin, an elongated body with five projections at the base, a juicy, crisp texture that becomes mealy when stored and a sweet flavor that lacks acidity; good for eating out of hand.

Redeye Gravy; Red-Eye Gravy; Red Ham Gravy A thin gravy made from ham drippings and water, often flavored with coffee, also known as frog-eye gravy.

Redfish A member of the drum family found in the southern Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico; it has a reddish-bronze skin with a black-spotted tail, an average market weight of 2-8 lb. and a firm, ivory flesh with a mild flavor; also known as channel bass, red drum and red bass.

Red Onion A medium to large onion with a maroon-colored outer layer, a light pinkish-white flesh and a slightly sweet, mild flavor; also known as a purple onion.

Red Pepper A generic name for any of various red chiles with a hot flavor; generally dried and available whole, flaked or powdered.

Red Potato A small spherical potato with a thin red skin, a white waxy flesh, a small to medium size, a high moisture content and a low starch content; also known as a boiling potato.

Red Snapper A fish found along the U.S. East Coast and in the Gulf of Mexico; it has red eyes, a rosy skin fading to pink and then white at the belly, a lean, flaky, pink flesh that whitens when cooked, a delicate, sweet flavor and an average market weight of 2-8 lb.; also known as the American snapper and northern red snapper.

Reduce To cook a liquid mixture, often a sauce, until the quantity decreases through evaporation; typically done to concentrate flavors and thicken liquids.

Reducing The process of lowering the alcohol content of an alcoholic beverage by adding distilled water during production.

Reduction A sauce or other liquid that has been reduced.

Red Velvet cake An American cake composed of three or four layers of a rich chocolate cake dyed bright red with food coloring and filled and frosted with white cream cheese icing.

Red Vinegar A clear, pale red liquid with a delicate, tart, slightly salty flavor; used in northern Chinese cuisine as a condiment.

Refreshing 1. The process of adding a newer wine, distilled spirit or other beverage to the existing one to give the old product a new liveliness.2. Submerging a food (usually a vegetable) in cold water to cool it quickly and prevent further cooking; also known as shocking.

Refried Beans A Mexican-American dish of cooked and mashed pinto beans; served as a side dish or filling.

Regional Cuisine A set of recipes based on local ingredients, traditions and practices; within a larger geographic, political, cultural or social unit, regional cuisines are often variations of each other that blend together to create a national cuisine.

Rehydrate To restore the water lost during a drying process, (usually by cooking, storing or freeze-drying).

Relish A cooked or pickled sauce usually made with vegetables or fruits and often used as a condiment; it can be smooth or chunky, sweet or savory and hot or mild.

Relish Tray; Relish Plate A small dish of olives, pickles, carrot sticks, cherry tomatoes, celery stalks and the like served as an appetizer; there is usually one dish per table and diners help themselves, usually while waiting for and enjoying their drinks.

Relleno 1. Spanish for stuffing or forcemeat.2. Any of several Mexican dishes consisting of an item such as a chile stuffed with cheese and usually dipped in batter and fried.

Remouillage French for rewetting and used to describe a stock produced by reusing the bones from another stock.

Remoulade A French mayonnaise-based sauce flavored with mustard, capers, chopped gherkins, herbs and anchovies; usually served with cold shellfish, fish, or meat.

Rempah (r’m-pah) A flavoring paste made from ingredients such as lemongrass, fresh or dried chiles, onions, garlic, coriander, ginger and shrimp paste; used in Malaysian and Indonesian curry dishes and to season meat for satays.

Render 1. To melt and clarify fat.2. To cook meats and poultry to remove the fat.

Reserve A wine-marketing term (particularly for California wines) indicating that the producer considers the product finer and longer lived than the regular bottling of the same variety; it has no legal significance; also known as private reserve and proprietor’s reserve.

Residual Sugar The natural grape sugar intentionally left in the wine after fermentation; this sweetness should be balanced by the wine’s acidity.

Retard To refrigerate a yeast dough to slow fermentation.

Reuben; Reuben Sandwich A sandwich of corned beef, an Emmental-style cheese and sauerkraut on rye bread and fried in butter.

Rhubarb A perennial plant (Rheum rhaponticum) with long, pink to red, celerylike stalks and large green leaves that are toxic; the stalks have an extremely tart flavor and are used in baked goods; also known as pie plant.

Rib 1. A primal section of the beef carcass; it consists of ribs 6-12 and a portion of the backbone; it includes such subprimal or fabricated cuts as the blade, rib roast, short ribs, rib eye roast and rib eye steaks.2. A single stalk of a vegetable such as celery.

Ribbon A term used to describe the consistency of a batter or mixture, especially a mixture of beaten eggs and sugar; when the beater or whisk is lifted, the mixture will fall slowly back onto its surface in a ribbonlike pattern. 2. A long strip or strand of pasta.

Rib Eye Roast A subprimal cut of the tender eye muscle of the beef primal rib; boneless, it is sometimes known erroneously as a prime rib roast.

Rib Eye Steak A fabricated cut of the tender eye muscle of the beef primal rib. Rib Roast A large subprimal of the beef primal rib containing the tender eye and other muscles, a large amount of marbling and available with or without the bones; also known as prime rib roast and prime rib of beef.

Ricciolini Italian for little curls and used to describe little wavy strips or curls of pasta.

Rice The starchy seed of a semiaquatic grass (Oryza sativa), probably originating in Southeast Asia and now part of most cuisines; there are three classifications based on seed size – long grain, medium grain and short grain-each of which is available in different processed forms such as white rice and brown.

Rice, Long-Grain Rice with a length four to five times its width; when cooked, it produces firm, fluffy grains that separate easily.

Rice, Short-Grain Rice with a fat, almost round, grain and a high starch content; when cooked, it produces moist, tender grains that tend to stick together.

Rice Noodles Very thin noodles made from finely ground rice and water and used in many Asian cuisines; when deep-fried they expand greatly in size and become crispy, when stir-fried they remain soft; also known as rice flour noodles and rice vermicelli.

Rice Pudding A creamy, custardlike dessert made with milk, sugar, eggs and rice, often flavored with spices and garnished with raisins or currants.

Ricer A tool used to reduce a cooked food, such as a potato into ricelike pieces; the food is placed in a hopper and pushed through a die by a plunger; also known as a potato ricer.

Rice Vinegar; rice wine vinegar A type of vinegar made from rice wine; it is generally clear with a straw color; Chinese rice vinegars are sharp and sour, whereas Japanese ones are mellow and almost sweet.

Rich 1. A tasting term for a food that has a large complement of fat or fatty substances; it usually gives a heavy, sleek mouth feel.2. A beer and wine-tasting term for a product that is full bodied, aromatic, flavorful, appropriately acidic and mouth filling.

Rich Dough A yeast dough that contains a high ratio of fat, eggs or sugar (e.g. challah, brioche and Danish pastry dough).

Ricotta 1. A rich fresh Italian cheese made from the whey remaining after other cow’s milk cheeses have been made; it has a white color, a moist, somewhat grainy texture and a slightly sweet flavor and is used in both savory and sweet dishes; sometimes allowed to age until firm enough for grating; also known as Brocotta.2. In the United States, the whey is usually mixed with whole or skimmed cow’s milk and the cheese is similar to cottage cheese; also known as whey cheese and albumin cheese.

Riesling 1. The principal white wine grape grown in Germany’s Rhine region, France’s Alsace region and various areas of North America and, to a lesser extent, Italy, Australia, Austria and New Zealand.2. The rich, sweet wine made from such grapes affected with the noble rot.3. The flowery, fragrant, acidic white wine with a fruity flavor made from such grapes unaffected by the noble rot.

Rigatoni Italian for large groove and used to describe large, grooved, slightly curved pasta tubes.

Rimming The process by which the rim of a glass is coated with sugar or salt for certain cocktails.

Rind A relatively thick, firm coat, skin or covering found on certain foods such as fruits, vegetables and cheeses. 2. The outer surface of a cheese, produced naturally or by adding mold during curing; some rinds are eatable and all rinds vary in texture, thickness and color.

Ripe 1. Fully grown and developed fruit; the fruit’s flavor, texture and appearance are at their peak and the fruit is ready to eat.2. A tasting term for a food (e.g., cheese) or beverage (e.g., wine) that is fully aged; it is mature and has the appropriate flavor.3. An unpleasant odor indicating that a food, especially meat, poultry, fish or shellfish, may be past its prime.

Ripening 1. The period during which the bacteria and mold present in a green cheese change the cheese’s texture and flavor; a cheese can ripen from the surface inward by the application of microorganisms to the cheese (called surface-ripened cheese), from the interior outward by the injection of microorganisms in to the cheese (used for certain blue-veined cheeses) or all through the cheese by the microorganisms already present; also known imprecisely as aging and curing.2. The period during which fruits mature.

Risotto (rih-zot-toh) 1. A cooking method for grains (especially rice) in which the grains are lightly sautéed in butter and then a liquid is gradually added; the mixture is simmered with nearly constant stirring until the still-firm grains merge with the cooking liquid.2. A Northern Italian rice dish prepared in this fashion.

Roasting A dry-heat cooking method that heats food by surrounding it with hot, dry air in a closed environment or on a spit over an open fire; the term is usually applied to meats, poultry, game and vegetables.

Roasting Pan A deep or shallow, oval or rectangular, metal or ceramic pan with two handles.

Roasting Rack A slightly raised flat or V-shaped rack used to keep a roast or poultry above the pan during roasting to prevent it from cooking in its drippings.

Rock Salt A large, coarse salt that is less refined than table salt; it has a grayish cast and is generally not used for consumption but rather as a bed for shellfish or in hand-cranked ice cream makers; also known as bay salt and ice cream salt.

Rocky Road A flavoring combination of chocolate, marshmallows and nuts; used as a candy and in ice creams, pies, cakes and other desserts.

Roe A collective term for the spawn of female fish (also known as hard row), the milt of male fish (also known as soft roe) or the eggs contained within the fish’s or shellfish’s (e.g., lobster’s) ovarian membrane.

Roll A small bread made with yeast dough; it can be variously shaped and flavored.

Roll Cutting A method of diagonal cutting; a diagonal cut is made about 1 5/8 in. from one end of the vegetable, the vegetable is rolled a quarter of a turn, a second cut is made the same distance along and rolling and cutting are continued to the end; usually used for root vegetables.

Rolled Fondant An icing with the consistency of a dough; made from confectioner’s sugar, corn syrup, gelatin and glycerin, it is rolled out with a rolling pin and draped over a cake to create a perfectly smooth, plasterlike surface for decorating; naturally pure white, it can be colored with food dyes; also known as Australian icing.

Rolled-In Dough A dough in which a fat is incorporated in many layers by using a rolling and folding procedure; it is used for flaky baked goods such as croissants, puff pastry and Danish; also known as laminated dough.

Romaine Lettuce A lettuce with an elongated head of loosely packed crisp leaves that are dark green and become paler toward the center; the leaves have a slightly bitter flavor and a crunchy stem; also known as cos lettuce and Manchester lettuce.

Romano A hard grana cheese made in southern and central Italy; it has a brittle texture, a pale yellow-white color and a sharp flavor; generally used for grating after ageing for 1 year.

Rondeau A shallow, wide, straight-sided pot with loop handles.

Rondelles Disk-shaped slices of cylindrical vegetables or fruits; also known as rounds.

Root Beer 1. Traditionally, a low-alcohol-content, naturally effervescent beverage made by fermenting yeast and sugar with various herbs and roots, such as sassafras, sarsaparilla, ginger and wintergreen.2. A nonalcoholic sweetened, carbonated beverage flavored with extracts of various roots and herbs.

Root Vegetables A general category of vegetables that are used principally for their taproots (e.g., carrots, celery roots and parsnips) or tubers (e.g., potatoes).

Roquefort (ROHK-fuhr) A semisoft to hard French cheese made from ewe’s milk; it has a creamy white interior with blue veins and a pungent, somewhat salty flavor; considered the prototype of blue cheese, true Roquefort, produced only in Roquefort, France is authenticated by a red sheep on the wrapper and contains approximately 45% milkfat.

Rosemary An herb (Rosmarinus officinalis) with silver-green, needle-shaped leaves, a strong flavor reminiscent of lemon and pine and a strong, sharp camphorlike aroma; available fresh and dried.

Rosette 1. A flowerlike design made with icing, whipped cream or the like using a piping bag fitted with a star-shaped tip.2. A deep-fried pastry made by dipping a rosette iron into a thin, rich batter, then into hot fat; when crisp and brown, the rosette is removed from the fat and dusted with confectioners’ sugar.

Rosewater An intensely perfumed flavoring distilled from rose petals; widely used in Asian and Middle Eastern pastries and confections.

Rotary Egg Beater A tool with two flat-bladed beaters connected to a gear-driven wheel with a hand crank located near the handle; used to whip cream, eggs and the like.

Rotisserie 1. Cooking equipment that slowly rotates food (usually meat or poultry) in front of or above a heat source.2. A restaurant or shop that specializes in roasted meats.3. The area in a large restaurant kitchen where roasting is done. Roulade (roo-lahd) 1. A slice of meat, poultry or fish rolled around a stuffing.2. A filled and rolled sponge cake.

Roux (roo) A cooked mixture of equal parts flour and fat, by weight, used as a thickener for sauces, soups and other dishes; cooking the flour in fat coats the starch granules with the fat and prevents them from forming lumps when introduced into a liquid.

Royal Icing A decorative icing made with confectioners’ sugar, egg whites and lemon juice; pure white and very hard when dry; it is used for fine-line piping and making durable decorations such as flowers.

Rub A mixture of fresh or dried herbs and spices ground together; it can be used dried, or it can be mixed with a little oil, lemon juice, prepare mustard or ground fresh garlic or ginger to make a wet rub.

Ruby Port A young, deep red, fruity port that has been aged in wooden pipes for only 3 years.

Rugalach (RUHG-uh-luhkh) Bite-size crescent-shaped Jewish cookies made from a cream cheese dough rolled around various fillings, such as nuts, chocolate, poppy seed paste or fruit jam; also known as kipfel.

Rum A spirit distilled from fermented sugarcane juice, sugarcane molasses, sugarcane syrup or other sugarcane by-products; generally made in the Caribbean, it is aged in wooden barrels; its color can range from clear to gold to amber (dark) and its flavor from delicate to heavy.

Rumaki 1. A hot hors d’oeuvre consisting of a slice of water chestnut and piece of chicken liver skewered and wrapped in bacon, marinated in soy sauce, ginger and garlic and grilled or broiled.2. An imprecisely used name for any hors d’oeuvre consisting of a crunchy item (e.g., almond) on a skewer surrounded by a softer, chewier one (e.g., date) and served hot or cold.

Russet Potato A long, flattened ovoid potato with a rough, thick brown skin, a mealy white flesh, numerous large eyes, a low moisture content and a high starch content; principally used for baking and frying.

Russian Tea 1. A black tea from the Republic of Georgia in the former Soviet Union; the beverage has a full-bodied flavor and should be served strong with lemon rather than milk or cream; traditionally served in a glass with a separate holder and consumed with a sugar cube held in the teeth.2. A hot spiced tea punch made with lemon and orange rinds and lemon, orange and pineapple juices.

Rustic 1. A tasting term for a food, beverage or cooking style that is somewhat coarse, simple and does not necessarily reflect professional skills; often associated with regional cooking.2. A cheese-tasting term for a cheese, usually a farmhouse cheese, that has a hearty, earthy flavor and an assertive barnyardy aroma.

Rutabaga (roo-tuh-BAY-guh) A member of the cabbage family (Brassica napobrassica); the medium-sized, somewhat spherical root has a thin, pale yellow skin, sometimes with a purple blush, a firm, pale yellow flesh and a slightly sweet flavor; also known as a swede or Swedish turnip.

Rye A cereal grass (Secale cereale) similar to wheat; its seed is milled into flour or used to make whiskey in the United States, Holland gin in the Netherlands and kvass in Russia.

Rye Flour A flour milled from rye seeds; it has a dark color and low gluten-forming potential; it is often combined with wheat flour for baking.

Sabayon (sah-by-on) A foamy, stirred French custard sauce made by whisking eggs, sugar and wine over low heat; known in Italian as zabaglione.

Sachet; sachet d’epices A French seasoning blend of aromatic ingredients tied in a cheesecloth bag and used to flavor stocks, sauces, soups and stews; a standard sachet consists of parsley stems, cracked peppercorns, dried thyme, cloves and sometimes garlic.

Safflower A plant (Carthamus tincotorius) with a flower that looks like a saffron crocus; its flavorless threads have a deep burnt orange color and are used as a food coloring; also known as bastard saffron, false saffron, haspir, Mexican saffron and saffron thistle.

Safflower oil A viscous oil obtained from the seeds of the safflower; higher in polyunsaturated fats than any other oil; it has a strong flavor, a rich yellow color and a high smoke point and does not solidify when chilled.

Saffron (SAF-ruhn) A spice that is the dried yellow-orange stigma of a crocus’s purple flower (Crocus sativus); native to the Middle East, it has a slightly bitter, honeylike flavor and a strong, pungent aroma; used as a flavoring and yellow coloring agent.

Sage An herb (Salvia officinalis) native to the Mediterranean region; soft, slender, slightly furry, gray-green leaves and a pungent, slightly bitter, musty mint flavor; used for medicinal and culinary purposes; available fresh or dried and chopped, whole or rubbed.

Sake (sah-KEE) A clear Japanese wine made from fermented rice and served hot or cold; because of its grain base, it is sometimes categorized as a beer; also known as rice wine.

Salad A single food or a mix of different foods accompanied or bound by a dressing; it can be served as an appetizer, a second course after an appetizer, an entrée or a course following the entrée or dessert and can contain almost any food.

Salad, Composed A salad whose ingredients (greens, garnishes and dressing) are arranged carefully and artfully on the plate.

Salad, Tossed A salad whose ingredients (greens, garnishes and dressing) are placed in a bowl and tossed to combine.

Salad Greens Any of a variety of leafy green vegetables that are usually eaten raw.

Salad Spinner A tool used to remove moisture from the surface of salad greens; the produce is held in a perforated bowl sitting inside a container; the inner container is spun, displacing the water through centrifugal forces and through the perforations into the outer container.

Salamander 1. A small overhead broiler used primarily to finish or top-brown foods.2. A tool with a heavy iron head attached to a metal shaft with a wooden handle; heated over a burner and held closely over a dish to brown the food.

Salami A style of Italian sausages made from pork and beef, highly seasoned with garlic and spices; rarely smoked, they are cured and air-dried and vary in size, shape and seasonings (e.g., Genoa and cotto).

Salisbury Steak A beef patty seasoned with parsley, broiled or fried with onions and served with a gravy made from the pan drippings.

Salmon A large family of anadromous fish found in the northern Atlantic and Pacific Oceans; generally, they have a silver to gray skin, a pink-red flesh, a firm texture and a rich flavor; principal varieties include the Atlantic salmon, chinook salmon and coho salmon.

Salsa 1. Spanish for sauce.2. Traditionally, a Mexican cold sauce made from tomatoes flavored with cilantro, chiles and onions.3. Generally, a cold chunky mixture of fresh herbs, spices, fruits and/or vegetables used as a sauce or dip.

Salt 1. A substance resulting from the chemical interaction of an acid and a base, usually sodium and chloride.2. A white granular substance (sodium chloride) used to season foods.

Salt Curing The process of surrounding a food with salt or a mixture of salt, sugar, nitrite-based curing salt, herbs and spices; salt curing dehydrates the food, inhibits bacterial growth and adds flavor.

Saltimbocca (salt-eem-BOHK-ka) An Italian dish of veal scallops sautéed in butter, topped with thin slices of prosciutto and braised in white wine.

Salt Mill A handheld tool used to grind granules of sea salt.

Salt Pork Very fatty pork, usually from the hog’s sides and belly, cured in salt and used principally as a cooking fat or flavoring; also known as corned belly bacon and white bacon.

Sanding Sugar Granulated Sugar with a large, coarse crystal structure that prevents it from dissolving easily; used for decorating cookies and pastries.

Sandwich Slices of bread separated by any of a wide variety of fillings such as meats, poultry, fish, shellfish, cheeses, preserves, vegetables and/or condiments; served hot or cold.

Sangiovese The dominant red wine grape grown in Italy’s Tuscany region and the principal variety used for Chianti.

Sangria (sahn-GREE-ah) A Spanish punch usually made of red wine, lemon and orange slices, sugar and sometimes soda water.

Sardine 1.A generic name for any of several small, soft-boned, saltwater fish, such as the pilchard, sprat, herring and alewife; generally not available fresh outside the area in which they are caught and usually available smoked, salted, pickled, cured in brine or packed in tomato sauce, mustard sauce or oil.2. A young herring.

Sashimi A Japanese dish of sliced raw fish served with condiments such as soy sauce, daikon, wasabi or ginger.

Sassafras An aromatic, native American tree (Sassafras albidum) belonging to the laurel family; the bark of the root is dried and used as a flavoring for root beer, and the leaves are pounded to make file powder.

Sate; Satay (sah-TAY) A Southeast Asian dish consisting of small cubes or strips of meat, fish or poultry threaded on skewers and grilled or broiled; usually served with a spicy peanut sauce.

Sauce 1. To add a sauce; to flavor or season a food with a sauce.2. A thickened liquid or semiliquid preparation used to flavor and enhance other foods.

Saucepan A round metal cooking vessel with one long handle and straight or sloped sides; generally smaller and shallower than a pot, it is available in a range of sizes, from 1 pt. to 4 qt., and sometimes with a fitted lid.

Sauce Whisk An elongated whisk; its nine fairly rigid looped wires create a pear-shaped outline; also known as a piano-wire whisk.

Sauerkraut A German dish of shredded, salted, fermented green cabbage, sometimes flavored with juniper berries.

Sausage A forcemeat stuffed into a casing; the principal ingredients, seasonings, shape, size, casing type, curing technique and degree of drying vary.

Sauteing A dry-heat cooking method that uses conduction to transfer heat from a hot pan to food with the aid of a small amount of hot fat; cooking is usually done quickly over high temperatures.

Sauternes 1. A grape-growing and wine-producing district in France’s Bordeaux region known for the white wine of the same name.2. A wine made from overly ripe grapes (usually Sauvignon Blanc or Semillon) affected by the noble rot; it is sweet, complex and honeyed.

Sauteuse The basic sauté pan with sloping sides and a single long handle.

Sautoir A sauté pan with straight sides and a single long handle (if very large, it may have a loop handle on the other side); used to fry foods quickly in a limited amount of fat.

Sauvignon Blanc 1. A white wine grape grown extensively in France’s Bordeaux and Loire regions, California, Australia and New Zealand; also known as Blanc Fume (especially in the Loire Valley) and Muskat-Silvaner (in Germany and Austria).2. A white wine made from this grape, generally known for its acidity and grassy or herbaceous aroma and semisweet character.

Savory 1. A food that is not sweet.2. An herb of the mint family.

Savoy Cabbage A member of the cabbage family with a spherical, relatively loose head of curly, wrinkled leaves in variegated shades of green and purple; it has a milder flavor than that of red or green cabbage.

Scald To heat a liquid, usually milk, to just below the boiling point.

Scales Equipment used to measure the weight of an object.

Scallions 1. The immature green stalks of a bulb onion.2. A variety of onion with a small white bulb and long, straight, hollow green leaves.3. A bulbless onion with these green stalks; also known as green onions, spring onions and bunch onions.

Scallop 1. To cook a food (e.g., potatoes) by layering it with cream or a sauce and usually topping it with crumbs before baking.2. To form a raised, decorative rim on a pie crust.

Scallops A family of bivalve mollusks found in saltwater regions worldwide; they have rounded, fan-shaped shells with small ears or wings at the hinge; the adductor muscle generally has an ivory or pinkish-beige color that becomes white when cooked, a tender texture and a sweet flavor; most scallops are shucked aboard ship; significant domestic varieties include the bay scallop, calico scallop, Pacific pink scallop and sea scallop.

Scampi 1. Italian for a small lobster.2. An American dish of large shrimp cooked in butter, seasoned with lemon juice, garlic and white wine; also known as shrimp scampi.

Scant A traditional measuring term for just barely (e.g., 1 scant teaspoon).

Scent A tasting term for the pleasant odor or smell of a food (particularly fresh fruits, vegetables and cheeses) or beverage (e.g., wine beer or distilled spirit).

Schnapps A group of Dutch or German strong, colorless alcoholic spirits distilled from grains or potatoes; they are often flavored (e.g., peach schnapps and peppermint schnapps).

Scone 1. A traditional Scottish quick bread originally made with oats and cooked on a griddle.2. A rich, delicate quick bread similar to a biscuit; it is sometimes studded with raisins or other dried or fresh fruit and is usually served with jam, butter or clotted cream.

Score To make shallow cuts in meat or fish, usually in a diamond pattern; done for decorative purposes, to assist in absorbing flavors and to tenderize the product.

Scotch Egg A British dish of a hard-cooked egg coated with sausage, dipped into beaten egg, rolled in bread crumbs and deep-fried; served halved, hot or cold.

Scramble To mix a food or foods until well blended. Scrape Down To remove batter or dough from the sides of a mixing bowl with a spatula; the material gathered is typically added to the bulk of dough or batter in the bowl.

Scum The froth that forms on the top of boiling liquids; it usually contains impurities and other undesirable items and is removed with a skimmer.

Seafood 1. Shellfish.2. Shellfish and other small, edible marine creatures.3. Saltwater shellfish.4. Saltwater shellfish and fish.5. All shellfish and fish, saltwater and freshwater.

Sear To brown food quickly over high heat; usually done as a preparatory step for combination cooking methods.

Sea Salt Salt recovered through the evaporation of seawaters; it is available in fine and coarse crystals and is used for cooking and preserving.

Season 1. Traditionally, to enhance a food’s flavor by adding salt.2. More commonly, to enhance a food’s flavor by adding salt and/or ground pepper as well as herbs and other spices; other than adding salt and pepper, seasoning is usually done by the chef and not by the diner.3. To mature and bring a food (usually beef or game) to a proper condition by aging or special preparation.4. To prepare a pot, pan or other cooking surface to reduce or to prevent sticking.

Seasoned Salt A seasoning blend; its primary ingredient is salt, with flavorings such as celery, garlic or onion added. Sec 1. French for dry and used to describe a dry (not sweet) wine.2. A medium-sweet Champagne or sparkling wine; it has 1.7-3.5% sugar.

Self-Rising Flour An all-purpose white wheat flour to which salt and baking powder have been added.

Seltzer; Seltzer Water 1. A mineral water from the town of Nieder Selters in Germany’s Weisbaden region.2. A flavorless water with induced carbonation consumed plain or used as a mixer for alcoholic drinks and soda fountain confections; also known as club soda and soda water.

Semisweet Chocolate A type of chocolate containing moderate amounts of sugar and from 15 to 35% chocolate liquor; usually sold in bars or chips and eaten as a candy or used for baking.

Semolina A grainy, pale yellow flour coarsely ground from wheat (usually durum or other hard wheats) with a high protein content and gluten-forming potential; used principally for pasta dough.

Serrano A short, tapered fresh chile with a green or orange-red color, a thick flesh and a very hot flavor.

Serrated Edge The cutting edge of a knife; generally used for slicing items with a hard exterior and a soft interior (e.g., crusty bread or tomato); the blade has a series of tiny, sharp V-shaped teeth that saw the food.

Sesame Seeds The tiny, flat seeds of a plant (Sesamum indicum) native to India; they have a nutty, slightly sweet flavor and are available with a red, brown, black or grayish-ivory color; also known as benne seeds.

Set To allow a mixture to thicken or congeal, usually by chilling (e.g., gelatin).

Seven-Minute Frosting A fluffy meringue frosting made by beating egg whites, sugar and corn syrup together in a double boiler until stiff peaks form; also known as seafoam frosting and foam frosting.

Seven-Spice Powder A spice blend generally consisting of ground anise pepper, sesame seeds, flax seeds, rapeseeds, poppy seeds, nori and dried tangerine (or orange) peel; used in Japanese cuisine.

Sfoglia (sfo-ghee-ah) A thin, flat sheet of pasta dough that can be cut into ribbons, circles, squares or other shapes.

Shallot A member of the onion family (Allium ascalonicum) native to the Middle East and formed like garlic, with a head composed of several cloves covered in a thin papery skin; the outer covering can be pale brown, bronze, pale gray or rose; it has a pink-tinged ivory-colored flesh and a flavor that is more subtle than that of onion and less harsh than that of garlic.

Shallow Poaching A moist-heat cooking method that combines poaching and steaming; the food (usually fish) is placed on a vegetable bed and partially covered with a liquid (cuisson) and simmered.

Sheperd’s Pie An old English dish of ground meat, usually lamb or mutton, and sometimes vegetables such as corn or peas, bound with a gravy, topped with mashed potatoes and baked.

Sherbet A frozen dessert made with fruit juice, sugar and water; it can also contain milk, cream and egg whites.

Sherry A fortified wine made principally from the Palomino grape in a delimited district in southern Spain centering around the city of Jerez de la Frontera; a sherry can range from pale gold and bone dry to dark brown and very sweet; its distinctive flavor and aroma are partly the result of a flor forming during the solera.

Sherry Vinegar A nutty brown-colored vinegar with a full, round flavor made from sherry and aged in wooden barrels in a process similar to that used to make sherry.

Shiitake (shee-TAH-kay) A mushroom (Lentinus edodes) native to Japan and now cultivated in the United States; it has a tough stem that is usually not eaten and a dark brown cap that has a velvety texture and a meaty, smoky flavor; available fresh and dried; also known as black forest mushroom, flower mushroom winter mushroom, doubloom and golden oak.

Shirred Eggs Eggs covered with milk or cream and sometimes bread crumbs and baked in a small dish until the whites are firm.

Shish Kebab 1. A Mediterranean dish of marinated meats (usually lamb or beef) and vegetables threaded on a skewer and grilled or broiled; also known as shashlik.2. A term used imprecisely to describe a grilled or broiled skewer of meats, poultry, shellfish, firm fish, vegetables and/or fruits; the foods are often marinated.

Shocking Submerging a food in cold water to quickly cool it and prevent further cooking, also known as shocking; usually used for vegetables.

Shoofly Pie A Pennsylvania German dessert consisting of a flaky pastry shell filled with a spicy molasses and brown sugar custard.

Shortbread A rich, crumbly British butter cookie; the dough is traditionally formed into a circle and cut into pie-shaped wedges called petticoat tails.

Shortcake A dessert made with a sweet biscuit split in half and filled with fresh fruit, especially strawberries, and whipped cream; angel food cake or sponge cake is sometimes used instead of a biscuit.

Shortening 1. A white, flavorless, solid fat formulated for baking or deep-frying.2. Any fat used in baking to tenderize the product by shortening gluten strands.

Short Ribs 1. A fabricated cut of the beef primal short plate consisting of not more than five ribs (numbers 6-10) it is meaty and has a high percentage of connective tissue; also known as plate short ribs and beef ribs.2. A fabricated cut of the beef primal chuck; they are rectangular chunks of meat, typically 2-3 in. long, with layers of fat, meat, bone and connective tissue.

Shred To cut into thin but irregular strips.

Shrimp Any of several varieties of crustaceans found world-wide, particularly in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and Gulf of Mexico; generally, they have 10 legs, a shell that can be light brown, pink, red, grayish-white, yellow, gray-green or dark green, a lean, white flesh and a rich, sweet flavor; usually sold according to count (number per pound) and categorized as colossal (10 or less per pound).

Significant varieties, which are generally distinguished by shell color, include brown, pink, white, Caribbean white, sea bob and royal red shrimps.

Shrimp Deveiner A tool with a handle and a curved blade with a serrated tip; the tool follows the arc of the shrimp’s shell; as it is pushed from the head to the tail, the ridged edge removes the intestinal vein while the upper edge cuts the shell.

Shrinkage Loss of weight or volume during storage or preparation of a food; it is usually caused by a loss of moisture.

Shuck 1. A shell, pod or husk.2. To remove the edible portion of a food (for example, clam meat, peas or an ear of corn) from its shell, pod or husk.

Side Dish The name given to a dish such as a starch or vegetable that accompanies the main dish or entrée; usually served in a separate dish.

Side Masking The technique of coating only the sides of a cake with garnish. Sieve 1. To strain a liquid from a food through the fine mesh or perforated holes of a strainer or sieve.2. To rub or press food through a sieve or strainer with a utensil such as the back of a spoon.

Sift To pass dry ingredients, such as flour and baking powder, through a sieve or sifter to remove lumps and blend and aerate the ingredients.

Sifter A handheld utensil used to sift dry ingredients, especially flour; it consists of a cylinder with four curved rods connected to a hand crank; the rods brush the contents through a fine mesh screen; battery-powered models are available; also known as a flour sifter.

Silverskin The tough connective tissue that surrounds certain muscles.

Simmering 1. A moist-heat cooking method that uses convection to transfer heat from a hot (approximately 185-205F) liquid to the food submerged in it.2. Maintaining the temperature of a liquid just below the boiling point.

Simple Syrup A syrup made by mixing equal parts of sugar and water and then boiling until the sugar dissolves; it is used for glazing and moistening cakes and pastries and in beverages and sorbets; also known as bar syrup.

Skewer To impale small pieces of meat or other food on a skewer. A long, narrow, sharp-pointed metal or wooden pin that is put through the center of a large piece of food (particularly meat) or several small pieces of meat in order for them to be cooked together.

Skim To remove the upper part of a liquid while leaving the rest intact (e.g., removing fat from a liquid or scum from a soup or stew).

Skimmer A long-handed tool with a shallow mesh or perforated bowl; used for skimming stocks and removing food from a liquid.

Skin To remove the skin, peel or outer layer from a food, such as poultry, fish, fruits or vegetables, before or after cooking.

Slice 1. To cut a food into relatively broad, thin pieces. The cut pieces of the food.2. A triangular spatula used for lifting, especially cakes and fish.

Slurry A mixture of raw starch and a cold liquid used for thickening.

Small Sauces Also known as compound sauces; made by adding one or more ingredients to a leading sauce; they are grouped together into families based on their leading sauce; some small sauces have a variety of uses, while others are traditional accompaniments for specific foods.

Smoking A method of preserving and flavoring foods by exposing them to smoke; this includes (1) cold smoking, in which the foods are not fully cooked, and (2) hot smoking, in which the foods are cooked; also known as smoke curing.

Smoothie A beverage made by pureeing fruits or vegetables with juice, yogurt, milk and/or ice cream to a thick consistency; nutrient supplements are sometimes added; served chilled.

S’mores Confections made by sandwiching milk chocolate and marshmallows between graham crackers and heating the sandwich, often over an open fire, until the chocolate melts.

Smother A cooking method in which one food is completely covered with another food or sauce while baking or braising in a covered container.

Snickerdoodle A cookie with a crackly surface; usually flavored with cinnamon and nutmeg and coated in sugar before baking.

Snow Crab A variety of crab found in the Pacific Ocean from Alaska to Oregon; it has long, slender legs, a white flesh with vivid red markings, a delicate, succulent flavor and a tender texture; also known as queen crab, spider crab and tanner crab.

Snow Pea A bean with a bright green pod and small, paler green seeds; the thin, crisp pod and the tender, sweet seeds are eaten cooked or raw; also known as the Chinese snow pea and sugar pea. Sodium Bicarbonate A food additive used as a leavening agent; also known as baking soda.

Soft-Ball Stage A test for the density of sugar syrup; the point at which a drop of boiling sugar will form a soft sticky ball when dropped in cold water; equivalent to approximately 234-240F on a candy thermometer.

Soft-Boiled Egg; Soft-Cooked Egg An egg simmered in its shell, at least until some of the white has solidified, usually 3-5 minutes.

Soft-Crack Stage A test for the density of sugar syrup; the point at which a drop of boiling sugar will separate into firm but bendable strands when dropped in cold water; equivalent to approximately 270-290F on a candy thermometer. Soften To prepare a food, usually butter, by leaving it at room temperature until it becomes pliable but not runny.

Sommelier (suhm-uhl-YAY) The person at a restaurant in charge of the wine cellar (and sometimes all other beverages, alcoholic or not); he or she generally assists patrons in selecting wine and then serves it; also known as the wine steward or wine captain.

Sopaipilla (soh-pah-PEE-yuh) A crisp deep-fried Mexican pastry or bread that is puffy with a hollow center; usually served with honey or a cinnamon-flavored syrup.

Sorbet A soft, smooth frozen dish made with pureed fruit or fruit juice and sugar and sometimes flavored with liqueur, wine or coffee; served as a dessert or a palate cleanser between courses.

Soufflé (soo-FLAY) A sweet or savory French dish made with a custard base lightened with whipped egg whites and then baked; the whipped egg whites cause the dish to puff.

Soufflé Mold A round, porcelain mold with a ridged exterior and a straight, smooth interior; available in 2- to 3.5-qt. capacities.

Soup A combination of meats, poultry, fish, shellfish, vegetables and/or fruits cooked in a liquid; it can be garnished with any of an extremely wide range of garnishes, can be hot or cold, sweet or savory, thin or thick and served as a first course or main dish.

Soup Bones Bones from the forshanks and/or hindshanks of a beef or veal carcass; rich with marrow, they are used for stocks and soups.

Sour 1. To ferment.2. To spoil or become rancid. An acidic, tart, possible unpleasant flavor.

Sour Cream Pasteurized, homogenized light cream (containing not less than 18” milkfat) fermented by the bacteria Streptococcus lactis; it has a tangy flavor, a gel-like body and a white color; used as a condiment and for baking and cooking.

Sourdough A bread dough leavened with a fermented starter; this gives the bread a tangy, slightly sour flavor.

Soybean; Soyabean; Soy Pea A versatile legume whose beans are used to make a variety of products, including curds, milk and soy sauce; the pods are tan to black with a tawny to gray fuzz, and the beans, which range from pea to cherry sized, can be red, yellow, green, brown or black and have a bland flavor; also known as soi and soya.

Soy Milk A pale yellow liquid made by pressing ground cooked soybeans; it has a slightly bitter flavor and is used for people with milk allergies and in infant formulas and cooking; available plain or flavored with honey or carob.

Soy Sauce A sauce made from fermented boiled soybeans and roasted wheat or barley; its color ranges from light to dark brown and its flavor is generally rich and salty (a low-sodium version is available); used extensively in Asian cuisines (especially Chinese and Japanese) as a flavoring, condiment and sometimes a cooking medium.

Spaghetti 1. Italian for a length of cord or string and used to describe long, thin, solid rods of pasta with a circular cross section.2. In the United States, a term used imprecisely to describe any of several types of long, solid strands of pasta with varying widths and either oval, rectangular or circular cross sections.

Spaghetti Squash A large watermelon-shaped winter squash (Cucurbita pepo) with a creamy yellow shell and a slightly nutty-flavored flesh that separates into yellow-gold spaghetti-like strands when cooked; also known as noodle squash and vegetable spathetti.

Spanakopita A Greek dish consisting of phyllo dough baked with a stuffing of feta cheese and spinach bound with an egg.

Spareribs A fabricated cut of the pork primal belly; it is a long, narrow cut containing the lower portion of the ribs and breastbone.

Sparkling The bubbly characteristic of a wine whose effervescence is induced by the methode champenoise or Charmat process.

Spatula A utensil with a handle and a broad or narrow, long or short, flexible or rigid flat blade.

Spatula, Rubber A spatula with a beveled and slightly curved rectangular rubber blade; available with blades ranging from 1 X 2 to 3 X 5 in.; used to press and smooth foods, remove foods from bowls and fold and stir ingredients.

Spatula, Wooden A spatula with a wooden blade; used to mix foods when high heats are present or to turn food or remove it from a heat source or cookware.

Spearmint An herb (Menta spicata) and member of the mint family; it has soft, bright green leaves and a tart menthol flavor and aroma that is milder than that of peppermint; used as a flavoring, garnish and tisane.

Spelt A hard wheat kernel with the husk attached; used as a thickener in soups or served as a side dish.

Spice Cake A cake flavored with cinnamon and nutmeg and studded with dried and candied fruits.

Spice Mill A tool similar to a meat grinder with a clamp to fix it to the work surface; electric grinders are also available.

Spices Any of a large group of aromatic plants whose bark, roots, seeds, buds or berries are used as a flavoring; usually available dried, either whole or ground.

Spicy A tasting term for a food with a predominant flavor from one or more spices; although the flavors can range from very mild to very hot, the term is more often used to describe hot, pungent foods.

Spider A hand tool with a long handle attached to a mesh disk used for skimming stocks or removing foods from liquids, especially hot fat.

Spinach A vegetable (Spinacea oleracea) with dark green, spear-shaped leaves that can be curled or smooth and are attached to thin stems; the leaves have a slightly bitter flavor and are eaten raw or cooked; also known as Persian herb.

Spit A thin metal bar on which meat, poultry or game is placed to be roasted before an open fire.

Splash 1. An imprecise measure of volume for a liquid; usually a small amount.2. A small amount of a liquid ingredient added to a drink or other food item.

Sponge 1. A soupy mixture of flour, liquid and yeast used as the first stage in making certain breads; the sponge is allowed to ferment, then the remaining ingredients are incorporated and the bread is finished; a sponge gives the bread a slightly tangy flavor and a denser texture.2. A light dessert made with whipped gelatin, beaten egg whites or whipped cream.

Sprig A small branch of a leafy substance such as thyme or rosemary.

Springform Pan A circular baking pan with a separate bottom and a side wall held together with a clamp that is released to free the baked product; used primarily for baking cheesecakes.

Spring Roll A smaller, more delicate version of the egg roll; it is wrapped in rice paper and traditionally eaten on the first day of spring.

Sprinkle To scatter small amounts of a dry substance or drops of liquid over the surface of a food.

Spritz Cookie A small buttery cookie formed by forcing the dough through a cookie press or pastry bag; also known as bagged cookie.

Sprouts The very young shoots emerging from germinated seeds; generally, they have a soft texture, a white or yellow stem, a green leaf bud and a delicate, sometimes nutty flavor.

Spun Sugar A sugar syrup cooked to the hard-crack stage 310F, then drawn out into fine, golden threads with a fork or whisk; these threads are used to decorate desserts and pastries.

Squash 1. The edible fleshy fruit of various members of the gourd (Cucurbitaceae) family; generally divided into two categories based on peak season and skin type: summer and winter.2. A British beverage made by diluting a sweetened citrus concentrate, usually with soda water.

Squash, Summer Any of several varieties of squashes with edible thin skins, soft seeds, a moist flesh and a mild flavor; they have a peak season of April through September and can be eaten raw or grilled, sautéed, steamed or baked.

Squash, Winter Any of several varieties of squashes with hard skins (called shells) and hard seeds, neither of which are generally eaten; the flesh, which is usually not eaten raw, tends to be sweeter and more strongly flavored than the flesh of summer squashes; winter squashes have a peak season between October and March and can be baked, steamed, sautéed or pureed for soups and pie fillings.

Squash Blossoms The edible blossoms of both winter and summer squashes; usually stuffed and fried, they have a slight squash flavor.

Squid Any of several varieties of cephalopod mollusks found in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans; generally, they have a long, slender body, an elongated head and tentacles, an ivory-white flesh, a firm, tender texture and a mild, sweet flavor; they vary greatly in size and are available whole or in steaks; also known as inkfish.

Stainless Steel An alloy of steel, usually with chromium; it is strong and will not rust or corrode; when used for a knife blade, it is difficult to sharpen but holds its edge; when used for cookware, it does not react with acids but is a poor heat conductor, so it is sometimes sandwiched with copper.

Stale 1. A tasting term for a food or beverage that has lost its freshness because of age, moisture loss or improper storage.2. A beer- and wine-tasting term for a product that has lost its lively, fresh, youthful character and has become flat, dull, musty and flavorless; often the result of a beverage being kept too long.

Standard Breading Procedure The procedure for coating foods with crumbs or meal by passing the food through flour, then an egg wash and then the crumbs; it gives foods a relatively thick, crisp coating when deep-fried or pan-fried.

Staples 1. Certain foods regularly used throughout the kitchen.2. Certain foods, usually starches, that help form the basis for a regional or national cuisine and are principal components in the diet.

Star Anise The dried, dark brown, star-shaped fruit of the Chinese magnolia; its seeds have a pungent, bitter licorice flavor and are available whole or ground; the fruit is used in Chinese cuisine and as an ingredient in Chinese five-spice powder; also known as badian and Chinese anise.

Steamer 1. An appliance used to steam foods in a closed compartment; the steam is generated by a built-in heat source.2. An assemblage of two pots and a lid used on a stove top to steam foods; the bottom pot holds the water, and the upper pot, which rests on or in the bottom pot and has a perforated bottom, holds the food; also known as a vegetable steamer.

Steamer Basket A collapsible basket with three or four short legs and numerous overlapping petals that open to a circle with an 8- to 10-in. diameter; the basket sits in a pot of boiling liquid holding the food above the liquid; the petals are perforated to allow the rising steam to cook the foods; also known as an expandable steamer basket.

Steaming A moist-heat cooking method in which heat is transferred by direct contact from steam to the food being cooked; the food to be steamed is placed in a basket or rack above a boiling liquid in a covered pan.

Steel A tool, usually made of steel, used to hone or straighten knife blades.

Steep To soak a food or seasoning in a hot liquid to extract flavors or impurities or to soften the item’s texture.

Stem 1. The slender, vertical part of a goblet, wineglass or other glass between the bowl and the base.2. The handle of a spoon.3. The stalk of a mushroom, supporting the cap; also known as a stipe.

Stewing A combination cooking method similar to braising but generally involving smaller pieces of meat that are first blanched and then served with a sauce and various garnishes.

Sticky Bun A sweet yeast roll flavored with cinnamon and brown sugar; usually shaped into a pinwheel and baked atop a layer of butter and sugar, which caramelizes and becomes sticky.

Stiff But Not Dry A culinary term for egg whites that are beaten until they hold firm peaks and are still glossy; they are moist and not too finely grained.

Stir-Fry A dry-heat cooking method similar to sautéing in which foods are cooked over very high heat with little fat while stirring constantly and briskly; usually done in a wok.

Stirring A mixing method in which ingredients are gently mixed until blended using a spoon, whisk or rubber spatula.

Stock A clear, unthickened liquid flavored by soluble substances extracted from meat, poultry or fish and their bones as well as from a mirepoix, other vegetables and seasonings; used for soups and sauces.

Stockpot A large pot that is taller than it is wide, with two handles, a flat lid, a capacity of 8-20 qt. and sometimes a spigot at the bottom to release liquid contents; used for making stocks or soups or boiling large amounts of water for pasta.

Stollen A sweet German yeast bread filled with dried fruit, shaped like a folded oval and topped with a confectioners sugar icing and candied cherries.

Stone Crab A variety of crab found in the Atlantic Ocean from the Carolinas to Florida; it has a purple or reddish-brown mottled shell, large claws with black tips and firm, white claw meat with a sweet flavor similar to that of lobster; only the claws can be marketed; they have an average weight of 2.5-5.5 oz.

Stout A dark, bittersweet and heavy-bodied beer made with roasted malt and a relatively high hops content; it is fermented with a top-fermenting yeast.

Straight Dough Method A mixing method for yeast breads in which all ingredients are simply combined and mixed.

Strain To pour foods through a sieve, mesh strainer or cheese-cloth to separate or remove the liquid component from solids.

Strawberry A low-growing plant with a conical berry that has tiny seeds on the outside of its red skin; the berry has a red to white juicy flesh and a sweet flavor.

Streusel (STROO-zuhl) A crumbly mixture of fat, flour, sugar and sometimes nuts and spices; used to top baked goods.

Strudel (STROO-duhl) A long rectangular German pastry made with many layers of a very thin dough rolled around a sweet or savory filling and baked until crisp and golden.

Stuff To fill a cavity in a food with another food.

Stuffing A seasoned mixture of foods used to fill a natural or created cavity in poultry, meats, fish and vegetables or around which a strip of poultry, meat shellfish, fish or vegetables may be rolled.

Submersion Poaching A poaching method in which the food is completely covered with the poaching liquid.

Succotash An American Southern dish of corn, lima beans and sometimes red and green peppers.

Sucrose The chemical name for refined or table sugar, it is refined from the raw sugars found in the large tropical grass called sugar cane and the root of the sugar beet.

Sucs The savory juices released by meats and fish during cooking; generally, they are the caramelized juices left on the bottom of a sauté or roasting pan before deglazing.

Sugar A group of carbohydrates containing one (monosaccharide) or two (disaccharide) sugar units; occurring naturally principally in fruits and honey, it is sweet, soluble and readily absorbed to be used as an energy source.

Sugar, Raw A natural sugar that has been washed to remove the impurities; it has a light golden color and a large crystal. Sugarcoat To cover a food with sugar.

Sugar Snap Pea A sweet pea that is a hybrid of the English pea and snow pea; the bright green, crisp pod and the paler green, tender seeds are both edible.

Sugar Syrup 1. A syrup made from sugar and water heated gently until the sugar is dissolved; also known as a simple syrup.2. Melted sugar cooked until it reaches a specific temperature.

Sun-Dried Tomato A tomato that has been dried in the sun; it has a dark, ruby red color, a chewy texture and an intense flavor; available dried or packed in oil (including flavored oils).

Sunflower Oil; Sunflower Seed Oil An oil obtained from sunflower seeds; it has a pale yellow color and virtually no flavor and is high in polyunsaturated fats and low in saturated fats; used for cooking and in dressings.

Sunflower Seeds The seeds of the sunflower plant; they have a hard black-and-white-striped shell that is removed before eating; usually eaten dried or roasted, with or without salt.

Sunny-Side-Up Egg An egg that is not flipped during frying; its yolk should remain intact.

Superfine Sugar A finely granulated form of refined sugar; used in beverages and frostings because of the speed with which it will dissolve; also known as castor (caster) sugar. Supper 1. Traditionally, a light meal served in the evening.2. Now, the main meal of the day in the United States, served in the evening; also known as dinner.

Supreme 1. A sauce made by adding cream to a veloute made from chicken stock; it is used to make several compound sauces of the veloute family.2. A boneless skinless chicken breast with the first wing segment attached.3. An intact segment of citrus fruit with all membrane removed.

Surface-Finishing Agent A type of food additive used to maintain or add gloss and/or inhibit surface discoloration of a food; it includes protective coatings, polishes, waxes and glazes.

Sushi (SOO-shee) 1. A Japanese dish of cooked seasoned rice (zushi) garnished with a variety of cooked or raw ingredients such as fish, shellfish and vegetables; there are four principal types of sushi: chirashi-zushi, maki-zushi, nigiri-zushi and oshi-zushi.2. An imprecisely used term for nigiri-zushi.3. An incorrectly used term for sashimi.

Sweating Cooking a food (typically vegetables) in a small amount of fat, usually covered, over low heat without browning until the food softens and releases moisture; sweating allows the food to release its flavor more quickly when it is later cooked with other foods. Sweet 1. One of the basic taste sensations.2. Something having a flavor of or like sugar.3. A candy or other small sweetly flavored treat.

Sweet-And-Sour Any of a variety of dishes that combines sweet and sour flavors, usually sugar and a vinegar-based ingredient.

Sweetbreads The thymus gland of a calf, lamb or young hog; it consists of two principal parts, the elongated throat bread and the more spherical heart bread; both have a mild delicate flavor.

Sweetmeat Any small piece of sweet candy or pastry, especially candied fruit.

Sweet Pepper 1. The fruit of various plants of the genus Capsicum; it has a mild, sweet flavor with undertones of various fruits and spices; a fresh sweet pepper can be white, yellow, orange, green, red, brown or purple, and its shape is generally conical to nearly spherical; sweet peppers are rarely used dried.2. A term used imprecisely for a bell pepper.

Sweet Potato The starchy tuber of a morning glory plant native to South America; it is unrelated to the potato plant and yam and has a sweet flavor.

Swiss; Swiss Cheese A term used imprecisely to describe any of several large, firm, pressed-curd cheeses with an elastic body, many large holes and a mild, nutty, slightly sweet flavor.

Swiss Meringue A mixture of stiffly beaten egg whites and sugar made by combining the ingredients, heating them over simmering water to approximately 140F, then whipping until light, fluffy and cool.

Swiss Steak A thick piece of beef, usually round or chuck, coated with flour and browned, then braised, baked or simmered with tomatoes, onions, carrots, celery, beef broth and seasonings; also known as smothered steak (especially in England).

Swordfish A fish found in the tropical oceans off the Americas; it has a long upper jaw and snout that forms a flat, sharp, double-edged sword, a dark, purplish skin that fades to white on the sides and belly, a moderately lean, gray, off-white or pink flesh that whitens when cooked, a very firm texture, a sweet mild flavor and an average market weight of 100-200 lb.; usually sold as wheels or smaller cuts.

Syrah (see-RAH) 1. A red wine grape grown in France (northern Rhone Valley), California, South Africa and Australia; also known as Shiraz or Hermitage (especially in South Africa and Australia).2. A red wine made from this grape; slow to mature and long-lived, it has a deep red color, a high tannin content and a spicy, peppery aroma.

Syrup 1. A thick, sweet, sticky liquid consisting of sugar dissolved in a liquid, usually water; it is often flavored with spices or citrus zest.2. The juice of a fruit or plant boiled with sugar until thick and sticky; it is usually used as a topping or sweetener.

Tabasco Sauce The proprietary name for a hot pepper sauce made in Louisiana;

Tabasco peppers are mashed and fermented with salt and vinegar in barrels for 3 years.

Table Salt Finely ground and refined rock salt; it usually contains anticaking agents and other additives.

Taco A Mexican dish consisting of a small folded corn or flour tortilla filled with beef, pork, chicken, chorizo and/or refried beans and garnished with tomatoes, lettuce, cheese, onions, guacamole, sour cream and/or salsa; it can be crisp or soft.

Taffy A soft, chewy candy made with cooked sugar, butter and flavorings; the mixture is pulled repeatedly into long ropes and twisted as it cools; this incorporates air and creates a shiny, opaque color; the ropes of taffy are then cut into bite-sized pieces.

Tahini (tah-HEE-nee) A thick, oily paste made from crushed sesame seeds and used in Middle Eastern cuisines as a flavoring.

Tamale (tuh-MAH-lee) A Mexican dish consisting of chopped meat or vegetables coated with a masa dough, wrapped in a softened corn husk and steamed; sweet tamales are filled with fruit.

Tang The portion of a knife’s blade that extends inside the handle.

Tangerine A small- to medium-sized citrus; it has a thick, loose, orange rind, a dark orange, juicy flesh and a sweet flavor; named after the city of

Tangier, Morocco. Tangy 1. A tasting term used to describe a pleasantly tart flavor.2. A cheese-tasting term for a cheese, typically a goat’s milk or blue cheese, with a pleasing acidity or tartness.

Tannic A wine-tasting term for an astringent, mouth-puckering wine.

Tapas (tah-pahs) Spanish appetizers that can be hot or cold, simple or complex.

Tapenade (TA-puh-nahd) A thick paste made from capers, anchovies, olives, olive oil, lemon juice and seasonings in France’s Provence region; used as a condiment, garnish and sauce.

Tapioca 1. A starch extracted from the root of the cassava plant and used for thickening.2. A milk pudding made with processed pellets of tapioca, known as pearl tapioca.

Tarragon An herb native to Siberia with narrow, pointed, dark green leaves, tiny gray flowers, a distinctive aniselike flavor with undertones of sage and a strong aroma; available fresh and dried.

Tarragon Vinegar A red or white wine vinegar in which tarragon has been steeped.

Tart 1. A shallow-sided pastry dough crust filled with a sweet or svaory mixture; the tart may or may not have a top crust.2. A sharp, piquant, often acidic or sometimes sour flavor.3. A wine-tasting term for a wine that is either highly acidic but not necessarily unpleasant or one that is disagreeably sharp.

Tartare An imprecisely used term for any dish featuring a raw ingredient.

Tartlet Pan A small pan, 2 to 4 in. in diameter and .75 to 1.5 in. high, available in many shapes including round, oval, rectangular and square, with plain or fluted straight or sloping sides; it is used for baking tartlets and usually made of tinned or black steel and generally without a removable bottom.

Tartufo (tahr-TOO-fuh) Italian for truffle; tartufo bianco is a white truffle.

Taste 1. To test the flavor of something by placing it in the mouth or on the tongue.2. To sample a food or beverage.3. One of the five senses; concerned with perceiving and distinguishing the flavors of foods and beverages.

Tawny Port A mature, golden red port; aged in wooden pipes for more than 3 years; it has a softer, rounder flavor than a ruby port.

T-bone Steak A fabricated cut of the beef primal short loin; this tender cut contains a distinctive T-shaped portion of the backbone and on either side of the center bone, a large portion of the loin eye muscle and a smaller portion of the tenderloin.

Tea 1. An aromatic beverage made by infusing water with the cured leaves of the shrub; a mild stimulant due to caffeine, a tea is generally named for its leaf type and size or region of origin.2. The leaves used to make the beverage.3. An imprecisely used term for a beverage made from steeping the leaves of shrubs, herbs or other plants in water.4. An imprecisely used term for a very thin, runny sauce, usually one flavored with vegetables, herbs or spices.

Tea, Afternoon 1. A light British meal or refreshment of bread and butter, cucumber or other delicate sandwiches, cookies, scones and Devonshire cream and the like served with a pot of tea during the late afternoon.2. A formal social occasion or reception at which tea and other refreshments are served.

Tea, High A late afternoon or early evening British meal, usually quite substantial and consisting of meat and/or fish dishes, biscuits and jam, an array of cakes and pastries and a pot of tea.

Tea Ball A perforated metal ball that holds loose tea leaves; used for making tea in a cup or pot.

Tea Biscuit British expression for any of a variety of cookies or crackers served with afternoon tea; also known as a tea cake.

Teakettle A utensil used for boiling water for teas, tisanes, filtered coffee and so on; it has a broad base, a high-set handle, an often rounded or tapered top with a tightly fitting lid and sometimes a whistle on the spout to indicate when the contents have produced steam.

Temper To bring something to the proper temperature or texture by mixing, stirring, heating or cooling (e.g., to temper eggs by slowly whisking in hot milk to avoid curdling).

Temperature Danger Zone The broad range of temperatures between 40 and 140 degrees F in which bacteria thrive and reproduce; by keeping foods out of this temperature range, the chances of an infection, intoxication or toxin-mediated infection are decreased.

Tempered Chocolate Chocolate treated with a heating and cooling process to stablize the cocoa butter crystals; tempered chocolate is shiny, smooth and unblemished by bloom.

Tempering 1. Heating gently and gradually.2. The process of slowly adding a hot liquid to eggs or other foods to raise their temperature without causing whem to curdle.

Tempering Machine An electric machine designed for melting and tempering chocolate, then holding it at the correct temperature for use in making candy or decorations.

Tempura (TEM-poo-ra) A Japanese dish of battered and deep-fried pieces of fish and vegetables, usually accompanied by a sauce.

Tender 1. A fabricated cut of the beef primal sirloin; it is a trimmed, boneless steak.2. A strip of flesh found on the inside of the chicken breast next to the bone.3. A wine-tasting term for a young, light-bodied wine that is easy to drink.

Tenderize To soften and/or break down tough muscle fibers in meat by cubing, needling, pounding, marinating in acidic ingredients, adding enzymes and/or cooking in moist heat.

Tenderloin A flavorful and very tender muscle that runs through the beef short loin and sirloin primals; it is part of T-bone and porterhouse steaks or can be cut into chateaubrian, filet mignon and tournedos.

Tequila (tuh-KEE-luh) A spirit made in Mexico from the fermented and distilled sap and pulp of the maguey plant; it has a high alcohol content, colorless to straw color and somewhat herbaceous flavor; it is often sold as either blanco or plata.

Teriyaki (tayr-ee-YAH-kee) 1. A Japanese dish of beef, chicken or pork marinated soy sauce, ginger, sugar and seasonings, skewered and grilled or broiled.2. A Japanese marinade or sauce made from soy sauce, ginger, sugar and seasonings.

Terrine 1. Traditionally, coarsely ground and highly seasoned meats baked without a crust in an earthenware mold and served cold.2. A coarsely or finely ground and highly seasoned meat, fish, shellfish, poultry and/or vegetable forcemeat baked without a crust in an earthenware mold, usually lined with pork fat, and served hot or cold.3

The earthenware, metal or glass mold used for such preparations; usually a long, narrow rectangular loaf pan with a flared edge to hold the cover.

Texas Toast A very thick slice of white bread that is toasted and brushed with butter; often served with steaks.

Tex-Mex A term used for food that is based on the combined cultures of Texas and Mexico; these foods include burritos, nachos and tacos, and the principal flavorings include tomatoes and chiles.

Thermometer A device designed to measure temperatures; it can be calibrated in Fahrenheit and/or Celsius and can be a column of mercury with temperatures indicated on a glass tube or a stem-type thermometer in which temperatures are noted by an arrow on a dial or a digital readout.

Thermometer, Instant-Read A thermometer used to measure the internal temperature of foods; the stem is inserted into the food, producing an instant temperature readout.

Thermometer, Meat A thermometer inserted into the meat to read the internal temperature; the top of the thermometer usually has a scale indicating the temperatures of doneness for certain meats.

Thermometer, Oven A thermometer used to test the accuracy of an oven’s thermostat; it must be able to withstand temperatures as high as 500 degrees F.

Thicken The process of making a liquid substance dense by adding a thickening agent or by cooking to evaporate some of the liquid.

Thickening Agents 1. Ingredients used to thicken sauces, including starches, gelatin and liaisons.2. A type of food additive used to produce viscous solutions or dispersions, impart body and/or improve texture or consistency; includes stabilizers, suspending agents, bodying agents, setting agents, jellying agents and bulking agents.

Thread Stage A test for the density of sugar syrup; the point at which a drop of boiling sugar will form a thin thread when dropped in cold water; equivalent to approximately 230-234 degrees F on a candy thermometer.

Thuringer (THOOR-ihn-juhr) A style of German sausages made from chopped pork and/or beef, seasoned with herbs, spices and other flavorings such as garlic, coriander or mustard; they are preserved by curing, drying and smoking and have a semidry to moist, soft texture.

Thyme (time) A low-growing herb with small purple flowers and tiny, gray-green leaves; the leaves have a strong, slightly lemony flavor and aroma; used fresh and dried.

Tilapia (tuh-LAH-pee-uh) A generic name for several species of freshwater fish aquafarmed worldwide; they generally have a gray skin, a lean white flesh, a firm texture, a sweet, mild flavor and an average market weight of 3 lb.; sometimes marketed as cherry snapper or sunshine snapper, even though not members of the snapper family; also known as mudfish.

Timbale 1. A dish, usually a custard base mixed with vegetables, meats or fish, baked in this mold.2. A pastry shell made with a timbale iron; it can be filled with a sweet or savory mixture.

Timbale Mold A 1 1/2 in. deep, flair-sided, round, stainless steel mold with a capacity of 4 oz.; it is used for single servings of foods such as eggs in aspic.

Tiramisu (tih-ruh-mee-SOO) Italian for pick me up and used to describe a dessert made with layers of liqueur-soaked ladyfingers or sponge cake, sweetened mascarpone cheese and zabaglione, usually garnished with whipped cream and shaved chocolate. Tisanes Beverages made from herbal infusions that do not contain any tea.

Toast 1. To make an item crisp and hot.2. A piece of bread grilled or broiled on both sides.3. A speech made or a phrase stated before drinking a beverage in a person’s or thing’s honor.4. The beverage consumed in honor of someone or something.

Toffee 1. A firm but chewy candy made with brown sugar or molasses and butter; Danish and English versions are hard and brittle instead of chewy.2.

The British spelling of taffy. Tofu (TOH-foo) A custardlike product made from curdled soy milk from which some of the water has been removed by pressure; it has a white color and a slightly nutty, bland flavor that absorbs other flavors; available dried and fresh and used in Asian cuisines in soups or cooked; also known as soybean curd and bean curd.

Tomatillo (tohm-ah-TEE-oh) A plant native to Mexico whose fruit resembles a small tomato with a papery tannish-green husk; the fruit has a thin, bright green skin and a firm, crisp, pale yellow flesh with a tart, lemony-herb flavor; used like a vegetable in American Southwestern and Mexican cuisines; also known as jamberry, Mexican green tomato, Mexican husk tomato and husk tomato.

Tomato The fleshy fruit of the Lycopersicon esculentum, a vine native to South America and a member of the night-shade family; used like a vegetable, tomatoes are available in a range of sizes, from tiny spheres to large squat ones, and colors from green to golden yellow to ruby red.

Tomato Juice The thick liquid produced by blending the pulp and juice of a tomato.

Tomato Paste A thick, slightly coarse paste made from tomatoes that have been cooked for several hours, strained and reduced to form a richly flavored concentrate used as a flavoring and thickener; also known as tomato concentrate.

Tomato Puree A thick liquid made from cooked and strained tomatoes; often used as a thickener for sauces.

Tomato Sauce 1. A French mother or leading sauce made by sauteing mirepoix and tomatoes; white stock is added, and the sauce is then thickened with a roux; also known as sauce tomate.2. A pasta sauce made from skinned, cooked, deseeded tomatoes; it can be thick or thin, seasoned with a variety of herbs and spices and garnished with meat, mushrooms, onions or the like.3. A slightly thinned tomato puree, often seasoned, used as a base for sauces or as a flavoring or topped ingredient.

Tongs A utensil with two long handles attached at the top; there are two types: those with a heavy wire scissor action and those with a spring; both are made in either stainless steel or chromed steel and are used as a retrieval tool.

Torte In Central and Eastern European usage, refers to a rich cake in which all or part of the flour is replaced with finely chopped nuts or bread crumbs.

Tortilla (tohr-TEE-yuh) A round, thin, unleavened Mexican bread made from masa or wheat flour and lard and baked on a griddle, it is eaten plain or wrapped around or garnished with various fillings.

Tortilla Chips Corn or flour tortillas cut into wedges and deep-fried or baked; eaten as a snack, usually with a dip or salsa.

Tortilla Press A metal utensil used to flatten tortilla dough; it consists of two hinged disks: the top disk has a handle and is lowered over the ball of dough resting on the lower disk.

Tostada (toh-STAH-duh) A Mexican dish of a crisp-fried tortilla topped with refried beans and garnished with meat, cheese, lettuce, tomatoes, sour cream, guacamole and/or salsa.

Tourner (toor-nay) French for to trim or to turn and used to describe the act of cutting foods, usually vegetables, into football-shaped pieces with seven equal sides and blunt ends.

Trifle (TRI-fuhl) A deep-dish British layered dessert made with sponge cake, sherry, custard, jam or fruit and whipped cream.

Triple Sec A clear, strong, orange-flavored liqueur used principally to make cocktails.

Truffle 1. A fungus that grows underground near the roots of certain trees, usually oaks; generally spherical and of various small sizes, with a thick, rough, wrinkled skin; there are two principal varieties: black and white.2. A rich, creamy chocolate candy made with chocolate, butter, cream, and flavorings, formed into small rough balls and coated with cocoa powder or melted chocolate.

Truffle, Black A truffle grown in France with a dark brown to black skin with white striations and a pungent aroma and rich flavor; also known as a Perigord.

Truffle, White A truffle grown in Italy with an off-white to grayish-tan skin and an earthy, garlicky flavor; also known as a piedmontese.

Truss To tie poultry with butcher’s twine into a compact shape for cooking.

Tube Pan A deep round baking pan with a hollow tube in the center.

Tuber The fleshy root, stem or rhizome of a plant from which a new plant will grow; some, such as potatoes, are eaten as vegetables.

Tuile (twee) French for tile and used to describe a thin, crisp wafer cookie traditionally shaped while still hot around a curved object such as a rolling pin.

Tuna Any of several varieties of saltwater fish of the mackerel family found in tropical and subtropical waters worldwide; they generally are available as loins or smaller cuts and have a low to moderate fat content, a dark pink, flaky flesh that becomes light gray when cooked, a firm texture and a distinctive rich flavor; significant varieties include albacore tuna, bluefin tuna, bonito, skipjack tuna and yellowfin tuna.

Tuna Salad A salad of tuna typically garnished with celery and onions, bound with mayonnaise and often flavored with celery salt.

Tunneling The holes that may form in baked goods as the result of overmixing.

Turbinado Sugar Raw sugar that has been cleaned with steam to make it edible; it is light brown and coarse, with a molasses flavor.

Turkey One of the principal kinds of poultry recognized by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA); it has light and dark meat and a relatively small amount of fat.

Turkish delight A chewy, rubbery Middle Eastern candy made with cornstarch or gelatin, honey and fruit juice, often flavored with nuts; the candy is cut into small squares and coated with powdered sugar.

Turmeric (tehr-MEHR-rik) A dried, powdery spice produced from the rhizome of a tropical plant related to ginger; it has a strong, spicy flavor and yellow color and is used in Indian and Middle Eastern cuisines and as a yellow coloring agent; also known as Indian saffron.

Turnip The rounded, conical root of the turnip plant; it has a white skin with a purple-tinged top, a delicate, slightly sweet flavor that becomes stronger as it ages and a coarse texture.

Turnip Greens The crinkly green leaves of the turnip plant; they have a sweet, peppery flavor when young that becomes more bitter with age.

Twice-baked An expression used to refer to a product that is baked, then reworked and baked a second time.

Unbleached Flour Wheat flour that has not been treated with a whitening agent.

Unsalted A food-labeling term approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to describe a food prepared without the salt ordinarily used in the processed food product.

Upside-Down Cake A dessert made by lining the bottom of a baking pan with butter, sugar and fruit, then adding a light cake batter; after baking, the cake is inverted so that the glazed fruit becomes the top surface.

Vanilla Bean The dried, cured podlike fruit of an orchid plant grown in tropical regions; the pod contains numerous tiny black seeds; both the pod and the seeds are used for flavoring.

Vanilla Custard Sauce also known as creme anglaise; a stirred custard made with egg yolks, sugar and milk or half-and-half and flavored with vanilla; served with or used in dessert preparations.

Vanilla Extract A vanilla-flavored product made by macerating chopped vanilla beans in a water-alcohol solution to extract the flavor; its strength is measured in folds.

Vanilla Extract, Pure Vanilla extract made with 13.35 oz. of vanilla beans per gallon during extraction and 35% alcohol.

Vanilla Flavoring A combination of pure vanilla extract and imitation vanilla.

Vanilla Sugar Granulated sugar infused with the flavor of vanilla and made by burying vanilla beans in a container of sugar for a brief time; used in baked goods, creams and with fruit.

Vanillin Whitish crystals of vanilla flavor that often develop on vanilla beans during storage. 2. Synthetic vanilla flavoring.

Veal Meat from calves slaughtered when younger than 9 months; it has a lean, light pink flesh, a delicate flavor and a tender, firm texture.

Vegan (VEE-gun) A vegetarian who does not eat any animal products.

Vegetables The edible parts of plants, including the leaves, stalks, roots, tubers and flowers; they are generally savory rather than sweet and often salted or otherwise dressed; some are always consumed cooked, others always raw and some can be consumed either cooked or raw; sometimes associated with meat, fish, shellfish and poultry as part of a meal or ingredient; vegetables are mostly water and usually contain vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, protein and fats.

Vegetarian A person who eats primarily or exclusively plant foods.

Veloute, Sauce (veh-loo-TAY) A French leading sauce made by thickening a veal stock, chicken stock or fish fumet with a white or golden roux; also known as a blond sauce.

Velvety A tasting term for a lush, silky, smooth texture.

Venison The flesh of any member of the deer family, including the antelope, caribou, elk, moose, reindeer, red-tailed deer, white-tailed deer and mule deer; it typically has a dark red color with very little intramuscular fat or marbling, a firm, dense, velvety texture, a mild aroma and a sweet, herbal, nutty flavor; significant cuts include the loin, leg, rack and saddle.

Vent 1. To allow the circulation or escape of a liquid or gas.2. To cool a pot of hot liquid by setting the pot on blocks in a cold water bath and allowing cold water to circulate around it.

Vermicelli (ver-mih-CHEHL-ee) 1. Italian for little worms and used to describe very thin spaghetti; available in straight rods or twisted into a cluster.2. A general term for any long, very thin rods of pasta or noodles.

Vermouth A neutral white wine flavored with various herbs, spices and fruits and fortified to a minimum of 16% alcohol; used as an aperitif and cocktail ingredient.

Vidalia Onion A large onion with a pale yellow outer layer and a sweet, juicy white flesh; grown in a delimited area around Vidalia, Georgia.

Vinaigrette (vihn-uh-GREHT) A temporary emulsion of oil and vinegar seasoned with herbs, spices, salt and pepper; used as a salad dressing or sauce.

Vinegar From the French vin aigre (sour wine); a weak solution of acetic acid made from a fermented liquid such as cider, wine or beer, subjected to certain bacterial activity; generally clear, the liquid can be tinted various shades depending on the base liquid and can reflect the flavor of the base liquid or be flavored by the introduction of other ingredients.

Vodka A distilled spirit made from potatoes and various grains, principally corn, with some wheat added; it is distilled at proofs ranging from 80 to 100 and is sometimes flavored.

Vol-Au-Vents (vul-oh-vanz) Deep, individual portion-sized puff pastry shells, often filled with a savory mixture and served as an appetizer or a main course.

Wafer A very thin, crisp cookie or cracker; it can be sweet or savory.

Waffle A thin, crisp, light cake with a honeycomb surface; it is baked in a waffle iron and served with sweet or savory toppings.

Waldorf Salad A salad of apples, celery and sometimes walnuts in a mayonnaise dressing.

Walnut Oil An oil obtained by pressing walnuts; it is high in polyunsaturated fatty acids, has a nutty flavor and aroma and is used in salad dressings, sauces and baked goods.

Wasabi (wah-SAH-bee) The root of an Asian plant similar to horseradish; it is ground and, when mixed with water, becomes a green-colored condiment with a sharp, pungent, fiery flavor used in Japanese cuisines.

Wash A glaze applied to dough before baking; a commonly used wash is made with whole egg and water.

Water, Artesian Well Water obtained from an underground source; the water rises to the surface under pressure.

Water Bath See Bain Marie Water, Bottled Any water, usually a still or sparkling natural water, that is bottled and sold; generally consumed as an alternative to a soft drink or other nonalcoholic beverage.

Water, Carbonated Water that has absorbed carbon dioxide; the carbon dioxide produces an effervescence and increases mouth feel.

Water, Distilled Water that has had all the minerals and impurities removed through distillation; generally used for pharmaceutical purposes.

Watermelon 1. A category of melons native to Africa; they are characterized by a very thick rind, a very juicy granular flesh with seeds generally disbursed throughout the flesh and a sweet flavor.2. A large to very large ovoid to spherical melon with green striped or pale to dark green rind and a pink to red flesh; a seedless variety is available; also known as a red watermelon.

Wax Bean A yellow version of the green bean; it has a slightly waxier pod.

Waxy Potatoes Those with a low starch content and thin skin; they are best for boiling.

Waxy Starch The starch portion of a waxy corn; sometimes used as a food additive to thicken puddings and sauces; also known as amioca.

Weight The mass or heaviness of a substance; weight measurements are commonly expressed as grams, ounces and pounds.

Wheat A cereal grass grown worldwide; there are three principal varieties: durum, hard and soft; in many climates, there can be as many as three planting cycles per year; crops are sometimes identified by the planting season as winter, spring or summer wheat.

Wheat Berry The whole, unprocessed wheat kernel; it cosists of the bran, germ and endosperm.

Wheat Germ The embryo of the wheat berry; it is very oily and rich in vitamins, proteins and minerals, has a nutty flavor and is generally used as a nutritional supplement.

Whetstone A dense, grained stone used to sharpen or hone a knife blade.

Whey The liquid portion of coagulated milk (curds are the semisolid portion); used for whey cheese, processed foods and principally livestock feed.

Whipping A mixing method in which foods are vigorously beaten to incorporate air; a whisk or an electric mixer with its whip attachment is used.

Whisk A utensil consisting of several wire loops joined at a handle; the loops generally create a round or teardrop-shaped outline and range in sizes from 8 to 18 in.; used to incorporate air into foods such as eggs, cream or sauces; also known as a whip.

Whiskey 1. An alcoholic beverage distilled from a fermented mash of grains such as corn, rye and barley; whiskys vary depending on factors such as the type and processing of the grain and water as well as the length and type of aging process.2. The American, English and Irish spelling for this spirit; used to identify these countries’ products; in Scotland and Canada it is spelled whisky.

White Chocolate A candy made from cocoa butter, sugar, milk solids and flavorings; because it contains no chocolate liquor it is usually labeled white confectionary bar or coating; it can be eaten as a candy or used in confections and pastries.

White Stock A light-colored stock made from chicken, veal, beef or fish bones simmered in water with vegetables and seasonings.

Whitewash A thin mixture or slurry of flour and cold water used like cornstarch for thickening.

White Wine Sauce 1. A French compound sauce made from a veloute flavored with a fish fumet or chicken stock and white wine and beaten with butter until emulsified.2. A French sauce made from a fish fumet or chicken stock and white wine reduced to a glaze and beaten with butter; also known as sauce vin blanc.

Whole Butter Butter that is not clarified, whipped or reduced in fat content; it may be salted or unsalted.

Whole Wheat A flour that is either milled from the entire hulled kernel or has had some of the components restored after milling.

Wild Rice The grain of a reedlike aquatic plant unrelated to rice; grown in the United States and Canada, the grains are long, slender and black, with a distinctive earthy, nutty flavor; available in three grades: giant, fancy and select.

Wine The fermented juice of a fruit, typically freshly gathered ripe grapes.

Wintergreen An evergreen plant with small red berries that produce a pungent oil used in jellies or to flavor candies and medicines; also known as checkerberry and teaberry.

Winter Melon A large muskmelon with a pale green rind, a white flesh and a flavor reminiscent of zucchini; used in Asian cuisines in sweet and savory dishes.

Wire Mesh Strainer A tool with a mesh bowl, sometimes reinforced with narrow crossbands and a handle; available in various sizes and thicknesses of mesh; it is used to strain liquids from solids or to sift dry ingredients; also known as a strainer.

Wishbone 1. The forked bone found between the neck and breast of a chicken or turkey.2. The cut of chicken containing the wishbone.

Wok Cookware with a rounded bottom and curved sides that diffuses heat and makes it easy to toss or stir contents; it usually has a domed lid and two handles, although a single long-handled version is available; used originally in Asian cuisines.

Won Ton (WAHN tahn) A small Chinese dumpling made from a thin dough filled with a mixture of finely minced meats, poultry, fish, shellfish and/or vegetables; it can be steamed, fried or boiled and eaten as dumplings, in soups and as appetizers.

Won Ton Skins Wafer-thin sheets of dough made from flour, eggs and salt and used to wrap fillings; available in squares or circles.

Won Ton Soup A Chinese soup consisting of chicken broth garnished with won tons, green onions, pork or chicken and/or vegetables.

Worcestershire Sauce (WOOS-tuhr-shuhr) A thin, dark brown sauce developed in India for British colonials and first bottled in Worcester, England; it consists of soy sauce, tamarind, garlic, onions, molasses, lime, anchovies, vinegar and other seasonings.

Wrap An American sandwich consisting of a filling and spread rolled in a soft flour tortilla (unlike a classic Mexican tortilla, the one used for a wrap can be flavored with herbs, spices or the like).

Xanthan Gum A food additive produced from corn syrup; used as a thickener, emulsifier and stabilizer.

Yam The thick, starchy tuber of various tropical vines native to Asia and unrelated to the potato and sweet potato; it has an off-white to dark brown skin and flesh that can range from creamy white to deep red; it is less sweet than a sweet potato.

Yeast A microscopic fungus that converts its food into carbon dioxide and alcohol through a metabolic process known as fermentation; yeast it necessary for making beer, wine, cheese and some breads.

Yield 1.The total amount of a food item created or remaining after trimming or fabrication.2. The total amount of a product made from a specific recipe.

Yogurt; Yoghurt A thick, tart, custardlike fermented dairy product made from cow’s milk to which bacteria cultures (e.g., Streptoccus thermophilus, Thermobacterium bulgaricum and T. jogurt) have been added; it has the same percentage of milkfat as the milk from which it is made.

Zest To remove strips of rind from a citrus fruit. The colored, outermost layer of citrus rind; used for flavoring creams, custards and baked goods; it can be candied and used as a confection or decoration.

Zester A tool used to cut slivers of zest from citrus; its short, flat blade has five small holes with sharp edges.

Ziti (TSEET-tee) Italian for bridegrooms and used to describe large, slightly curved tubes of pasta, similar to rigatoni.

Zucca (ZOO-ka) 1. Italian for pumpkin.2. Italian for all manner of squashes and gourds.

Zucchini (zoo-KEE-nee) A moderately long, cylindrical summer squash with smooth, dark green skin and a slightly bumpy surface, a creamy white-green flesh and a mild flavor; also known as courgette (especially in Europe).

Zushi (zhoo-she) The seasoned rice used for sushi.

Posted by: chefkscookingschool | February 10, 2011

Beef & Veal Test

Students and apprentices must achieve 75% or higher, you post your answers in a comment area below.

1) From what part of the beef does a New York come from?

2) What is the difference between a Porterhouse and T-bone steak?

3) Name three items cut from the flank.

4) From the tenderloin what cuts of meat can one expect?

5) What is the second most tender cut of meat?

6) Short ribs are from where?

7) What is a London broil?

8) Name the three types of ground beef and their fat content. Which one is consider the best for hamburgers?

9) Dry heat cooking methods are?

10) The two most common ways of tenderizing are?

11) The best way to judge doneness is?

12) Name the grades of beef comparing USA and Canada.

13) A 10 lb Prime rib roast should take how long to achieve a medium temperature at 325 F.

14) Kobe beef is consider the finest in the world what part of the world does it originate from?

15) Standing rib is better known as ?

16) Chicken fried steak is? A: Boneless chicken breast, B: Top sirloin, C: Ground beef

17) Do some research and explain the term chicken fried steak.

18) What are veal turkeys?

19) A 1 3/4 inch Fire Steak cooked to medium on charcoal coals will be cooked for how long, side 1 then side 2?

20) What are Veal Birds?

21) A flat iron is for doing laundry? Explain!

22) What is a culotte steak?

23) A pot roast is actually a ___________ cut of meat.

24) Rolled stuffed beef steaks and roasts should be cooked to?

25) Which cut are better for marinating, thick or thin?



 

Posted by: chefkscookingschool | February 6, 2011

Beef and Veal Cooking Class

Welcome to the wonderful world of beef and veal, here you will gain a BASIC understanding of beef, from cuts, to grading to steaks, the more you refer to the information provided the greater asset you will be to your employer.  Having the ability to cut your own beef will save you and your employer funds. You will have fresh bones for your stock and prime ground beef when required.

Chateaubriand: A piece of the tenderloin (the pointed end of the short loin), sized to feed two or more people and traditionally roasted.

Delmonico: A boneless cut from the rib section, named after the 19th century New York restaurant that popularized this dish. Restaurant bearing this can be found in N.O.L.A. and NY. NY.

Filet mignon is the tapered, fork-tender end of the short loin
Filet mignon

 Filet mignon: Think French! The name of this cut translates as tenderloin and it is the tapered, fork-tender end of the tenderloin loin.

 Flank steak: A lean cut of meat taken from the underbelly that grills quickly. This cut often is used for fajitas.

 Flatiron steak: Cut from the top blade, so named because it resembles a flat iron. Considered by many as the 2nd most tender cut.

 Hanger steak: Also called the hanging tenderloin, this cut is part of the diaphragm that hangs between the ribs and the loin.

 London Broil: A large cut from the flank, often marinated to tenderize it, then broiled and served thinly sliced.

The T-bone is named for the t-shaped bone running down the center of the steak
T-bone

 New York strip: A steak by many other names…(such as shell steak, Kansas City strip or sirloin club steak): The marbled, larger end of the short loin.

 Porterhouse: Essentially the T-bone’s big brother, combining two steaks in one, the New York and the filet.

 Prime rib: The bone-in rib steak, cut from ribs six through twelve, that often contains a bit of gristle but is full of flavor.

 Rib-eye: A rib steak without the bone; prized among steak lovers for its marbling and flavor.

The tri-tip is a triangular-shaped portion of top sirloin
Tri-tip

 Sirloin steak: Sitting between the short loin and the rump steak is the sirloin, less tender than the short loin but still full-flavored. AKA Kansas City Strip or NY Strip

 T-bone: Similar cut as the Porterhouse, only the filet side is usually a bit smaller. Named for the t-shaped bone running down the center of the steak.

 Tri-tip: Also known as a culotte steak or triangle steak, the tri-tip is a triangular-shaped portion of top sirloin.

Ground Beef: Ground Chuck

Ground chuck is the type of ground beef that comes from the shoulder of a cow. The amount of fat in ground chuck varies between roughly 15 and 20 percent, but the flavor is very rich. When cooked in dishes, it has a very tender and moist texture. Ground chuck is the best type of meat to use for hamburgers. Ground beef (and hamburger) is allowed up to 30 percent fat by the USDA. Ground chuck has a high fat content (20 to 25 percent), so it makes the juiciest hamburgers and meatloaf.

Ground Beef: Ground Sirloin

Ground sirloin is the type of ground beef that comes from the middle of an animal, usually around the hips of the cow. The amount of fat in ground sirloin varies between roughly 7 and 10 percent, making it a less than ideal choice for hamburgers. The flavor in hamburgers is very good, but the texture ends up being a little dry. Ground sirloin is an excellent ground beef to use in meat sauces. Ground sirloin is lean (15 to 20 percent fat), but it’s more flavorful than ground round. An ideal percentage of fat is about 20 percent; under 15 percent will give you a dry and tasteless burger.

Ground Beef: Ground Round

Ground round is the type of ground beef that comes from the rump and rear upper leg of the cow. Its fat content typically ranges from between 10 and 20 percent. Ground round isn’t nearly as flavorful as ground sirloin and ground chuck, and its texture is rough, almost grisly. While it can’t be used to advantage in hamburgers or meatloafs and isn’t ideal for meat sauces, ground round can easily be used in dishes where the texture isn’t critical, such as mixed with roughly chopped vegetables for meat pies. Ground round is very lean (up to 15 percent fat).

DRY HEAT METHOD FOR LARGER CUTS

ROASTING

Roasting is generally used for larger cuts, whereby, the meat is cooked uncovered, on a rack in a shallow pan.  For clarification, making a “roast” does not necessarily mean that the meat will be roasted.  Roasts such as pot roasts from tough cuts, require braising.  Roasts made from more tender meat are made by actually roasting.

It is definitely worth the effort to plan cooking time schedules so you can roast beef at a lower temperature.  The yield is greatly improved, and you’ll enjoy a moister, more delicious roast.

Heat oven to temperature specified in the Temperatures chart below.Place beef, fat side up, on rack in shallow roasting pan. Season, if desired. Insert ovenproof meat thermometer so tip is centered in thickest part of the roast, not resting in fat or touching bone. Do not add water. Do not cover.

Roast to 5° to 10°F below desired degree of doneness. Allow roast to stand 15-20 minutes before serving. Temperature will continue to rise 5° to 10°F to reach desired doneness. In addition, the roast will be easier to carve.

Broiling

1. Set oven regulator for broiling; preheat for 10 minutes. During broiling, the oven door for electric ranges should be left slightly open;  the oven door for gas ranges should remain closed. (However, consult your owner’s manual for specific broiling guidelines.)

2. Place beef on rack in broiler pan. Use seasonings as desired.

After cooking, season as desired.

Pan-Broiling

1. Heat heavy non-stick skillet over medium heat for 5 minutes.

2. Place beef in preheated skillet (do not overcrowd). Do not add oil or water, do not cover.

3. Pan-broil to desired doneness, turning once. Remove excess drippings from skillet as they accumulate. Season, if desired.

Grilling

1. Prepare charcoal for grilling. When coals are medium, ash-covered (approximately 30 minutes), spread in single layer and check cooking temperature. Position cooking grid.

(To check temperature, cautiously hold the palm of your hand above the coals at cooking height. Count the number of seconds you can hold your hand in that position before the heat forces you to pull it away; approximately 4 seconds for medium heat.)

2. Use seasonings as desired. Place on cooking grid directly over coals.

3. Grill according to chart, turning occasionally.  After cooking, season beef with salt and pepper, if desired.

Pan-Frying/Stir-Frying

1. Place beef in small amount of heated oil. Do not cover.

2. Cook at medium to medium-high temperature. Brown on both sides for pan-frying; turn meat pieces over continuously for stir-frying.

3. Season, as desired.

MOIST HEAT METHODS FOR LESS TENDER CUTS

Braising

1. Slowly brown beef on all sides in small amount of oil in heavy pan. Pour off excess drippings. Season, if desired.

2. Add a small amount (1/2 to 2 cups) of liquid.

3. Cover tightly and simmer gently over low heat on top of range or in a 325°F oven until beef is fork-tender.

 

Cooking in Liquid

1. Coat beef with seasoned flour, if desired. Slowly brown beef on all sides in small amount of oil in heavy pan. Pour off excess drippings.

2. Cover beef with liquid. Season, if desired. Bring liquid to boil; reduce heat to low.

3. Cover tightly and gently simmer on top of range or in a 325°F oven until beef is fork-tender.

 

Tenderizing

You may choose to tenderize less tender cuts of beef before cooking them.  They can then be cooked by a dry heat method. The two most common ways of tenderizing are marinating and pounding.

Marinating

Marinades are seasoned liquid mixtures that add flavor and in some cases tenderize. A tenderizing marinade must contain an acidic ingredient or a natural tenderizing enzyme. Acidic ingredients include vinegar, wine, and citrus or tomato juice. Naturally tenderizing enzymes are found in fresh papaya, ginger, pineapple and figs. The food acid or enzyme helps soften or break down the meat fibers and connective tissue and adds flavor.

Some marinades also contain a small amount of oil.  Marinades penetrate only about 1/4 inch into the surface of the meat, so they work best on thinner cuts. When marinating, containers must be covered. If the marinade has been in contact with uncooked meat, it must be brought to a rolling boil for one minute before adding it to cooked meat.

However, it is better to set aside a portion of the marinade mixture to use later as a sauce for basting. Be sure that it hasn’t come in contact with raw meat.

Pounding

Pounding with a heavy object such as a meat mallet tenderizes by breaking down the connective tissue.

Temperatures

The best way to judge doneness is to use a meat thermometer. Put the thermometer into the centre of roasts, into the breast (whole chicken) or thigh (whole turkey), or into the thickest part of cut-up poultry. Stuffing in poultry or cooked separately should reach 165° F (74° C) before serving. Rolled stuffed beef steaks and roasts should be cooked to medium (160° F/70°C).

To avoid overcooking a beef roast, remember to remove the  roast from the oven when the thermometer reads 5° to 10°F below the desired degree of doneness. As the roast sits before carving, its temperature will rise an additional 5° to 10° F. If you use an instant read thermometer, do not leave it in the roast during cooking. Follow manufacturer instructions.

Steaks and roasts may be cooked from frozen. Simply add 50% to the cooking time (i.e. an additional 10-15 minutes/lb. or 25-30 minutes/kg), and cook at lower temperatures. It is not recommended as a high degree of moisture is lost during cooking.


Canadian Grading Standards for Mature Cattle

In addition to the grades for youthful cattle, Canada also has quality grades for mature animals. Bulls are assigned an E grade and cows are placed into one of four D grades. Canada’s D1 grade requires excellent carcass muscling, firm white or amber fat and less than 15 millimeters (mm) or just over 9/16th of an inch fat depth. D2 requires medium to excellent muscling, white to yellow fat and less than 15 mm fat depth. The D3 grade is assigned to carcasses with low levels of muscling while D4 grades indicate a fat depth of greater than 15 mm. It is also possible to purchase ungraded Canadian beef

APPLESAUCE BURGERS

1 lb                   450 gr              lean ground beef

1                      1                      minced small onion

1 cup                250 ml              apple sauce

2 tbsp               30 ml                brown sugar

3 cup                60 ml                tomato catsup

2 cup                125 ml              bread crumbs

6                      6                      kaiser rolls

Mix the ground beef thoroughly with the remaining ingredients.  Form into six patties.

Place on a broiling pan, bake 15 minutes in a preheated 400F (200C) oven.

Place each patty in a roll, top as desired.  Serve hot.

SERVES 6

BARON OF ROAST BEEF

 

 

3 cup                          60 ml                           flour

2 tbsp                          30 ml                           dry mustard

1 tsp                            5 ml                             basil

2 tsp                           3 ml                             each of thyme leaves, chervil, salt

5 lb                              2.2 kg                          baron of beef

2 tbsp                          30 ml                           Worcestershire sauce

1                                  1                                  chopped onion

2                                  2                                  chopped carrots

2                                  2                                  chopped celery stalks

1                                  1                                  bay leaf

1 cup                           250 ml                         red wine

1 cup                           250 ml                         beef broth or water

Preheat the oven to 325F (160C).

Mix the flour, mustard and seasonings together.

Rub into the roast.   Place roast into a roasting pan.   Pour Worcestershire over.

Surround roast with the vegetables and bay leaf.   Pour in the red wine and water.

Bake to desired doneness see chart below, basting often.

Use the pan juices to make gravy.

SERVES 8

Roasting Chart:

Rare                             medium                       well done

27                                34                                44 minutes per lb (454 gr)   cooking meat temperatures

KOBE BEEF
Courtesy of Kobe Beef America™

The lore surrounding Kobe Beef has long been a source of fascination. Stories of massages with sake and diets based on beer have circulated for years. Some of the stories are true … some are merely legends which have taken on a life of their own.

Is it true that Kobe Beef in Japan are fed on beer and massaged to make them tender?
Well, both things take place, but not for the reasons we’ve been led to believe. Beer is fed to the cattle during summer months when the interaction of fat cover, temperature and humidity depresses feed intake. Beer seems to stimulate their appetite. It’s merely part of the overall management program designed to keep the cattle on feed in the heat of the summer. The massaging is done to relieve stress and muscle stiffness. It’s believed that the eating quality of the meat is affected positively by keeping the cattle calm and content.

Why do they brush the cattle with sake?
Brushing cattle with sake is another practice which creates great interest. Some producers in Japan believe that haircoat and softness of skin are related to meat quality. It’s believed brushing the haircoat with sake improves the appearance and softness of the animal and is therefore of economic importance.

Does Kobe Beef have religious significance in Japan?
Japanese soldiers, involved in many armed conflicts over the years, were fed beef to strengthen them for battle. When the soldiers came home from war, they brought, their appetite for beef with them. Village elders believed that consuming beef inside the house was a sacrilege, a desecration of the house, and an insult to their ancestors. Young men were forced to cook their beef outside on plow shears (this process become known as sukiyaki, which literally means plow cooking) until the Meui Restoration finally relaxed restriction against eating beef.

KOBE BEEF: FACT & FICTION
Cattle were first introduced into Japan in the 2nd century to provide power for the cultivation of rice. Because of the rugged terrain, migration was slow and restricted. Cattle tended to be isolated in small areas and each area had essentially a closed population.

Closed By Order Of The Shogun
From 1635 to 1868, the cow herd in Japan was officially closed by mandate of the Shogun. And except for a short period during the Meiji Restoration in the late 1800’s the national herd has remained closed to this day.

Geographic Isolation Results In The World’s Most Sought-After Beef
Japan’s rugged terrain created isolated pockets in which different breeding and feeding techniques were used. This resulted in distinctly different characteristics which, over the years, led to cattle from the Kobe region becoming a standard for the world in terms of flavor and tenderness. Since then, two decades of research and development have resulted in an eating experience unequaled by any domestically produced beef today. Every bite bespeaks a quality that, until now, was unavailable in this country at an affordable price. With KBA™, everything has changed.

Kobe Beef America™, Inc. produces unusually high quality beef in strictly Iimited amounts. We guarantee the quality of every serving to the ultimate consumer, and as a result, distribution is on a very selective basis.

When you’re going to eat beef, you deserve the best. That’s why KBA™ carefully screens its distributors, restaurants and retail outlets. We ensure each serving of meat is properly aged, handled and prepared in ways that deliver the ultimate in dining satisfaction.

Not everyone is allowed to buy KBA™ products. So, where you see the KBA logo, you can expect only the highest quality. It’s a quality we unconditionally guarantee.

BEEF AND TOMATO ON NOODLES

 

 

2 tsp                           3 ml                           baking soda

3 tbsp                          45 ml                       peanut oil

2                                  2                                  minced garlic cloves

2 tsp                            10 ml                        sugar

1 tsp                            5 ml                           salt

3 tbsp                          45 ml                       soy sauce

2 tbsp                          30 ml                       sherry

1 lb                              454 gr                      flank steak

4 oz                             114 gr                       button mushrooms

1                                  1                                  sliced medium onion

1 cup                           250 ml                    peeled, seeded, chopped tomatoes

1 tsp                            5 ml                          cornstarch

1 tbsp                          15 ml                       water

12 oz                           345 gr                      Chinese noodles

Blend the baking soda with 1 tbsp (15 ml) of oil and the garlic, sugar, salt, soya sauce and sherry.

Slice the steak thin, place in a large mixing bowl.  Pour marinate over beef and set aside for 20 minutes.

In a large wok or skillet, heat the remaining oil.  Drain the beef and reserve the marinate.  Fry the beef, mushrooms and onion for 3 minutes.  Add the reserved marinate and tomatoes reduce heat and simmer for 1 minute.

Mix the cornstarch with the water and add to the beef.  Simmer until sauce thickens.

While cooking the beef, cook the noodles in a large kettle of boiling salted water.  Drain and transfer to a large platter.  Pour beef over noodles and serve.

SERVES 6

BEEF CROQUETTES

2 tbsp               30 ml                butter

4 tbsp               60 ml                flour

1 cup                250 ml              milk

2 cups               500 ml              cooked lean ground beef, fat drained

2 tsp                 3 ml                  each of salt, paprika, chili powder

3 tsp                 1 ml                  pepper

1 tsp                 5 ml                  Worcestershire sauce

2 tsp                 10 ml                soy sauce

1 tsp                 5 ml                  finely chopped parsley

1                      1                      egg

2 tbsp               30 ml                water

2 cup                125 ml              seasoned flour

1-2 cups           375 ml              fine bread crumbs

1 cup                250 ml              safflower oil

Heat the butter in a sauce pan, add the flour and cook over low heat for 2 minutes.  Stir in the milk and simmer into a very thick sauce.  Stirring constantly, stir in the beef, seasonings, Worcestershire, soya and parsley.  Cool to room temperature.  Shape into equal size patties.

Blend the egg with the water. Dust each patty with flour, dip into the egg, then coat with bread crumbs.

Heat the oil in a large skillet, fry the patties to golden brown on each side.  Serve.

SERVES 4

BEEF GOULASH REVISITED

 

 

3 tbsp                          45 ml                           butter

3 tbsp                          45 ml                           minced onions

2 tsp                            10 ml                           salt

1 tsp                            5 ml                             pepper

1 tbsp                          15 ml                           paprika

2 1/3 lbs                     1 kg                             cubed beef round

3 tbsp                          45 ml                           flour

4 cups                          1 L                               hot beef broth

1                                  1                                  bouquet garni*

1-2 cups                     375 ml                         diced potatoes

1                                  1                                  sprig fresh marjoram

1 cup                           250 ml                         sour cream

3 cup                          60 ml                           tomato paste

1 tsp                            5 ml                             caraway seeds

In a large kettle or dutch oven heat the butter and add the onions, cook until tender without browning.

Blend the salt, pepper and paprika together.  Dust the beef with the seasonings and add to the pot, cook the beef until brown.  Sprinkle with flour and continue to cook for 3 minutes over low heat.

Add the broth and bouquet, simmer for 1-3 hours.

Add the potatoes and marjoram, continue to simmer for an additional 30 minutes.  Discard the bouquet.  Stir in the sour cream, tomato paste and caraway seeds, simmer 5 minutes longer and serve at once with Goulash Dumpling (recipe follows).

SERVES 6

BEEF IN PINEAPPLE SAUCE

1 lb                   450 gr              beef tenderloin

1 tbsp               15 ml                brown sugar

2 tsp                 3 ml                  minced ginger

2 tbsp               30 ml                soya sauce

2 tbsp               30 ml                sherry

2 tbsp               30 ml                safflower oil

1 cup                250 ml              pineapple chunks

2 cup                125 ml              pineapple juice

1 tsp                 5 ml                  cornstarch

2 tbsp               30 ml                water

Trim the tenderloin, remove all fat, and cut in thin strips.

Blend the sugar with the ginger, soya and sherry, pour over the beef and marinate for 2 hours.

Heat the oil in a wok.  Add the beef undrained along with the pineapple chunks.  Cook for 3 minutes. Pour in the pineapple juice.  Blend the cornstarch with the water and add to the beef.  Simmer until sauce thickens.  Serve.

SERVES 6

BEEF IN RED WINE MUSHROOM SAUCE

 

2-3 lbs                        1 kg                             sirloin, sliced into thin strips

3 tbsp                          45 ml                           butter

3 tbsp                          45 ml                           safflower oil

4 oz                             115 gr                          sliced mushrooms

3 tbsp                          45 ml                           finely diced carrots

3 tbsp                          45 ml                           finely diced celery

3 cup                          60 ml                           flour

2 cup                          125 ml                         red wine

2 cups                          500 ml                         beef broth

3 tbsp                          45 ml                           tomato paste

1 tsp                            5 ml                             each of black pepper, garlic powder, onion powder

In a large dutch oven or kettle, sauté the beef in the butter and oil.  Add the vegetables and continue to cook until tender.  Sprinkle with flour, reduce the heat and cook for 5 minutes.

Add the wine, broth, tomato paste and seasonings.  Simmer for 50 minutes covered.

Serve over noodles.

SERVES 6

BEEF IN TOMATO GINGER SAUCE

1 lb                   450 gr              beef tenderloin

3 tbsp               45 ml                olive oil

2 tbsp               30 ml                soya sauce

2 tbsp               30 ml                sherry

1                      1                      minced garlic clove

1 tsp                 5 ml                  minced ginger

6                      6                      dried Chinese mushroom, soak 1 hr. in warm water

2 tbsp               30 ml                tomato paste

Trim the beef of any fat and cut in thin strips.

Blend 1 tsp (5 ml) of oil with the soya, sherry, garlic and ginger and pour over the beef and marinate 2 hours.

Slice the mushrooms.

Heat the remaining oil in a wok.  Quickly fry the beef undrained with the mushrooms.  Stir in the tomato paste and cook 1 minute longer.  Serve.

SERVES 4

BEEF RIBS DIABLE

 

18                    18                    standing rib roast ribs

3 cup                60 ml                french dijon mustard

2 tsp                 10 ml                English dry mustard

3 cup                60 ml                white wine

4 tbsp               60 ml                molasses

1 tbsp               15 ml                cider vinegar

3 cup                60 ml                Worcestershire sauce

1 tsp                 5 ml                  TabascoJJ sauce

3 tsp                 1 ml                  each of ground ginger, onion powder, garlic powder

Place the ribs in a large oven roaster.

Blend the remaining ingredients together thoroughly, pour over the ribs.  Bake the ribs in a 350NF (180NC) oven for 1-3 to 1-2 hours or until fork tender.  Serve.

SERVES 6

BEEF SATAY

1 lb                   450 gr              flank steak

3 tbsp               45 ml                peanut oil

1 tbsp               15 ml                ground Brazil nuts

3 tsp                 1 ml                  ground ginger

1 tsp                 5 ml                  ground coriander

3 tsp                 1 ml                  each of pepper, onion powder

3 tsp                 1 ml                  each of cayenne, garlic powder

1 tsp                 5 ml                  molasses

1 tbsp               15 ml                lime juice

1 tbsp               15 ml                lemon juice

3 tbsp               45 ml                hot water

Trim and slice the beef into thin slices.

Skewer the meat with bamboo skewers.  Place them into a large shallow pan.

In a mixing bowl blend the remaining ingredients, pour over the skewered beef.  Marinate covered in the refrigerator for 3-2 to 4 hours.

Grill the skewers over high heat for 2 minutes per side, brushing frequently with the marinate while cooking.  Serve at once.

SERVES 4

BEEF STROGANOFF

 

2 tbsp                          30 ml                           safflower oil

2 tbsp                          30 ml                           butter

1                                  1                                  diced celery stalk

1                                  1                                  diced small onion

1                                  1                                  diced green bell pepper

1 lb                              454 gr                          thinly sliced sirloin

3 tbsp                          45 ml                           flour

1-2 cups                     375 ml                         beef broth

3 cup                          60 ml                           sherry

2 tsp                           3 ml                             each of salt, pepper, paprika

1 tsp                            5 ml                             Dijon mustard

1 cup                           250 ml                         sour cream

3 cups                          750 ml                         steamed rice or noodles

In a large skillet, heat the oil and butter.  Sauté the vegetables.  Add the beef and sauté.  Sprinkle with flour, cook for 3 minutes.

Add the beef broth, sherry, seasonings and mustard.  Reduce heat and simmer, covered for 1-3 hours.

Blend in sour cream and mix thoroughly.  Place rice or noodles on a serving plate, cover with stroganoff and serve.

SERVES 4

BEEF VIENNOISE

1-2 lbs              675 gr              top round

3 tbsp               45 ml                safflower oil

2                      2                      sliced Spanish onion

2 tsp                 10 ml                paprika

3 cup                60 ml                sherry

20                    20                    button mushrooms

3 lb                  115 gr              oyster mushrooms ‑ fresh or rehydrated, sliced

1                      1                      crushed garlic clove

1 tbsp               15 ml                Worcestershire sauce

1 tsp                 5 ml                  basil

3 cup                60 ml                wine vinegar

3 cup                60 ml                flour

4                      4                      large potatoes pared, cubed

2 cups               500 ml              beef stock

Dice the top round into : 2″ cubes.

Heat the oil in a large dutch oven, add the onion and paprika sauté until tender.  Add the beef and continue to sauté until the beef has browned.  Add the sherry, mushrooms, garlic, Worcestershire, basil and vinegar.  Simmer until most of the liquid has evaporated.

Sprinkle with flour and cook 3 minutes. Add the potatoes and stock, cover and simmer until sauce has thickened and potatoes are tender.  Serve.

SERVES 4

BIFTECK MARCHAND DE VINS

4 tbsp               60 ml                butter

b cup                160 ml              chopped green onions

1 cup                250 ml              red wine

2 cup                125 ml              cream style sherry

3 tsp                 1 ml                  crushed rosemary

3 tsp                 1 ml                  marjoram

4 tbsp               60 ml                chopped parsley

2 tbsp               30 ml                flour

2 cup                125 ml              beef stock

1 tbsp               15 ml                lemon juice

6‑6 oz               6‑150 gr           New York strip steaks

Heat 2 tbsp (30 ml ) of butter in a sauce pan, sauté the green onions for 3 minutes.  Add the wine, sherry and herbs.  Bring to a boil, reduce heat and simmer to 3/4 c (160 ml) of liquid.  Strain through a fine sieve.

In a second sauce pan heat the remaining butter, add the flour and cook over low heat for 8 minutes or until hazelnut in colour. Add the strained sauce, beef stock and lemon juice, continue to simmer for an additional 7 minutes.  Sprinkle with remaining parsley.

Trim the steaks of any excess fat, remove the grizzle along the fat strip as this will prevent the steaks from curling while they cook.  Broil the steaks to the desired doneness.  Place on serving plates, pour sauce over the steaks and serve.

SERVES 6

BLANQUETTE DE VEAU A L INDIENNE

1-2 lbs              675 gr              veal, shoulder diced in :” cubes

4 cups               1 L                   chicken stock

2 tsp                 10 ml                salt

20                    20                    pearl onions

4                      4                      carrots, julienned

2 tbsp               30 ml                butter

2 tbsp               30 ml                flour

2 tbsp               30 ml                curry powder

2 tbsp               30 ml                lemon juice

2                      2                      egg yolks

1 tbsp               15 ml                chopped parsley

In a dutch oven place the veal, chicken stock and salt, cover and simmer for 1-2 hours.  Add the onion and carrots continue cooking for 15 minutes.  Remove 2 cups (500 ml) of liquid.

Melt the butter in a small sauce pan, add the flour and curry powder, cook for 3 minutes over low heat.  Slowly add the 2 cups of liquid, stirring until thickened.

Whisk the lemon juice in the egg yolks, blend into the sauce.  Do not boil.

Add the sauce to the veal, reheat but do not boil.  Pour into a serving dish.  Garnish with parsley. Serve over cooked egg noodles.

SERVES 6

BRAISED SHORT RIBS

2-3 lbs              1 kg                  short ribs of beef

2 cups               500 ml              flour

2 tsp                 3 ml                  each of garlic powder, onion powder, salt, pepper

3 tsp                 1 ml                  each of thyme, oregano, chili powder, paprika

1                      1                      minced garlic clove

3 cup                60 ml                soya sauce

2 tsp                 3 ml                  ground ginger

3 cup                60 ml                brown sugar

3 cup                60 ml                sherry

: cup                180 ml              water

Cut the ribs into desired serving portions.

Blend the flour with the seasonings, dust the ribs with flour.  Brown in a preheated 350NF (180NC) oven.

Mix the garlic, soya, ginger, sugar, sherry and water together and pour this mixture over the ribs.  Cover the ribs, reduce the temperature of the oven to 300NF (150NC) and bake for 2 hours.

Serve with Spanish rice (see rice).

SERVES 6

CALVES LIVER WITH CITRUS PEPPERCORN SAUCE

6, 4 oz              6, 115 gr          calves liver slices

a cup                80 ml                flour

: cup                180 ml              butter

2 cup                125 ml              fine sugar

3                      3                      oranges

2                      2                      grapefruit

1 tbsp               15 ml                green peppercorns

Remove from the livers any veins then dust the slices with flour.

Heat 4 tbsp (60 ml) of butter in a skillet, sauté the livers for 3 minutes per side.

Heat the remaining butter in a sauce pan, add the sugar and caramelize it.  Add the juice from 2 oranges and 1 grapefruit.  Zest the remaining orange and grapefruit, then section each.  Add 2 tsp of lemon zest and 1 tsp of grapefruit zest to the sauce.  Cook for 1 minute.  Remove from heat, and add the fruit section and peppercorns.

Place sautéed liver on serving plates, cover with sauce and serve.

SERVES 6

CALIFORNIA KEBABS

2 lbs                  900 gr              sirloin tip

2 cup                125 ml              apricot nectar

1 tbsp               15 ml                lemon juice

1 tbsp               15 ml                lime juice

3 cup                60 ml                olive oil

1 tbsp               15 ml                Worcestershire sauce

2 tsp                 3 ml                  salt

2 tsp                 3 ml                  thyme leaves

1 tbsp               15 ml                chopped cilantro

2                      2                      green bell peppers, cubed

1                      1                      yellow bell pepper, cubed

12                    12                    mushrooms

12                    12                    cherry tomatoes

1                      1                      Spanish onion, cubed

1                      1                      thick sliced zucchini

Trim any fat from the sirloin and cut the meat into :” cubes.  Place the cubes in a mixing bowl.

Blend the apricot, lemon, lime, oil, Worcestershire, salt, thyme and cilantro, pour this marinate over the beef and marinate in the refrigerator for 12 hours or overnight.

On bamboo skewers alternate beef, peppers, mushrooms, tomatoes, onions and zucchini.  Grill these over medium heat on a broiler for 8‑10 minutes, brushing with marinate.  Serve.

SERVES 6

CEYLON BEEF

3 tbsp               45 ml                safflower oil

2 lbs                  900 gr              shoulder beef, cut in thin strips

1 cup                250 ml              sliced onions

1 cup                250 ml              sliced mushrooms

2                      2                      minced garlic cloves

3 tbsp               45 ml                flour

2 tsp                 3 ml                  salt

2 tsp                 10 ml                curry powder

4 cups               1 L                   tomatoes, seeded, peeled, diced

3 cup                60 ml                sherry

2 cup                125 ml              almonds, blanched, slivered

2 cups               500 ml              snow peas

Heat the oil in a large skillet or sauce pan, add the beef and sauté to brown.

Add the onions, mushrooms and garlic and continue cooking until vegetables are tender.  Sprinkle with flour, reduce heat and cook for an additional 2 minutes.

Add the salt, curry, tomatoes and sherry.  Bring to a boil, reduce heat and simmer for 15‑20 minutes.  Add the almonds and peas, continue cooking for an additional 3 minutes.  Serve with rice.

SERVES 6

CHICKEN FRIED STEAK

6, 4 oz              6, 115 gr          top round steaks

2                      2                      eggs

3 cup                60 ml                milk

1 cup                250 ml              fine bread crumbs

3 tsp                 1 ml                  each of salt, pepper, basil, thyme leaves, chili powder, onion powder, oregano, paprika

a cup                80 ml                flour

3 cup                60 ml                safflower oil

2 cups               500 ml              country gravy (see sauces)

Pound the steaks with a meat mallet to tenderize.

Blend the eggs with the milk.  Mix the bread crumbs together with the seasonings.

Dust the steaks with flour, then dip them into the egg wash, then dredge the steaks through the bread crumbs.

Heat the oil in a large skillet, fry the steaks for 3 minutes per side.  Serve with gravy on the side.

SERVES 6

CHILI CON CARNE & CHEESE

 

2-3 lbs                        1 kg                             lean ground beef

3 tbsp                          45 ml                           safflower oil

1                                  1                                  diced onion

1                                  1                                  diced green bell pepper

1                                  1                                  diced red bell pepper

3 oz                             90 gr                            sliced mushrooms

3                                  3                                  diced celery stalks

1                                  1                                  minced garlic clove

3 cups                          750 ml                         peeled, seeded, chopped tomatoes

1 tsp                            5 ml                             each of salt, pepper, paprika, thyme leaves

1 tbsp                          15 ml                           chili powder

2 tsp                            10 ml                           Worcestershire sauce

3 drops                        3 drops                        TabascoJJ sauce

2-3 cups                     560 ml                         canned red kidney beans, drained

3 cup                          60 ml                           tomato paste

1-2 cups                     375 ml                         grated cheddar cheese

In a large dutch oven or kettle, brown the beef in the oil.  Add the vegetables and garlic and sauté until tender.

Stir in all the remaining ingredients.  Lower the heat, and simmer for 1 hour or until desired thickness is achieved.

Place into serving bowls, sprinkle with cheese and serve.

SERVES 6

CLOVED VEAL STEW

 

2 tbsp               30 ml                olive oil

2 lbs                  900 gr              diced boneless veal

1 lb                   450 gr              peeled, seeded and chopped tomatoes

6                      6                      cloves

1 cup                250 ml              chicken stock

2                      2                      minced garlic cloves

3 tsp                 1 ml                  each of basil, thyme, marjoram

2 tsp                 3 ml                  salt and pepper

1 tbsp               15 ml                chopped parsley

Heat the olive oil in a dutch oven.  Add the veal and brown.  Add the tomatoes, cloves, stock, garlic and seasoning.

Cover, reduce heat and simmer for 2 hours.

Serve over noodles or rice, Sprinkled with parsley as a garnish.

SERVES 6

CRANBERRY VEAL CHOPS

 

6, 6 oz              6, 170 gr          veal chops

3 tbsp               45 ml                olive oil

2 cups               500 ml              fresh cranberries

: cup                180 ml              sugar

2 tsp                 3 ml                  salt

a cup                80 ml                water

Brown the chops in the oil in a large skillet.  Drain off fat.

Add the remaining ingredients.  Bring to a boil.  Reduce heat and cook simmering for 2 hour covered.  Serve the chops covered with the sauce.

SERVES 6

CREOLE VEAL TURKEYS

 

8                      8                      :” double veal chops

2-: cups           680 ml              bread cubes

5 tbsp               75 ml                butter

1                      1                      minced small onion

2 tsp                 3 ml                  Worcestershire sauce

2 tsp                 3 ml                  salt

2 tsp                 3 ml                  pepper

4 tbsp               60 ml                oil

2 cups               500 ml              creole sauce (see sauces)

Cut the bread, butter, onion, Worcestershire sauce, salt and pepper into a stuffing.  Stuff into the chops.

Heat the oil in a large skillet.  Brown chops in oil, drain excess oil.  Pour sauce over the chops.  Cover and reduce heat, simmer for 1 hour.

Serve with rice.

SERVES 6

DEVILED VEAL CHOPS

 

2 tbsp               30 ml                butter

3 tsp                 1 ml                  each of cayenne pepper, black pepper, white pepper

6-6 oz               6-170 gr           boneless veal chops

2 cup                125 ml              chili sauce

2 cup                125 ml              catsup

3 tsp                 1 ml                  each of salt, basil, paprika, chili powder, thyme, oregano

2 tbsp               30 ml                Worcestershire sauce

2 tbsp               30 ml                dijon mustard

2 cup                125 ml              water

Make a smooth paste of the butter and peppers.

Place the veal chops into a casserole dish and spread the butter over them.  Place under the oven broiler for 3 minutes, turn the veal over and broil for an additional 3 minutes.

While veal broils combine the remaining ingredients together in a small mixing bowl.  Pour over chicken and bake for 20-25 minutes.

Serve with a rice pilaff.

SERVES 6

FILET AU POIVRE

 

6-8 oz               6-225 gr           tenderloin filets

3 cup                60 ml                crushed black peppercorns

3 cup                60 ml                butter

2 tbsp               30 ml                brandy

1 cup                250 ml              demi-glace (see sauces)

2 tbsp               30 ml                sherry

3 cup                60 ml                heavy cream

Trim the filets of any fat.  Pat the peppercorns over the filets.

Heat the butter and sauté until desired doneness.  Remove and reserve hot.

Pour the brandy into the pan and carefully flame.  Add the sherry and cream.  Blend well, pour sauce over steaks and serve.

SERVES 6

FILET MIGNON STÉPHANIE BLAIS

 

2 tbsp               30 ml                butter

1 tsp                 5 ml                  olive oil

1 tsp                 5 ml                  minced onion

1 tsp                 5 ml                  minced chives

2 lb                  225 gr              ground mushrooms

6-4 oz               6-115 gr           filet mignons

2 quantity         2 quantity         puff pastry

2 lb                  225 gr              cooked crayfish tails

1                      1                      egg

1-2 cups           375 ml              bearnasie sauce

Heat 1 tsp (5 ml) of butter and the oil together in a large skillet.  Sauté the onion, chive and mushrooms until all liquid has evaporated.

Heat the remaining butter in a second skillet and brown the filet on all sides, pat dry on a paper towel.

Roll the pastry out as directed, cut into 6 even pieces.  Place some of the mushroom duxelles on the pastry, top with crayfish and a filet.  Wrap the pastry around to completely seal in the filling.  Trim any excess pastry.

Roll out the remainder pastry and use it to decorate the steaks.  Mix the egg with a little water and brush over the pastry.  Bake in a preheated 375NF (190EC) oven for 15-18 minutes.

Serve with bearnaise sauce on the side.

SERVES 6

FIRE STEAK

 

6-10 oz             6-300 gr           New York strip loin steaks

1 tsp                 5 ml                  dried garlic granules

2 tsp                 10 ml                black pepper

2 tsp                 3 ml                  each of cayenne pepper, oregano pepper, oregano leaves, thyme leaves, crushed rosemary, basil leaves, onion powder, salt

Trim the steaks of fat and remove the strip of grizzle along the edge to prevent curling while cooking.

Blend the seasonings together and rub into steak.  Leave steaks for 30 minutes.

Cook over medium coals to desired doneness.

SERVES 6

steak flip chart

GOULASH DUMPLINGS

 

4 cups               1 L                   flour

1 tsp                 5 ml                  salt

2                      2                      eggs

3 cup                60 ml                water

2                      2                      slices of bacon

2 cups               500 ml              beef broth

Sift the flour with the salt.  Place in a mixing bowl and knead in the eggs.  Add the water (just enough to form a stiff paste).

Roll the dough out on a flour dusted surface and allow to dry very hard.  Once dry break into pieces and grate with a coarse vegetable grater.

Fry the bacon in a skillet and strain the meat (use for some other cuisine) reserving 2 tbsp (30 ml) of bacon fat.

Pour the bacon fat into a small sauce pot, add the broth and bring to a boil.  Cook the dumplings for 4-5 minutes, serve with goulash.

SERVES 6

GRANDMA’S BEST DUMPLINGS

 

1 cup                250 ml              unbleached flour

1-2 tsp             8 ml                  baking powder

2 tsp                 3 ml                  salt

2 cup                125 ml              buttermilk

Sift the flour, baking powder and salt together in a mixing bowl.  Gradually add the milk until a light soft dough is formed.

Drop into a stew or fricassee in small spoonfuls, cover and simmer for 15 minutes before serving.  Do not cover during the simmering process.

SERVES 6

GRILLED T-BONE WITH MUSHROOMS

 

1 cup                250 ml              olive oil

4                      4                      minced garlic cloves

1 tbsp               15 ml                basil leaves

1 tsp                 5 ml                  chervil

2 tsp                 3 ml                  crushed black pepper

3 tbsp               45 ml                lemon juice

2 cup                125 ml              dry red wine

4-8 oz               4-225 gr           T-bone steaks

6 oz                  175 gr              fresh oyster mushrooms

6 oz                  175 gr              rehydrated chinese mushrooms

3 tbsp               45 ml                butter

In a sauce bowl combine the oil, garlic,  basil, chervil, rosemary, pepper, lemon juice, and red wine.

Place steaks in a shallow pan, pour marinate over steaks and marinate 1 hour.  Drain steaks, grill over hot coals for 7 minutes per side for medium.  Longer for well done, less for rare.

While steaks grill, slice the mushrooms.  Heat the butter in a skillet and sauté the mushrooms.  Serve on top of the steaks.

SERVES 4

HONEY BARBECUED VEAL STEAKS

 

3 tbsp               45 ml                butter

3 tbsp               45 ml                oil

1                      1                      minced medium onion

1                      1                      minced garlic clove

b cup                160 ml              tomato catsup

b cup                160 ml              liquid honey

3 cup                60 ml                cider vinegar

1 tbsp               15 ml                Worcestershire sauce

2 tsp                 3 ml                  each of thyme leaves, oregano leaves, basil leaves, paprika, pepper, chili powder, salt

2 tsp                 3 ml                  liquid smoke

4-6 oz               4-170 gr           veal round steaks

Heat the butter with 30 ml (2 tbsp) of oil in a sauce pan.  Add the onion and garlic and sauté until tender.

Add the catsup, honey, vinegar, Worcestershire, seasonings and smoke flavouring.  Simmer until sauce is thick and glossy.  Cool.

Brush the steaks with the remaining oil.  Grill over medium coals 6 minutes per side, brushing frequently with sauce.  Brush 1 final time before serving.

SERVES 4

HONEY LEMON VEAL CUTLETS

6, 4 oz              6, 115 gr          veal cutlets

2 cup                125 ml              flour

3 tbsp               45 ml                safflower oil

2 tbsp               30 ml                butter

2 tbsp               30 ml                flour

b cup                160 ml              light cream

3 cup                60 ml                lemon juice

3 cup                60 ml                liquid honey

12                    12                    lemon slices

parsley sprigs for garnish

Pound the cutlets flat with a meat mallet.  Dust the cutlets with the flour.

Heat the oil in a skillet and fry the cutlets for 3 minutes per side or until golden brown.

Heat the butter in a sauce pan, add the flour and cook over low heat for 2 minutes.  Add the cream and simmer into a thick sauce. Whip in the lemon juice and honey, continue to simmer for 2 minutes.

Place cutlets on a serving platter, pour sauce over and garnish with lemon slices and parsley, serve.

SERVES 6

LEMON PEPPER STEAK

1 lb                   450 gr              beef tenderloin

3 cup                60 ml                lemon pepper

2 tbsp               30 ml                safflower oil

2 tbsp               30 ml                butter

1 cup                250 ml              wild mushroom sherry sauce (see sauces)

a cup                80 ml                sour cream

Trim the tenderloin and cut into steaks.  Roll each steak in the lemon pepper.

Heat the oil with the butter in a large skillet and sauté the tenderloin to desired doneness.

While steaks cook, heat the sauce in a sauce pan.  Whip in the sour cream.

When the steaks are ready place on serving platters, pour the sauce over the steaks and serve.

SERVES 4

LEONARD’S SHEPHERD’S PIE

 

3 tbsp               45 ml                safflower oil

1 lb                   454 gr              lean ground beef

1                      1                      minced onion

2                      2                      minced celery stalks

2                      2                      pared, minced carrots

3 oz                  90 gr                sliced mushrooms

1                      1                      minced garlic clove

3 cup                60 ml                flour

2 cup                125 ml              beef broth

2 tbsp               30 ml                tomato paste

1 tsp                 5 ml                  Worcestershire sauce

2 tsp                 3 ml                  each of thyme leaves, chervil, salt, paprika, pepper

2 cups               500 ml              creamed corn

4 cups               1 L                   hot mashed potatoes

2 cups               500 ml              grated sharp cheddar

In a large skillet heat the oil, fry the ground beef.  Add the vegetables and sauté until vegetables are tender.  Sprinkle with flour and continue to cook for 2 minutes.  Add the broth, tomato paste, Worcestershire and seasonings.  Simmer until thick.

Spoon into a large casserole dish.  Cover mixture with the creamed corn.  Spread mashed potatoes over the corn.  Sprinkle cheese over top.

Bake in a preheated 400NF (200NC) oven for 15 minutes or until cheese is golden brown.

SERVES 6

LIVER ORIENTAL

1 lb                   450 gr              calf’s liver

a cup                80 ml                flour

4 tbsp               60 ml                safflower oil

4 oz                  115 gr              button mushrooms

3 oz                  80 gr                snow peas

1                      1                      minced garlic clove

1                      1                      sliced onion

1 tsp                 5 ml                  minced ginger root

3 tsp                 1 ml                  chinese five spice

2 cup                125 ml              beef stock

1 tbsp               15 ml                soya sauce

1 tsp                 5 ml                  Worcestershire sauce

Remove any membranes from the liver, slice into thin strips.  Dust the liver slices with flour.

Heat the oil to very hot in a wok. Add the liver and fry for 3 minutes. Add the mushrooms, peas, garlic, onion and ginger, fry for and additional 4 minutes.  Add the remaining ingredients, reduce heat and simmer until sauce thickens.

Serve with Bombay rice (see rice).

SERVES 4

NEW YORK STRIPLOIN DIABLE

 

6-10 oz             6-300 gr           New York striploin steaks

1-3 cups           310 ml              white wine

3 cup                60 ml                minced green onions

1-3 cups           310 ml              demi-glace sauce (see sauces)

1 tsp                 5 ml                  wWorcestershiresauce

2 tsp                 3 ml                  dry mustard

Trim the steak of fat and the grizzle strip along the edge to prevent curling while meat cooks.

In a small sauce pan, boil the wine and green onions together.  Reduce by a the wine volume.  Add the remaining ingredients, reduce heat and simmer for 5 minutes.  Pass sauce through a sieve, and reserve warm.

Grill the steaks over medium coals to desired thickness, serve covered with sauce.

SERVES 6

OLD FASHION BEEF STEW

 

2-3 lbs              1 kg                  beef round

3 tbsp               45 ml                olive oil

3 tbsp               45 ml                flour

3                      3                      diced onions

1                      1                      minced garlic clove

3                      3                      large diced carrots

4                      4                      diced celery stalks

20                    20                    button mushrooms

3 cups               750 ml              beef broth

a cup                90 ml                tomato paste

1 tbsp               15 ml                wWorcestershiresauce

2 tbsp               30 ml                soya sauce

2 tsp                 3 ml                  each of salt, pepper, paprika, chili powder, thyme, oregano

6                      6                      large potatoes

Cut the beef in large cubes.  Heat the oil in a large kettle or dutch oven, add the beef and brown, remove the beef.

Sprinkle with flour and cook over low heat for 5 minutes or until golden brown.

Add the onion, garlic, celery and mushrooms, sauté until tender.  Stir in the beef, broth, tomato paste, wWorcestershire soya and seasonings.  Cover and simmer for 45 minutes.

Pare and dice the potatoes, add to the stew and continue to simmer for an additional 30 minutes.  Serve with Grandma’s Best dumplings follows.

SERVES 6

PAUPIETTES DE VEAU ‑ VEAL BIRDS

6, 4 oz              6, 115 gr          provimi veal cutlets

4 oz                  115 gr              ground veal

2 oz                  60 gr                bacon

1                      1                      small onion

1                      1                      carrot

1                      1                      celery stalk

3 tsp                 1 ml                  lemon rind

2 tsp                 3 ml                  each of salt, basil leaves, pepper, thyme leaves

2 cup                500 ml              fine bread crumbs

1                      1                      egg

3 tbsp               45 ml                oil

3 tbsp               45 ml                butter

4 tbsp               60 ml                flour

1-2 cup            375 ml              chicken stock

: cup                180 ml              heavy cream

2 tbsp               30 ml                chopped parsley

Pound the cutlets very thin. In a food processor grind the veal, bacon, onion, carrot, and celery very fine.  Transfer to a mixing bowl and add the lemon, seasonings and bread  crumbs, mixing thoroughly. Add the egg to bind.  Spread the  stuffing over the cutlets then roll and tie together.

Heat the oil and butter in a sauce pan, sear the veal on each side then transfer them to a casserole dish.  Sprinkle the flour into the skillet, reduce heat and cook 2 minutes.  Add the chicken stock and cream, simmer for 5 minutes.  Pour the sauce over the veal.

Bake in a preheated 350NF (180NC) oven for 1 hour.  Remove the paupiettes, untie, place upon a platter, pour sauce over and sprinkle with parsley for garnish before serving.

SERVES 6

PEPPERED VEAL CHOPS

 

6-6 oz               6-180 gr           veal chops

3 cup                60 ml                crushed black peppercorns

3 cup                60 ml                butter

2 tbsp               30 ml                brandy

1 cup                250 ml              demi glace (see sauces)

2 tbsp               30 ml                sherry

3 cup                60 ml                heavy cream

Pat the peppercorns into the veal chops.

Heat the butter in a large skillet and sauté the veal chops to the desired doneness.  Remove and reserve hot.

Pour in the brandy and flame, add the demi glace and sherry.  Simmer 1 minute.  Add the cream blending well.

Pour sauce over the chops and serve.

SERVES 6

RED WINE BEEF STEW

4 tbsp               60 ml                safflower oil

1-2 lbs              675 gr              round beef

8                      8                      slices of bacon

20                    20                    button mushrooms

20                    20                    pearl onions

3                      3                      celery stalks, diced

3                      3                      carrots, diced

4 tbsp               60 ml                flour

1 cup                250 ml              tomatoes, peeled, seeded, chopped

2 cups               500 ml              red wine

1 cup                250 ml              beef stock

2 tsp                 10 ml                Worcestershire sauce

1 tbsp               15 ml                soya sauce

2 tsp                 3 ml                  dijon mustard

3 tsp                 1 ml                  salt

3 tsp                 1 ml                  cracked black pepper

Heat the oil in a large kettle, add the beef and brown.  Dice the bacon and add to the beef along with the vegetables, sauté for 3 minutes.  Sprinkle with flour and cook for 3 minutes.  Add the remaining ingredients.

Cover and simmer gently for 1-2 hours.  Serve with rice or over noodles.

SERVES 6

ROAST VEAL WITH BLACKBERRY BRANDY SAUCE

1-2 lb               675 gr              veal, shoulder boned and tied

1                      1                      garlic clove

3 tsp                 1 ml                  each of thyme leaves, oregano leaves, salt, pepper,  paprika, dry mustard

1 tbsp               15 ml                olive oil

SAUCE:

1-3 lbs              625 gr              blackberries

4 tsp                 20 ml                cornstarch

3 cup                60 ml                blackberry brandy

2 tbsp               30 ml                fine sugar

Preheat the oven to 350NF (180NC).

Rub the roast with the garlic clove.  Blend the  seasonings together.

Place roast in a small roasting pan and sprinkle with the seasonings.  Drizzle the oil over the roast. Roast uncovered for 35‑45  minutes depending on required doneness.

While the roast cooks purée the blackberries in a food processor, strain to remove pulp and seeds. Place the juice into a small sauce pan, blend in the cornstarch, brandy and sugar.  Slowly heat until sauce thickens.

Remove the roast from the oven and carve.  Place on a serving platter and pour sauce over, serve.

SERVES 4

ROGNONS A’ LA CREOLE

(VEAL KIDNEYS CREOLE STYLE)

6                      6                      veal kidneys

: cup                180 ml              flour

3 cup                60 ml                safflower oil

2                      2                      finely diced Spanish onions

2                      2                      green peppers, finely diced

1                      1                      minced garlic clove

3 cups               750 ml              tomatoes crushed

3 tsp                 1 ml                  each of basil, thyme leaves, oregano leaves, paprika, garlic powder, onion powder, chili powder, black pepper, white pepper, cayenne pepper

2 tsp                 3 ml                  salt

1 tbsp               15 ml                Worcestershire sauce

2 cup                125 ml              green onions, sliced

3 cup                60 ml                chopped parsley

3 cup                60 ml                butter

Wash the kidneys and soak in cold water for 1-2 hours.  Drain, remove the cores and slice in : inch (2 cm ) slices.  Dust with flour.

While kidneys soak prepare the sauce by heating the oil in a sauce pan.  Add the onion, green pepper and garlic, sauté until tender.  Add the tomato, seasonings and Worcestershire, reduce heat and simmer for 1 hour.  Add the green onion and parsley, simmer 15 minutes longer.

Heat the butter in a large skillet and fry the kidneys to golden brown. Pour the sauce over kidneys and simmer for 10 minutes.  Serve with rice.

SERVES 6

SALISBURY STEAK LYONNAISE

 

1-2 lbs              675 gr              lean ground beef

a cup                80 ml                seasoned bread crumbs

1                      1                      egg

2 tsp                 10 ml                Worcestershire sauce

2 tbsp               30 ml                minced onions

2 tbsp               30 ml                minced carrots

2 tbsp               30 ml                minced celery

3 cup                60 ml                butter

1                      1                      sliced Spanish onion

2 tsp                 10 ml                sugar

3 tbsp               45 ml                flour

3 cup                60 ml                sherry

1-2 cups           375 ml              beef broth

3 tbsp               45 ml                tomato paste

2 tsp                 3 ml                  salt

3 tsp                 1 ml                  black pepper

In a large mixing bowl, combine the beef, crumbs, egg, minced onion, carrot and celery.  Shape into 6 even size patties.  Place on a broiling pan and cook in a 400NF (200NC) oven for 15-20 minutes.  Time is dependant on thickness of patties.

While patties cook, heat the butter in a sauce pan.  Add the sliced onions and sugar.  Sauté over low heat until onions caramelize.  Sprinkle in the flour and continue to cook for 4 minutes.  Add the sherry, broth, tomato paste and seasonings.  Simmer until sauce thickens.

Place patties on serving plates, smother with sauce and serve.

SERVES 6

SAUTEED VEAL CHOPS WITH CALAMINE SAUCE

 

6-6 oz               6-170 gr           boneless veal chops

3 tbsp               45 ml                oil

salt, pepper to taste

a cup                80 ml                tangerine or orange juice concentrate

2 cup                125 ml              veal or chicken broth

3 cup                60 ml                whipping cream

3 tsp                 1 ml                  cracked black pepper

1 tbsp               15 ml                butter

1 tsp                 5 ml                  lime juice

Heat the oil in a large skillet.  Sauté the veal for 6-8 minutes.  Season with salt and pepper and reserve hot.

Heat the tangerine juice in a sauce pan with the broth, bring to a boil and reduce heat.  Add the cream and simmer until sauce coats a spoon.  Remove from heat.   Whip in the butter and lime juice.

Place veal chops on a serving plate cover with sauce and serve.

SERVES 6

SOUR CREAM HERB MEATLOAF

 

1 lb                   454 gr              lean ground beef

: lb                  345 gr              ground veal

2 lb                  225 gr              lean ground pork

2                      2                      eggs

1 cup                250 ml              soda cracker crumbs

1 cup                250 ml              sour cream

a cup                80 ml                chopped parsley

3 tbsp               45 ml                chopped chives

2 tsp                 3 ml                  each of thyme leaves, chervil, basil leaves

1 tsp                 5 ml                  salt

: tsp                 4 ml                  cracked black pepper

2 cup                125 ml              sour cream cheese sauce (see sauces)

Preheat oven to 350NF (180NC).

In a large mixing bowl, combine all the ingredients.

Line a large loaf pan with tin foil.  Pack the mixture into the pan.  Bake for 2 hours.

Turn loaf out, remove the foil wrap.  Slice and serve with sour cheese sauce.

SERVES 6

STEAK N CHICKEN FAJITAS

 

12 oz                345 gr              top sirloin

12 oz                345 gr              boneless chicken

3                      3                      garlic cloves

2                      2                      sliced Spanish onions

2                      2                      minced serrano chilies

3 cup                60 ml                chopped cilantro

3 cup                60 ml                lime juice

3 cup                60 ml                lemon juice

3 tbsp               45 ml                butter

1                      1                      sliced green bell pepper

1                      1                      sliced red bell pepper

1                      1                      sliced yellow bell pepper

3 oz                  90 gr                sliced mushrooms

1 tbsp               15 ml                each of salt, chili powder

2 tsp                 10 ml                each of paprika, onion powder, garlic powder, basil leaves

1 tsp                 5 ml                  each of dry mustard, cumin, black pepper, white pepper, thyme leaves

12                    12                    large tortillas

2 cup                125 ml              sour cream

1 cup                250 ml              salsa sauce (see sauces)

Slice the steak and chicken in thin strips.  Place each in separate mixing bowls.  Cover each with half an onion slice, chilies, cilantro, lemon and lime juice.  Marinate for 4 hours.

Grill meats over medium coals for 2-3 minutes.

In a large skillet, melt the butter and sauté the remaining onion, peppers and mushrooms.

Blend the seasonings together and season both the meats and vegetables while they cook.

Place meats and vegetables on very hot serving platters, serve with tortillas, sour cream and salsa so that your guests may construct their own.  Also good with guacamole sauce.

SERVES 6

STUFFED ROAST VEAL

1-2 lb               675 gr              veal shoulder roast, boned

1                      1                      finely diced onion

2                      2                      finely diced celery stalks

2                      2                      finely diced carrots

2 tbsp               30 ml                butter

3 cup                60 ml                raisins

a cup                80 ml                cashews

3 cups               750 ml              bread cubes

1 tsp                 5 ml                  each of salt, pepper, sugar, basil, thyme leaves

2                      2                      eggs

Preheat the oven to 350NF (180NC).

Butterfly the veal by making an incision down the centre.  Using a meat mallet flatten the veal.

Sauté the onion, celery and carrot in a skillet with the butter, cool to room temperature. Place in a mixing bowl, add the raisins, cashews, cubed bread and seasonings. Bind all the ingredients together with the eggs.

Pat the stuffing on the veal.  Roll and tie the veal.  Place it into a roasting pan.  Roast uncovered for 45‑50 minutes.  Remove and carve.  Place on a serving platter. Serve with wild mushroom sherry sauce (see sauces ).

SERVES 4

SWISS STEAK

6‑6 oz               6‑150 gr           shoulder steaks

2 cup                125 ml              flour

2 tsp                 3 ml                  each of basil, oregano leaves, thyme leaves, salt

3 tsp                 1 ml                  each of chili powder, paprika, pepper

3 tbsp               45 ml                safflower oil

1 cup                250 ml              sliced mushrooms

1 cup                250 ml              sliced green bell pepper

1 cup                250 ml              sliced onion

2 cups               500 ml              chopped tomatoes

2 cup                125 ml              water

2 tsp                 3 ml                  Worcestershire sauce

Have the butcher tenderize the steaks or pound thin with a meat mallet.

Blend the flour with the spices then dredge the steaks in the seasoned flour.

Heat the oil in a large skillet, brown the steaks.  Remove to a large casserole dish.  Sauté the mushrooms, green pepper and onion in the oil.  Add the tomato, water and Worcestershire, simmer for 5 minutes.  Pour over the steaks, cover and bake in a preheated 350NF (180NC) oven for 1 to 1‑3 hours.

Remove from the oven and serve with rice pilaff.

SERVES 6

SZECHUAN SHREDDED BEEF

1-2 lbs              675 gr              sirloin steak, sliced 1/8″ thick

3 tbsp               45 ml                sherry

3 tbsp               45 ml                soya sauce

1 tsp                 5 ml                  minced garlic

1 tsp                 5 ml                  minced ginger root

3 tsp                 2 ml                  cayenne pepper

2 tbsp               30 ml                safflower oil

Cut the steak into thin strips.

Blend the sherry, soya, garlic, ginger and cayenne together.  Pour over the steak and mix through, marinate 30 minutes.

Heat the oil to very hot in a wok or large skillet, add the undrained beef.  Fry stirring constantly for 5 minutes.  Serve.

SERVES 6

THE GOURMETS BREAKFAST STEAK

 

6-6 oz               6-170 gr           tenderloin filets

2 tbsp               30 ml                butter

: cup                190 ml              sliced mushrooms

3 tbsp               45 ml                chopped chives

1-2 cups           375 ml              demi glace (see sauces)

3 tbsp               45 ml                brandy

3 tbsp               45 ml                sherry

3 cup                60 ml                heavy cream

6                      6                      eggs

3                      3                      English muffins

6                      6                      slices of large truffle

Season the steaks as you like and broil them to your desired doneness.

While steaks cook, heat the butter in a small sauce pan, add the mushrooms and sauté until all moisture has evaporated.  Add the onions, demi-glace, brandy and sherry, bring to a boil and reduce sauce to half it’s volume.  Swirl in the cream.

Poach the eggs and toast the muffins.  Place a half muffin on serving plates, top with a steak and smother with sauce.  Place an egg on top and garnish with a truffle slice.

SERVES 6

TOMATO & VEAL STEW

1-2 lb               675 gr              veal, shoulder coarsely diced

3 cups               750 ml              chicken stock

2 tsp                 10 ml                salt

1 tsp                 5 ml                  each of thyme and oregano leaves

3 tbsp               45 ml                butter

20                    20                    pearl onions

2                      2                      carrots, julienned

2                      2                      celery stalks, julienned

1                      1                      minced garlic clove

20                    20                    button mushrooms

3 tbsp               45 ml                flour

1-2 cup            375 ml              tomato purée

In a dutch oven place the veal, stock, salt, thyme and oregano, cover and simmer for 1-2 hours.

In a sauce pan heat the butter, add the carrots, celery, onions, mushrooms and garlic, sauté for 5 minutes.  Sprinkle with flour and cook for 3 minutes without browning.

Pour into the veal and blend. Add the tomato purée and simmer for 10 minutes. Serve with rice.

SERVES 6

TOM’S STEAK LASAGNA

 

1 quantity          1 quantity          basic pasta dough (see pasta)

1 lb                   454 gr              thin sliced sirloin steak

3 tbsp               45 ml                olive oil

1                      1                      sliced Spanish onion

1                      1                      sliced re bell pepper

1                      1                      sliced green bell pepper

3                      3                      diced celery stalks

2                      2                      minced garlic cloves

2 cups               500 ml              peeled, seeded, diced tomatoes

2 tsp                 3 ml                  each of oregano leaves, thyme leaves, basil, marjoram, chervil, paprika, pepper, onion powder, garlic powder

1 tsp                 5 ml                  salt

2 tsp                 10 ml                chili powder

1 cup                250 ml              ricotta cheese

1-2 cups           375 ml              grated cheddar

2                      2                      eggs

1                      1                      chopped green onion

1-2 cups           375 ml              grated mozzarella

Process the dough as per instructions, cut into lasagna noodles.  Reserve.

In a large skillet, fry the steak in the oil.  Add the onion, bell peppers, celery and garlic.  Sauté until tender.  Add the tomatoes and seasonings, cover and simmer for 30 minutes.

Blend together the ricotta, cheddar, eggs and green onions.

In a large, greased casserole dish, alternate layers of pasta, steak sauce, and cheese mixture.  finish with a layer of sauce.  Cover with mozzarella cheese.

Bake in a preheated 375N (190N) oven for 50-60 minutes or until cheese is golden brown.  Serve at once.

SERVES 6

TOURNEDOS DIANNA LYNN

12                    12                    slices maple bacon

12                    12                    3 oz (80 gr) filet steaks

12 oz                360 gr              cooked crab meat

Wrap a slice of bacon around each steak.  Broil to the desired doneness. Top with crab meat.  Pour over each steak 1 tsp (5 ml) of raspberry hollandaise.  Place on a baking sheet. Broil for 1 minute or until golden brown.  Serve.

SERVES 6

VEAL A LA RHINE

1- 2 lb              675 gr              veal shoulder

2                      2                      eggs

3 cup                60 ml                milk

2 cup                125 ml              flour

1 cup                250 ml              fine bread crumbs, seasoned

3 cup                60 ml                safflower oil

1-2 cup            375 ml              baby shrimp

18                    18                    blanched asparagus spears

: cup                180 ml              hollandaise sauce (see sauces)

Cut the veal shoulder into 6, 4 oz (120 gr) pieces. Flatten and tenderize each piece into a cutlet with a meat mallet.

Blend the eggs into the milk.  Dust each cutlet with flour, dip into the egg wash and dredge with bread crumbs.

Heat the oil in a large skillet, fry each cutlet to golden brown on each side.  Place on a baking sheet.

Divide the shrimp over each cutlet. Top with 3 asparagus spears and 2 tbsp (30 ml) of hollandaise sauce. Place under the oven broiler for 1-2 minutes or until golden brown.   Serve.

SERVES 6

VEAL CHOPS CHARCUTIERE

 

6-6 oz               6-170 gr           veal chops

2 tbsp               30 ml                safflower oil

1                      1                      diced Spanish onion

2 tbsp               30 ml                butter

2 tbsp               30 ml                flour

1 cup                250 ml              white wine

1 cup                250 ml              chicken or veal stock

2 tbsp               30 ml                chopped gherkins

1 tsp                 5 ml                  dijon mustard

Brush the chops with the oil.  Season with a little salt and pepper if desired.  Broil in the oven until cooked through.

Fry the onion in the butter in a sauce pan until brown.  Sprinkle with flour and continue to cook for 2 minutes over low heat.  Add the wine, stock, gherkins and mustard simmer 15 minutes.

Place chops on a serving plate, pour sauce over chops and serve.

SERVES 6

VEAL CHOPS CREOLE STYLE

 

12                    12                    small veal chops

3 tsp                 1 ml                  each of thyme, basil, oregano, salt, cayenne pepper, black pepper, white pepper

2 tsp                 3 ml                  paprika

1 tsp                 5 ml                  chili powder

1-2 cups           375 ml              fine dry bread crumbs

2                      2                      eggs

3 cup                60 ml                milk

2 cup                125 ml              flour

3 cup                60 ml                olive oil

2 cups               500 ml              hot creole sauce (see sauces)

Trim the chops of any excess fat.

In a mixing bowl blend the seasonings with the bread crumbs.

Blend the eggs with the milk.

Dust the chops in the flour, dip into the eggs and dredge through the bread crumbs.

Heat the oil in a large skillet and fry the chops for 8 minutes or less depending on their size.  Plate the chops and smother with creole sauce, serve at once.

SERVES 6

VEAL CHOPS FRICASSEE

 

4-2 lbs              1-2 kg              small veal chops

2                      2                      chopped onions

2                      2                      chopped carrots

2                      2                      chopped celery stalks

1                      1                      bouquet garni*

4 cups               1 L                   cold veal or chicken broth

1 tsp                 5 ml                  celery salt

2 tsp                 3 ml                  white pepper

3 tbsp               45 ml                butter

3 tbsp               45 ml                flour

Wash and pat dry the chops.

Place the chops in a large kettle or dutch oven along with the onions, carrots and celery and bouquet.  Cover with the broth and bring to a boil, reduce temperature and simmer gently for 45 minutes.

Remove the chops and reserve warm.  Strain the broth and discard the vegetables and the bouquet.  Return the broth to the pot, add the salt and pepper, bring to a boil, reduce the liquid to 2 cups (500 ml).

In a small sauce pan heat the butter, add the flour and cook over low heat for 2 minutes.  Add the reduced broth and simmer into a thick sauce.  Pour sauce over chops and serve with rice or noodles.

SERVES 4

*For the bouquet garni see CHICKEN SAUTE BOURGUIGNONNE

VEAL CHOPS FRICASSEE II

 

4- 2                 1-2 kg              small veal chops

2 cup                125 ml              seasoned flour

4 tbsp               60 ml                olive oil

2                      2                      chopped onions

2                      2                      chopped carrots

2                      2                      chopped celery stalks

1                      1                      bouquet garni*

4 cups               1 L                   cold veal or chicken broth

2 tsp                 3 ml                  each of salt, pepper, paprika, chili powder, basil

2 cup                125 ml              tomato paste

3 tbsp               45 ml                butter

3 tbsp               45 ml                flour

Wash and pat dry the chops.

Dust the chops in the seasoned flour.

Heat the oil in a large kettle or dutch oven, brown the chops on all sides, drain the excess oil.  Add the onions, carrots, and bouquet, cover with the broth and bring to a boil, reduce temperature and simmer gently for 45 minutes.

Remove the chops and reserve warm.  Strain the broth and discard the vegetables and bouquet.  Return to the pot, add the seasonings and tomato paste, bring to a boil and reduce the liquid to 2 cups (500 ml).

In a small sauce pan heat the butter, add the flour and cook over low heat for 2 minutes.  Add the reduced broth and simmer into a thick sauce.  Pour sauce over chops and serve with rice or noodles.

SERVES 4

*For the bouquet garni see CHICKEN SAUTÉ BOURGUIGNONNE

VEAL CHOPS PROVENÇALE

 

4- 2 lb              1-2 kg              small veal chops

a cup                90 ml                flour

3 cup                60 ml                olive oil

3                      3                      minced garlic cloves

20                    20                    pearl onions

20                    20                    button mushrooms

2                      2                      julienne cut carrots

2 cups               500 ml              peeled, seeded, chopped tomatoes

1 cup                250 ml              double veal or chicken broth

1 cup                250 ml              red wine

2 tsp                 3 ml                  each of salt, pepper, basil, chervil, marjoram

Wash and pat dry the chops.

Dust the chops with the flour.  Heat the oil in a large kettle or dutch oven, brown the chops and remove.

Add the garlic, onions, mushrooms and carrots.  Sauté until tender, sprinkle with the remaining flour and cook for 2 minutes over low heat.

Return the chops to the kettle and add the remaining ingredients, stir to blend well.  Cover the chops and simmer very gently for 1-2 hours.

Serve with rice or pasta.

SERVES 4

VEAL CHOPS TIA JAUNA

 

4- 2 lb              1-2 kg              small veal chops

3 cup                60 ml                flour

2 tsp                 10 ml                salt

3 tsp                 1 ml                  each of black pepper, white pepper, cloves

2 tsp                 10 ml                each of chili powder, paprika

a cup                90 ml                olive oil

1                      1                      large sliced onion

2                      2                      minced garlic cloves

1                      1                      sliced green bell pepper

1                      1                      sliced red bell pepper

1-2 cups           375 ml              sliced mushrooms

3 cups               750 ml              peeled, seeded, chopped tomatoes

2 cup                125 ml              sherry

a cup                90 ml                green stuffed olives

Wash and pat dry the chops.

Combine the flour with the seasonings.  Dredge the chops through the flour.

Heat the oil in a large kettle or dutch oven, brown the chops in the oil.  Transfer the chops to a large casserole dish.

Sauté the onion, garlic, peppers and mushrooms in the pan until tender.  Stir in the tomatoes and sherry, simmer for 5 minutes.  Pour over the chops and bake in a preheated 350NF (180NC) oven for 45-50 minutes covered.  Remove the cover and stir in the olives and continue to bake for an additional 15 minutes.

Serve with rice.

SERVES 4

VEAL CHOPS WITH LIME CILANTRO CREAM

 

1                      1                      egg

3 cup                60 ml                milk

6-4 oz               6-120 gr           boneless veal chops

2 cup                125 ml              flour

1 cup                125 ml              seasoned bread crumbs

6 tbsp               90 ml                olive oil

3 tbsp               45 ml                butter

2 tbsp               30 ml                flour

2 cup                125 ml              chicken stock

2 cup                125 ml              light cream

3 cup                60 ml                lime juice

2 tbsp               30 ml                chopped cilantro (coriander)

Mix the egg with the milk, dust the chops with the flour, dip into egg then dredge through the bread crumbs.

Heat the oil in a large skillet, fry the chops for 3 minutes per side or until golden brown.  Reserve hot in the oven.

Heat the butter in a sauce pan, add the flour and cook 2 minutes over low heat.  Add the chicken stock and cream, simmer into a light sauce.  Whip in the lime juice and cilantro, continue to simmer 5 minutes.

Place chops on serving plates and pour the sauce over the chops.

 SERVES 6

VEAL CUTLETS CHERBOURG

 

6-4 oz               6-120 gr           veal cutlets

1                      1                      egg

3 cup                60 ml                milk

2 cup                125 ml              flour

1 cup                250 ml              seasoned bread crumbs

3 tbsp               45 ml                safflower oil

6 tbsp               90 ml                butter

3 tbsp               45 ml                flour

1 cup                250 ml              chicken stock

1 cup                250 ml              light cream

1-2 cups           375 ml              cooked crayfish tails

3 tsp                 2 ml                  salt

pinch                 pinch                 each of white pepper, paprika

Pound the cutlets thin with a meat mallet.

Mix the egg into the milk.  Dust the cutlets in the flour, dip into the egg wash, then dredge with bread crumbs.  Heat the oil in a large skillet and fry the cutlets until golden brown.  Reserve hot.

Heat half the butter in a sauce pan, add the flour and cook for 2 minutes over low heat.  Add both the chicken stock and cream and simmer 15 minutes or until sauce thickens.

In a food processor purée the remaining butter and half the crayfish tails.  Remove sauce from heat, whisk in the purée.  Add the remaining crayfish and seasonings.

Place cutlets on serving plate smother with sauce and serve.

SERVES 6

VEAL CUTLETS VERDE

 

6-4 oz               6-120 gr           veal cutlets

1                      1                      egg

3 cup                60 ml                milk

2 cup                125 ml              flour

1 cup                250 ml              seasoned bread crumbs

3 tbsp               45 ml                butter

1                      1                      minced garlic clove

2 tbsp               30 ml                flour

2 cups               500 ml              veal or chicken stock

1 cup                250 ml              peas

3 tsp                 1 ml                  each of salt and pepper

Pound the cutlets with a meat mallet thin.

Mix the egg with milk.  Dust with flour, dip into egg wash, dredge in bread crumbs.

Heat the oil in a skillet and fry the cutlets to golden brown on each side.  Reserve hot.

Heat the butter along with the garlic, sprinkle with flour and cook for 2 minutes over low heat.  Add the stock, peas and seasonings, simmer until sauce thickens.  Pour in a food processor and process until smooth.

Plate the cutlets and cover with sauce, serve.

SERVES 6

VEAL CUTLET WITH APPLE RICE AND ORANGE BUTTER SAUCE

 

6-4 oz               6-120 gr           veal cutlets

2 quantity         2 quantity         apple rice with dates and nuts (see rice)

1                      1                      egg

3 cup                60 ml                milk

2 cup                125 ml              flour

1 cup                250 ml              seasoned fine bread crumbs

3 cup                60 ml                safflower oil

2 tbsp               30 ml                minced shallots

a cup                80 ml                orange juice

3 tbsp               45 ml                dry sherry

4 tbsp               60 ml                sweet butter

2 tbsp               30 ml                julienned orange peel

Pound the cutlets very thin with a meat mallet.  Place 4 tbsp (60 ml) of rice on each, fold in the ends and roll together.

Blend the egg with the milk.  Dust the cutlets with flour.  Dip into the egg, dredge in bread crumbs.  Heat the oil in a large skillet, brown the cutlets in the oil.

Transfer to a baking sheet.  Bake in a preheated 350NF (180NC) oven for 25 minutes.

While cutlets bake, heat shallots, orange juice and sherry together.  Reduce to 3 tbsp (45 ml).  Over very low heat whisk in the butter a little at a time.  Add the orange peel.

Transfer the cutlets to a serving platter, pour butter sauce over the cutlets and serve.

SERVES 6

VEAL CUTLETS WITH TOMATO JAM AND CHEESE

 

1 cup                250 ml              crushed tomatoes

1 cup                250 ml              sugar

3 cup                60 ml                sherry

6-4 oz               6-120 gr           veal cutlets

1                      1                      egg

3 cup                60 ml                milk

2 cup                125 ml              flour

1 cup                250 ml              seasoned bread crumbs

3 tbsp               45 ml                safflower oil

2 cups               500 ml              grated havarti cheese

Mix the tomatoes, sugar and sherry in a sauce pan.  Heat on low, stirring constantly, reduce until the tomato mixture is very thick and resembles the consistency of jam.

Pound the cutlets thin with a meat mallet.  Mix the egg with the milk.  Dust the cutlets with flour, dip into the egg wash, dredge in bread crumbs.

Heat the oil in a large skillet.  Fry the cutlets until golden brown on both sides.  Place each cutlet on a baking sheet, top with tomato jam, sprinkle with cheese, place in a preheated 450NF (230NC) oven until cheese is melted and golden.

Serve at once.

SERVES 6

VEAL FORESTIERE

1-2 lb               675 gr              veal shoulder

2                      2                      eggs

3 cup                60 ml                milk

2 cup                125 ml              flour

1 cup                250 ml              fine bread crumbs, seasoned

3 cup                60 ml                safflower oil

2 lb                  225 gr              sliced mushrooms

1                      1                      finely diced Spanish onion

3 tbsp               45 ml                butter

1-2 cup            375 ml              mornay sauce, (see sauces)

3 cup                60 ml                Parmesan cheese freshly grated

Cut the veal shoulder into 6, 4 oz (120 gr) pieces.  Flatten and tenderize each piece with a meat mallet.

Mix the eggs with the milk.  Dust each cutlet with flour, dip into egg wash and dredge with bread crumbs.

Heat the oil and fry the cutlets for 3 minutes per side.  Place on a baking sheet.

Sauté the mushrooms and onion in the butter until all the moisture has evaporated.  Spread onto the cutlets, pour the mornay sauce over each, sprinkle with Parmesan and place beneath the preheated oven broiler for 2 minutes.  Serve.

SERVES 6

VEAL LANG

 

1-2 lbs              675 gr              boneless, lean veal

5 tbsp               75 ml                butter

1                      1                      minced garlic clove

3 tbsp               45 ml                flour

1 tbsp               15 ml                chopped fresh parsley

3 cup                60 ml                red wine

1 cup                250 ml              peeled, seeded, chopped tomatoes

2 cup                125 ml              veal or chicken stock

2 tsp                 3 ml                  each of salt, pepper, paprika

1 tsp                 5 ml                  oregano

2 tsp                 10 ml                capers

2 tsp                 10 ml                lemon zest

Coarse dice the veal.  Heat the butter in a large sauce pan.  Add the veal and garlic, cook until meat browns.  Sprinkle with flour and continue cooking for 3 minutes over low heat.

Add the remaining ingredients, cover and simmer for 30 minutes.

Serve with rice.

SERVES 6

VEAL RAGOUT

1-2 lbs              675 gr              veal

2 tbsp               30 ml                olive oil

3                      3                      julienne cut carrots

3                      3                      julienne cut celery stalks

20                    20                    pearl onions

20                    20                    button mushrooms

3 cups               750 ml              veal or chicken broth

3 tsp                 1 ml                  grated lemon rind

1                      1                      minced garlic clove

1                      1                      bay leaf

2 tsp                 10 ml                salt

3 tsp                 1 ml                  white pepper

1 tsp                 5 ml                  paprika

1 tsp                 5 ml                  Worcestershire sauce

3 tbsp               45 ml                butter

3 tbsp               45 ml                flour

Cut the veal into large cubes.

In a large kettle or dutch oven heat the oil and brown the veal.  Add the carrots, celery, onions, and mushrooms, sauté until tender.

Add the broth, lemon rind, garlic, bay leaf, seasonings and Worcestershire, reduce heat and simmer for 45 minutes.

In a small sauce pan heat the butter, add the flour and cook over low heat for 2 minutes.  Stir in a small amount of the broth from the veal, simmer into a thick sauce.  Stir the sauce into the veal, continue to simmer for 25 minutes or until sauce has thickened.

Serve over rice or noodles.

SERVES 6

Posted by: chefkscookingschool | February 2, 2011

SOUPS TEST

Students and apprentices must achieve 75% or higher, you post your answers in a comment area below.

1) Sue and Aaron are required to make a beef barley soup, they make a good stock as per instructions, their soup the use fresh vegetables, cook the barley just right and use the leftover meat from the stock. They receive a failing grade, why?

2) Name the five types of stock.

3) Classify the first 1o and last 1o soups from the listed recipes.

4) Name the steps to good stock.

5) What leftovers best suited to make soup from.

6) Cream, bisque and vegetable soups are considered what?

7) A hearty soup can serve as a what?

8 ) Name three soups listed which contain no stock.

9) Is a court bouillon a stock?

10) What is a bouquet garni?

11) Name five cold soups listed.

12) What type of turtle meat is considered best for mock turtle soup.

13) Why should you choose snapping turtle meat for your soup.

14) Name the complete meal in a pots soups that are listed.

15) What purpose do the eggs serve in consomme?

16) Name three Asian soups.

17) BISQUE D’ECREVISSES CARDINAL is a soup made with what fresh water seafood?

18) New England and Manhattan clam chowders differ, how?

19) What is GULYASLEVES?

20) What is Tobiko?

Posted by: chefkscookingschool | February 1, 2011

Soups

SOUPS INTRODUCTION

 Soup, has any cuisine made a lasting mark in every ethnic food worldwide, given immorality status by poets, songwriters and even television media (who hasn’t seen Sienfled’s Soup Nazi episode. Soup heralds in all seasons with a signature addition and nearly every region of every country has a soup they call theirs.

The mark of a good cook is not how fancy of a meal he or she prepares, but rather how good of a meal is prepared, and nothing expresses excellence as a delicious bowl of soup. Creating a good soup pushes the cook to limits, knowing when it reach it’s peak of perfection  or is about to slip into the mundane.

The age old expression comes to mind when served a hearty bowl of soup, that being “all of natures goodness on one spoon”. One could not express it truer, for as one simmers the meats, vegetables and seasonings, the aroma alone gives the beholder a sense of goodness. After all Mom has always known that a bowl of home made chicken soup will make you feel better. Perhaps she didn’t understand that the slow simmering of the meat and vegetables drew out all the nutritional value into the broth, and that as you consumed it, it really was good for you. She just knew it worked and that is all she cared about.

Today soup still holds the first place in most cooks heart, for they know that the making of the soup is the best time spent in the kitchen. After all you may make a meal and have it consumed within an hour, soup may only take minutes of preparation time but takes many hours of simmering and it’s odor waffles through the house like the king of all potpourri.

Whether your soup is a starter course or the main meal in itself, none finer could be sought out than those given in this chapter. International and local in style, out this world in flavor. Your soups can be as memorable as any other dish and should be.

With the exception of sharks fin and alligator meat all other ingredients can be found within your local supermarket. Be sure to use the freshest and finest ingredients you can find. Soup is no place to compromise quality. When an appetizer is not served then soup sets the pace for the remainder of the meal, inferior soups means the following courses may be of the same quality. One who will compromise on soup will do so with the other dishes of the meal.

Whether your menu requires a puree, cream, bisque, chowder, or bouillon type of soup you’ll find them all within the pages of this chapter. The soup du jour when made with love, time and attention to details, as with all cuisine. Many believe that leftovers play the major role in preparation of the daily soup. High quality leftovers can, but to throw things into a simmer pot just because is the ear mark of a super lazy cook.

As with all cuisine soups fall into their classifications:

A)     Thin: clear soup, bouillon, consommé, broth or fonds

B)     Light: cream, bisques, vegetable

C)     Hearty: thickened, chowders

Bouillon, consommé broth or fonds are liquids that have cooked with meats, poultry, fish, seafood or vegetables, clarified or cleared and flavoured with another ingredient as wine or sherry. Broth is generally not clarified but is strained well. Both are garnished with various other ingredients but sparingly.

Light soups consist of cream soups, bisques or vegetable soups.  Usually they soup as introduction to a meal often replacing the appetizer.

Hearty soups, these are meal soups they replace an entree .

You of course can’t discuss without identifying the stocks they are made of, of which there are five:

A)     Brown

B)     Fish

C)     Gravy

D)    White

E)      Vegetable  

All stocks need to be well seasoned and to extract the flavours using herbs and spices often added directly or via a bouquet garni.

Stocks of course are the bases for not only soups but also for most sauces so care and concern must be taken in the preparation of the stock. Use clean quality fresh ingredients (so much for the leftover theory) . Fresh uncooked meats make the best stocks, bones should be cracked to extract the gelatine herein assisting in the flavour complexion. Both the fresh quality and the seasoning add to the strength of the stock.  Keep in mind the use of the meat after the stock is made is now a low quality and void of it’s nutritious value. When making soup from the stock use once again fresh quality produce and proteins. Following the stock recipes should produce the colour your recipe calls.

The most important keys to keep in mind in making a good quality stock are:

A)     Use fresh cold water.

B)     Simmer slowly a coddle is best.

C)     Skim, skim, skim remove the scum as it floats to the top, allowing it to remain could cause the stock to become bitter.

Cream of Tomato Rice

8 servings

2 cup             125 ml             butter

1                      1                      small onion, minced

1                      1                      large carrot, minced

2                      2                      celery stalks, minced

4 cups             1 L                   vegetable broth

3 cups             750 ml            tomato puree

1 cup               250 ml            chopped tomatoes

1 cup               250 ml            flour

4 cups             1 L                   heavy cream

1 cup               250 ml            cooked rice

1/4 tsp             1 ml                 pepper

1 tsp                5 ml                 salt

In a pot, heat the butter.

Add the vegetables and sauté until tender.

In saucepan, heat the broth, tomato puree and tomatoes.

Add the flour to the sautéed vegetables.  Cook for 2 minutes.

Add the cream and simmer until very thick.  Slowly whip tomato broth into the cream.

Add the rice and seasonings.

Serve at once.

Beef or Chicken Stock

6-7 cups (1.5 L)

2 1/4 lbs          1 kg                 meaty beef bones or chicken bones (cracked)

1/4 cup            60 ml              margarine (for beef stock only)

10 cups           2.5 L                cold water

2                      2                      celery stalks, coarsely chopped

2                      2                      carrots, coarsely chopped

1                      1                      onion, coarsely chopped

2 tsp               3 ml                 salt

1/4 tsp             1 ml                 pepper

pinch               pinch               rubbed thyme

pinch               pinch               dried oregano leaves

pinch               pinch               rubbed sage

In a heavy Dutch oven, brown beef bones slowly in margarine over low heat, about 30 minutes, stirring occasionally.  (Chicken bones do not need to be browned unless you require a caramel color).

Add water and remaining ingredients; bring to a simmer.  Simmer, uncovered, for 6 to  hours, skimming off any grease or scum that rises to the top.

Remove meat, bones, and vegetables.  Strain through a sieve.]

Chill stock and remove fat from surface.

Both stocks have best flavour after standing 24 hours.  Use as required.

Fish Stock

8 cups (2 L)

5 lbs                2.2 kg              fish, trimmings and bones

1                      1                      onion, diced

3                      3                      carrots, diced

3                      3                      celery stalks, diced

2                      2                      bay leaves

3                      3                      parsley sprigs

1                      1                      garlic clove

1 tbsp              15 ml              salt

10                    10                    peppercorns

12 cups           3 L                   water

Cut the fish into small pieces.  Place in a large pot.  Add the vegetables and seasonings.  Cover with water.

Heat gently without boiling.  Simmer gently for 2 hours.  While simmering, remove any scum which may rise to the top.

Drain through a sieve, then through a cheesecloth.

Use as required.

Vegetable Stock

6-8 cups (1.5 – 2.5 L)

1/4 cup           60 ml              butter

2                      2                      onions, diced

6                      6                      carrots, diced

4                      4                      celery stalks, diced

1                      1                      garlic clove, crushed

1 lb                  450 g              tomatoes, diced

2 tbsp              30 ml              parsley

10                    10                    peppercorns

1 tsp                5 ml                 thyme

2                      2                      bay leaves

2 tsp                10 ml              salt

12 cups           3 L                   water

In a pot, heat the butter.

Saute the onions, carrots, celery and garlic until tender.

Add the tomatoes, seasonings and water.

Simmer gently until water is reduced by half.

Strain and use as required.


Seafood Stock

8 cups (2 L)

5 lbs                2.2 kg              shellfish, trimmings and bones

1                      1                      onion, diced

3                      3                      carrots, diced

3                      3                      celery stalks, diced

2                      2                      bay leaves

3                      3                      parsley sprigs

1                      1                      garlic clove

1 tbsp              15 ml              salt

10                    10                    peppercorns

12 cups           3 L                   water

Cut the shellfish into small pieces.  Place in a large pot.  Add the vegetables and seasonings.  Roast in a preheated 350 F (180 C) oven for 1 ½ hours remove to the stove top.  Cover with water.

Heat gently without boiling.  Simmer gently for 2 hours.  While simmering, remove any scum which may rise to the top.

Drain through a sieve, then through a cheesecloth.

Use as required.

Court Bouillon

16 cups (4 L)

16 cups           4 L                   water

1 tbsp              15 ml              green peppercorns

1 tbsp              15 ml              salt

1                      1                      onion, sliced

2                      2                      carrots, chopped

1                      1                      celery stalk, chopped

1                      1                      lemon, cut n half

1 cup               250 ml          white wine

1                      1                      bouquet garni

Combine all the ingredients.

Bring to a boil.  Boil 10 minutes.

Strain through a cheesecloth.  Reserve the liquid.

Use liquid for cooking fish and shellfish.

* A bouquet garni is : thyme, marjoram, peppercorns, bay leaf and parsley, tied together in a cheesecloth.

 

Garden Pea Soup

8 servings

1/3 cup                       80 ml              butter

1/4 cup           60 ml              minced onions

1/4 cup           60 ml              minced celery

1/4 cup           60 ml              minced carrots

1/3 cup           80 ml              flour

4 cups             1 L                   chicken stock

1/4 lb               115 g              cooked ham, diced

2 cups             500 ml                        frozen peas

2 cups             500 ml                        light cream

In a pot, heat the butter.

Sauté the onions, celery and carrots until tender.

Add the flour and cook for 2 minutes.

Add chicken stock, ham and peas.

Simmer for 10 minutes.

Add the cream; simmer for an additional 10 minutes.

Serve hot.

Puree Mongole

8 servings

1 cup               250 ml                        yellow split peas

2 tbsp              30 ml              butter

1                      1                      onion, minced

1                      1                      carrot, minced

2                      2                      celery stalks, minced

1                      1                      ham bone

4 cups             1 L                   chicken stock

2 cups             500 ml           water

4 cups             1 L                   chopped tomatoes

1/4 tsp             1 ml                 pepper

1 cup               250 ml            heavy cream

Soak peas overnight.

Melt the butter in a pot.

Saute the onion, carrot and celery.

Add the ham bone, chicken stock, water, and peas.  Simmer until peas are tender.

Remove ham bone.  Add the tomatoes and pepper.

Simmer for 10 minutes longer.

Add the cream and simmer for 2 more minutes.

Vichyssoise

6 servings

4                      4                      leeks

1/4 cup           60 ml              butter

1 2 cup          375 ml              potatoes, pared and thinly sliced

4 cups             1 L                   chicken stock

1 cup               250 ml            heavy cream

2 tsp               3 ml                 salt

1/4 tsp             1 ml                 pepper

1 tbsp              15 ml              minced chives

Trim the leeks.  Discard the root and the stem ends except 2 in, (5 cm) above the white portion.

Slice and wash the leeks.  Dice.

Heat the butter in an 8 cup (2 L) saucepan.

Sauté the leeks for 5 minutes.  Do not brown.  Add the potatoes and chicken stock.

Cover and simmer until potatoes are very tender.  Press through a sieve or food mill.

Reheat and add the cream salt and pepper.  Serve garnished with chives.

Vichyssoise is usually served chilled.

Blueberry and Banana Soup

6 servings

4                      4                      bananas

3 tbsp              45 ml              lemon juice

6 cups             1.5 L                apple juice

1/4 cup           60 ml              sugar

1 2 tbsp         20 ml              cornstarch

2 tsp               3 ml                 cinnamon

2 2 cups         625 ml                        heavy cream

2 cups             500 ml                        blueberries

In a food processor, puree bananas with lemon juice.

Place in a pot and bring to a boil with 3 2 cups (875 ml) apple juice.  Add the sugar; set aside.

Blend the cornstarch into the remaining apple juice.

Add to the soup.  Simmer for 2 minutes.  Remove and chill.

Add the cinnamon to the cream.  Whip into soup.  Stir in the blueberries.

Serve in chilled soup bowls.

Gazpacho

6 servings

2                      2                      garlic cloves, minced

2                      2                      green peppers, diced fine

3                      3                      celery stalks, diced fine

1                      1                      onion, diced fine

3 cups             750 ml           peeled, seeded and chopped

3 cups             750 ml           chicken broth

1 tbsp              15 ml              salt

1 tsp                5 ml                 paprika

2 tsp               3 ml                 cracked black pepper

1 tbsp              15 ml              Worcestershire sauce

1                      1                      cucumber, diced fine

3 tbsp              45 ml              lemon juice

3 tbsp              45 ml              olive oil

2                     2                     cucumber, sliced

in a food processor, blend the garlic, half the green peppers, half the celery and half the onions with the tomatoes.

Pour into a large bowl.  Blend in the chicken broth, seasonings, diced cucumber, lemon juice and the oil.

Add the remaining green peppers, celery and onions.

Chill 24 hours. Pour into chilled soup cups.

Garnish with sliced cucumber.

Oyster Stew

8 servings

1/4 lb               115 g              bacon, diced

3 tbsp              45 ml              butter

4                      4                      potatoes, peeled and diced

1                      1                      onion, diced

2                      2                      carrots, diced

2                      2                      celery stalks, diced

3 tbsp              45 ml              flour

4 cups             1 L                   fish stock

2 cups             500 ml            heavy cream

2 cups             500 ml            shucked oysters

In a saucepan, sauté the bacon and pour off the grease.

Melt the butter and sauté the vegetables.

Add the flour and stir into a paste (roux).

Add the fish stock and cream.  Stir and bring to a simmer.

Add the oysters and simmer for 30 minutes.

Old-Fashioned Chicken and Rice

8 servings

2 tbsp              30 ml              butter

1                      1                      onion, minced

2                      2                      celery stalks, minced

2                      2                      large carrots, minced

3 cups             750 ml             chicken broth

1 2 cups         375 ml               cooked rice

2 tbsp              30 ml              chopped parsley

In a pot, heat the butter, add the onion, celery and carrots.  Sauté until tender.

Add the chicken and broth.  Simmer for 15 minutes.

Add the rice and parsley.  Simmer 5 more minutes.  Serve very hot.

 


Tomato Soup

6 servings

1 tbsp              15 ml              oil

1/4 cup           60 ml              minced onions

1/4 cup           60 ml            minced celery

1/4 cup           60 ml            minced green pepper

4 cups             1 L                 chopped tomatoes

1                      1                      bay leaf

1/4 tsp             1 ml               thyme

1/4 tsp             1 ml              marjoram

1/4 tsp             1 ml              cracked pepper

1 tsp                5 ml               salt

1 tsp                5 ml               chopped parsley

4 cups             1 L                  chicken stock

Heat the oil in a saucepan.  Add the onions, celery, green pepper and sauté until tender.

Add the tomatoes, seasonings and chicken stock.

Bring to a boil; reduce and simmer 5 minutes.

Remove bay leaf and serve.

Onion Soup au Gratin

8 servings

1                      1                      French baguette stick, about 3 in. (7 cm) in diameter.

3 tbsp              45 ml            butter

2 cups             500 ml          thinly sliced onions

1/4 cup           60 ml              all-purpose flour

5 cups             1.25 L             mild beef stock

Salt and pepper

3/4 cup           180 ml            grated medium Cheddar

3/4 cup           180 ml            grated Swiss cheese

1/4 cup           60 ml              grated Parmesan cheese

Pre heat oven to 325 F (160 C).  Cut French bread into slices about 2 in. (1.5 cm) thick.

Bake in oven for 25 to 30 minutes or until bread is dry and lightly browned.  Set aside.

Melt butter in a saucepan; cook onions over low heat, stirring occasionally until onions are a rich golden brown, about 30 minutes.

Sprinkle flour over onions and cook, stirring, for 2 minutes.

Add the stock, salt and pepper; simmer for about 30 minutes.

Transfer soup to serving bowls and top each with a slice of toasted bread.  Combine cheeses and sprinkle over bread.

Place under heated broiler until bubbly and lightly browned.

Cock-a-Leekie Soup

8 servings

2 1/4 lb           1 kg                 stewing chicken

8 cups             2 L                   chicken stock

6-7                  6-7                  leeks, whites only

2 tbsp              30 ml              butter

Gently simmer the chicken in the chicken stock for 2 2 hours.

Add the water to maintain liquid level.  Remove chicken and strain liquid.

Bone chicken.  Dice the meat.  Cut the leeks into julienne strips.

Heat the butter in a pot.  Sauté the leeks in the butter until tender.

Add the meat and broth.  Reheat to a boil.  Serve very hot.

Cream of Chicken and Mushrooms

8 servings

1/3 cup           80 ml              butter

4 oz                 115 g              mushrooms sliced

1/3 cup           80 ml              flour

1 2 cups         375 ml             chicken, cooked and diced

3 cups             750 ml            chicken broth

2 cups             500 ml            heavy cream

1/4 tsp             1 ml                 pepper

1 tsp                5 ml                 salt

2 tbsp              30 ml              chopped parsley

In a pot, heat the butter.  Add the mushrooms and sauté until tender.

Add the flour and cook for 2 minutes.

Add the chicken, broth, cream, seasonings and parsley.

Simmer for 15 minutes.  Serve hot.

Bouillabaisse (Provencale Fish Soup)

8 servings

2/3 cup           160 ml            oil

1                      1                      carrot, minced

2                      2                      onions, minced

1 lb                  450 g              boneless whitefish

1 lb                  450 g              boneless pike

1 lb                  450 g              boneless ocean perch

or 3 lbs            1.4 kg              any firm fish

1                      1                      bay leaf

1 2 cups         375 ml              tomatoes, peeled, seeded and chopped

1/4 cup           60 ml              sherry

4 cups             1 L                   fish or chicken stock

12                    12                    clams

12                    12                    mussels

24                    24                    shrimp, peeled and deveined

1 cup               250 ml            lobster or crab meat

2                      2                      pimientos, diced

2 tsp                10 ml              salt

2 tsp               3 ml                 paprika

2 tsp               3 ml                 saffron

Heat the oil in a large pot or Dutch oven.  Add the carrots and onions.  Saute until tender.

Cut the fish into 1 in (2.5 cm) strips.  Add to pot and cook 5 minutes.

Add the bay leaf, tomatoes, sherry and fish stock.  Cover and simmer for 20 minutes.  Do not boil.

Add the shellfish, pimientos and seasonings.

Simmer for 10 more minutes.

Mock Turtle Soup

1                    1                  large onion, finely chopped

1 tbsp            15 ml          butter and

2 tbsp            15 ml          olive oil

2 lbs.              9oo gr         meaty oxtails

1                      1                 garlic clove, mashed

3                      3                whole cloves

1/4 tsp            2 ml          thyme

1                       1                 bay leaf

1/4 tsp             2 ml           allspice

1 tbsp               15 ml           flour

3 cups               750 ml        hot water

3 cups               750 ml        chicken stock

1 cup                  250 ml       chopped peeled tomatoes

                                               salt and pepper

1/2                       1/2           lemon, chopped (rind and all)

1 tbsp                   15 ml        parsley

2                            2                hard boiled eggs

1/4 cup                 60 ml        sweet sherry

Brown onion in the butter and oil, add the oxtails and brown slightly. Add the spices and herbs, then stir in the flour cooking over low heat five minutes, adding more butter and oil as needed. Pour in the hot water and stock and bring to a boil. Add the remaining ingredients, except the egg and sherry. Simmer for 2 hours. Remove the oxtail, cut the meat and marrow away–add back to the soup and discard the bones.When ready to serve, chop the eggs coarsely and stir into the soup. Ladle into bowls, stir in a teaspoon of sherry to each, top with parsley

Salmagundi

8 servings

2 cup             125 ml              butter

1                      1                      carrot, diced

2                      2                      celery stalks, diced

1                      1                      onion, diced

3                      3                      large potatoes, pared and diced

1/3 cup           80 ml              flour

1 cup               250 ml           chopped tomatoes

8 cups             2 L                   fish stock

2 cup             125 ml              white wine

1 tsp                5 ml                 curry powder

1 lb                  450 g              whitefish, cooked and flaked

In a pot or Dutch oven, heat the butter.

Add the carrot, celery, onion and potatoes and sauté until tender.

Add the tomatoes, stock, wine and seasonings.

Bring to a boil 5 minutes.  Add the fish.  Simmer 5 more minutes.

Pepper and Cream Cheese Soup

8-10 servings

2                      2                      large green peppers, diced

1                      1                      Spanish onion, finely chopped

3                      3                      celery stalks, thinly sliced

3 cups             750 ml           sliced mushrooms

1/4 cup           60 ml              butter

1/4 cup           60 ml              all-purpose flour

6 cups             1 2 L              beef stock

8 oz                 250 g              cream cheese

2 cups             500 ml          sliced cooked roast beef

1 cup               250 ml            cooked fettuccini noodles, coarsely chopped

Salt and pepper

Saute the vegetables in butter over medium heat until tender.

Sprinkle with flour and cook, stirring, for 2 minutes.

Gradually stir in stock and simmer until soup has thickened slightly.  Stir in the noodles.

Season to taste and serve immediately.

Mulligatawny

8-10 servings

1                      1                      medium onion, finely chopped

2                      2                      medium carrots, coarsely grated

2                      2                      celery stalks, thinly sliced

1 2 cups         375 ml              sliced mushrooms

3                      3                      medium potatoes, coarsely grated

1/4 cup           60 ml              butter

2 cup             125 ml              all-purpose flour

6 cups             1 2 L              chicken stock

2 cups             500 ml           milk

8 oz                 250 g              Cream cheese

2 tbsp              30 ml              curry powder

2 cups             500 ml           diced cooked chicken

Salt and pepper

Sauté the vegetables in butter over medium heat, stirring often, until tender but not browned.

Sprinkle with flour and cook, stirring, for 2 minutes.  Gradually stir in stock and milk.  Heat to simmering.

Stir in the cheese until melted.  Add the curry powder and chicken; simmer 5 minutes.  Season to taste.

Marsala and Scallop Soup

8 servings

1/4 cup           60 ml              butter

1                      1                      small onion, minced

2                      2                      carrots, minced

2                      2                      celery stalks, minced

1 lb                  450 g              small scallops

2 cup             125 ml              flour

3 cups             750 ml            chicken broth

3 cups             750 ml            light cream

1 cup               250 ml            Marsala wine

In a pot, heat the butter.  Sauté the onion, carrots and celery until tender.

Add the scallops and sauté 3 minutes.

Sprinkle with flour and cook 2 minutes.

Add the broth, cream and wine.

Simmer for 15 minutes.  Serve hot.

Nelusko (Cream of Chicken Almond Soup)

8 servings

3 tbsp              45 ml              butter

2 cup             125 ml              minced celery

1                      1                      small onion, minced

3 tbsp              45 ml            flour

4 cups             1 L                 chicken stock

1 cup               250 ml          light cream

1/4 cup           60 ml            ground almonds

1 cup               250 ml          chicken meat, cooked and diced

1/3 cup           80 ml            heavy cream

1/4 tsp             1 ml              paprika

In a 2-quart (2 L) saucepan, heat the butter.

Saute the celery and onion until tender.

Add the four and stir into a paste (roux).  Do not brown.

Add the chicken stock, light cream and simmer for 15 minutes.

Add the almonds, chicken meat and heavy cream.  Simmer or another 5 minutes.

Garnish with paprika.

 Manhattan Clam Chowder

2                    2                    bacon slices, cut into 1/2-inch squares

1/3 cup         80  ml           chopped scallions

3 tbps            45 ml             diced (1/3 inch) green bell pepper

3 tbsp             45 ml            diced (1/3 inch) celery

2/3 cup           180 ml         diced (1/3 inch) peeled boiling potato

8-oz                 250 ml          seafood stock

1 cup                 250 ml         canned diced tomatoes 

1 1/2 dozen      18                  small hard-shelled clams (1 1/2 to 2 inches in diameter; 2 pounds total), scrubbed well

2 tbsp               30 ml            chopped fresh flat-leaf parsley

Cook bacon in a 2- to 3-quart heavy saucepan over moderate heat, stirring, until golden, about 5 minutes. Reduce heat to moderately low, then add onion, bell pepper, and celery and cook, stirring, until softened, about 5 minutes. Stir in potato, seafood stock, and tomatoes (with juice) and simmer, covered, 10 minutes. Stir in clams and simmer, covered, stirring occasionally, until clams open wide, 8 to 10 minutes. (Discard any clams that after 10 minutes have not opened.) Remove pan from heat.

Remove most of clamshells with tongs, then detach clams and return them to chowder. (Keep a few in their shells for garnish.) Stir in parsley and salt and pepper to taste.

New England Clam Chowder

10-12 servings

1/4 lb               115 g              bacon, diced

2 cup             125 ml              butter

1 cup               250 ml           diced onion

1 cup               250 ml           diced celery

1 cup               250 ml          diced carrots

3 cups             750 ml          diced potatoes

1 cup               250 ml          flour

4 cups             1 L                 fish stock or clam broth

3 cups             750 ml          chopped clams

3 cups             750 ml          heavy cream

1/4 tsp             1 ml              pepper

2 tsp               3 ml               thyme

1 tsp                5 ml              salt

In a large pot, fry the bacon until crisp.  Drain the grease.

Add the butter and vegetables.  Sauté until tender.

Stir in the flour.  Cook for 2 minutes.  Add all remaining ingredients.  Bring to a boil.

Reduce to a simmer.  Simmer until thick, 15 to 20 minutes.  Stir frequently.


Harry Hatch=s Lobster Bisque

8 servings

1/4 cup           60 ml            butter

2 cup             125 ml            minced celery

2 cup             125 ml            minced onion

1/4 cup           60 ml            flour

2 cups             500 ml         fish stock

3 cups             750 ml         heavy cream

1 tsp                5 ml              salt

1/4 tsp             1 ml             white pepper

1/4 cup           60 ml           cream style sherry

1 lb                  450 g           lobster meat

8                      8                  lobster meat claws, cooked

Heat the butter in a saucepan.  Add the celery and onions.  Sauté until tender.  Add the flour and stir into a paste.  Do not brown.

Add the fish stock and cream.  Simmer for 15 minutes.  Add the salt, pepper, sherry and lobster meat.  Simmer for 5 minutes.

Press through a sieve or process in a food processor until smooth.

Garnish with the lobster claws.

Corn and Chicken Chowder

8 servings

1/4 cup           60 ml              butter

1                      1                      onion

4                      4                      potatoes

2                      2                      carrots, diced

2                      2                      celery stalks, diced

1 cup               250 ml           corn kernels, frozen

1/4 cup           60 ml              flour

4 cups             1 L                   chicken stock

2 cups             500 ml           heavy cream

2 cups             500 ml          chicken cooked and diced

1 tbsp              15 ml              parsley flakes

Melt the butter in a saucepan.  Sauté the vegetables until tender.

Add the flour and stir into a paste (roux).

Add the stock and cream.  Simmer 20 minutes.  Add chicken and simmer 5 more minutes.

Sprinkle with parsley and serve.

Chive Cheese Soup

4 servings

1/4 cup           60 ml              butter

1/4 cup           60 ml              minced chives

2 tbsp              30 ml              chopped parsley

1/4 cup           60 ml              flour

2 cups             500 ml           chicken broth

2 cups             500 ml           heavy cream

2 cup             125 ml              blue cheese, crumbled

In a saucepan, heat the butter, add the chives and parsley.  Cook gently for 2 minutes.

Stir in the flour.  Continue to cook another 2 minutes.

Add the broth and cream.  Bring to a boil.  Reduce to a simmer.  Simmer for 10 minutes.

Crumble in the cheese.  Simmer 5 more minutes.

Consommé

8 servings

2 cups             500 ml           beef stock

2 cups             500 ml           chicken stock

2 cups             500 ml           tomatoes, seeded and chopped

1                      1                      onion, diced

2                      2                      carrots, diced

3                      3                      celery stalk, diced

1                      1                      bouquet garni

1                      1                      egg white, with shell

Combine all ingredients, except egg white, and simmer.  Do not boil.

Cover for one hour.  Strain through muslin or cheesecloth.

Whip the egg white and whisk into soup.  Add egg white and simmer another 10 minutes.

Strain a second time through muslin or cheesecloth.  Serve.

Chicken Florentine and Rice

8 servings

1 2 tbsp         22 ml              butter

6 oz                 170 g              spinach, chopped

8 cups             2 L                 chicken broth

2 cups             500 ml          chicken meat, diced

1 2 cups         375 ml            cooked rice

Heat the butter in a pot.  Sauté the spinach for 2 minutes.

Add the chicken broth and chicken meat.  Simmer for 10 minutes.

Add the rice, simmer 5 more minutes.  Serve hot.

 

Old Fashioned Beef Vegetable Soup

8 servings

1 lb                  450 g              Diced beef

2 tbsp              30 ml              barley

8 cups             2 L                   beef stock

3 tbsp              45 ml              butter

1                      1                      onion, diced

2                      2                      carrots, sliced

3                      3                      celery stalks, diced

2 cups             500 ml           tomatoes, seeded and chopped

1 tsp                5 ml                 salt

2 tsp               3 ml                 pepper

1 tsp                5 ml                 basil

3 tbsp              45 ml              soya sauce

1 tbsp              15 ml              Worcestershire sauce

1 tsp                5 ml                 paprika

Gently boil the beef and barley in the stock for 30 minutes.  Remove any scum that floats to the top.

In a saucepan, melt the butter and sauté the vegetables.

Add the tomatoes and seasonings

Pour this mixture into the stock and simmer 2 hour longer.

Broccoli and Cheddar Soup

6-8 servings

4 cups             1 L                   diced broccoli

3 tbsp              45 ml              butter

1/4 cup           60 ml              all-purpose flour

5 cups             1 1/4 L             chicken stock

1 cup               250 ml            milk

1 cup               250 ml            whipping cream

1 cup               250 ml            grated medium Cheddar cheese

Salt and pepper

Sauté the broccoli in butter over medium heat until tender.

Sprinkle with flour and cook, stirring, for 2 minutes.  Gradually stir in stock and milk; heat just to simmering.

Stir in cream and cheese.  Allow cheese to melt in soup; season to taste and serve sprinkled with croutons.

For Broccoli and Mushroom: Add 3 cups (750 ml) sliced mushrooms and replace Cheddar with grated Parmesan.

Egg Drop Soup

8 servings

 

6 cups             1.5 L                chicken stock

2                      2                      eggs

2 tbsp              30 ml              water

1/3 cup           80 ml              frozen peas

Bring chicken stock to a boil.  Whip the eggs in the water.

Add the peas to the soup.  Pour in the eggs in a fine stream.

Cook for 2 minutes.  Serve.

Cream of Carrot and Pumpkin

10-12 servings

1/3 cup           80 ml              butter

2 cups             500 ml            grated carrots

1/3 cup           80 ml              flour

4 cups             1 L                   chicken stock

1 tbsp              15 ml              lemon juice

2 cups             500 ml            pumpkin Puree

1/4 tsp             1 ml                 ginger

1/4 tsp             1 ml                 nutmeg

3 cups             750 ml            heavy cream

In a pot, heat the butter.  Sauté the carrots until tender.  Add the flour and cook for 2 minutes.

Add the stock, lemon juice, pumpkin puree, and seasonings.

Simmer for 10 minutes.  Add the cream; simmer for an additional 15 minutes.  Serve at once

Cranberry and Raspberry Soup

8 servings

4 cups             1 L                  cranberries

4 cups             1 L                  apple juice

2 cups             500 ml           raspberries

1/4 cup           60 ml              sugar

2 tbsp              30 ml             lemon juice

2 tsp               3 ml                 cinnamon

2 cups             500 ml           light cream

2 tbsp              30 ml             cornstarch

Wash the cranberries.  Heat the cranberries in the apple juice; simmer for 10 minutes.  Press through a sieve.

Press the raspberries through the same sieve.  Discard what remains in the sieve and return to a boil.

Blend in the sugar, lemon juice and cinnamon.  Add 1 2 cups (375 ml) cream.  Mix the cornstarch with the remaining cream.  Add to soup; simmer for 5 minutes.  Serve hot or cold.

Blackberry Soup

6 servings

4 cups             1 L                   blackberries

4                      4                      apples, pared, cored and diced

4 cups             1 L                   apple juice

3 tbsp              45 ml              sugar

1/4 tsp             1 ml                 cinnamon

1 tbsp              15 ml              cornstarch

3 tbsp              45 ml              water

Pick over the berries-discard stems, and bruised berries.

Place berries and apples in a pot.  Pour in the apple juice.  Simmer for 20 minutes.

Mash with a potatoes masher.  Strain through a sieve.

Add the sugar and cinnamon.  Mix the cornstarch in the water.  Add to soup.  Bring to a boil.  Remove and serve hot or chilled.

If served cold, you may wish to serve whipping cream with the soup.


ARTICHOKE SOUP

4                      4                      artichokes

4 cups             1 L                   chicken stock

3 tbsp              45 ml             butter

3 tbsp              45 ml             flour

2 cups             500 ml           milk

Remove the stems from the artichokes. Remove the bottom leaves and trim the top. Par boil the artichokes in boiling water until tender. Plunge into cold water. Drain and spread the leaves. Open the artichokes with your fingers and remove the choke by scraping with a spoon.

Heat the chicken stock in a kettle. Add the artichokes and simmer for 1 hour. Transfer the artichokes to a food processor and process into a puree. Return the puree to the soup. Continue to simmer.

Heat the butter in a small sauce pan, add the flour and cook 2 minutes over low heat. Whip into the soup. Add the milk and simmer until thick. Taste, adjust seasonings if required, serve hot.

SERVES 4

BAKED BEAN SOUP

8 oz                 225 gr           navy beans

8 cups             2 L                chicken stock

2 cups             500 ml         tomato juice

3 lb                125 gr            diced bacon

1                      1                    finely diced Spanish onion

2                      2                   finely diced celery stalks

2                      2                   finely diced carrots

3 cup             60 ml            tomato paste

¼ cup             60 ml          Molasses

1 tbsp              15 ml           chili powder

1 tsp                5 ml             salt

3 tsp              1 ml               black pepper

Soak the beans in cold water for 6‑8 hours. Drain. Place the beans in a large kettle, cover with chicken stock, simmer the beans for 2 2 hours. Add the tomato juice.

Sauté the bacon in a skillet and add to it the onion, celery and carrots, continue to sauté until all are tender. Drain the excess fat and add the bacon and vegetables to the soup.

Stir in the tomato paste, molasses and seasonings. Continue to simmer for 1 hour longer. Serve very hot.

SERVES 8

BISQUE D’ECREVISSES CARDINAL

5 lbs                2 kg                 crayfish

10 cups           2 2 L               water

4 tbsp              60 ml               butter

1                      1                      finely diced medium onion

1                      1                      minced garlic clove

1                      1                      finely diced celery stalk

4 tbsp              60 ml               flour

1 cup              250 ml            peeled, seeded, diced tomatoes

3 oz                 80 ml               tomato paste

a cup             80 ml               sherry

2 tsp              3 ml                 salt

3 tsp              1 ml                 pepper

1 cup              250 ml            whipping cream

Place the crayfish in a large kettle. Cover with the water. Bring to a boil and boil for 30 minutes. Remove the crayfish and allow to cool. Remove the tail meat from the crayfish, reserve the meat, return the shells to water.

Simmer the crayfish shells until the water has reduced to 4 cups (1 L). Strain the broth reserving it. Discard the shells.

In a large sauce pan heat the butter. Sauté the onion, garlic and celery until tender. Sprinkle with flour and cook for 2 minutes over low heat.

Pour the crayfish broth over the vegetables. Add the tomatoes, tomato paste, crayfish tails, sherry, salt and pepper. Simmer for 15 minutes. Transfer the soup to a blender and puree. Return to the pot and continue to simmer for 5 minutes.

Whip in the cream and simmer for an additional 10 minutes. Serve very hot.               

   SERVES 4

CHEESE AND CHICKEN TORTELLINI IN BRODO

2 quantity     2                    basic pasta dough (see pasta)

2 lb                225 gr            finely diced cooked chicken meat

1 cup              250 ml            riccotta cheese

1                      1                     egg

2 tsp              3 ml                basil

3 tsp              1 ml                nutmeg

3 tsp              1 ml                salt

3 tsp              1 ml                pepper

8 cups             2 L                  hot strong chicken broth

Process the pasta as directed. Roll into thin sheets. Cut out pasta rounds with a 3″ (8 mm) round cookie cutter. Cover with a damp cloth and reserve.

In a mixing bowl blend the chicken, ricotta, egg and seasonings. Place a teaspoon of filling on each pasta round. Moisten the edge with a little water. Fold the pasta round in half. Press the edges to seal. Curl the edges around the filling and pinch together. Place half the broth in a large kettle, bring to a boil and cook the pasta for 2 minutes or until they float.

Spoon equal amounts of tortellini into soup bowls. Cover with the remaining hot chicken broth. Serve.

SERVES 4

CHICKEN ALMOND SOUP INDIENNE

3 tbsp              45 ml              butter

3 tbsp              45 ml              flour

3 cups             750 ml            chicken stock

1 cup              250 ml            whipping cream

2 cups             500 ml            cooked diced chicken

1 tsp                5 ml                curry powder

a cup             80 ml              toasted sliced almond

Heat the butter in a large sauce pan. Stir in the flour, cook 2 minutes over low heat. Add the chicken stock, cream, chicken and curry powder bring to a boil, reduce heat and simmer for 20 minutes.

Serve by garnishing with the almonds.

SERVES 4

CHINESE SHORT SOUP

a lb                150 gr             peeled and deviened shrimp,

a lb                150 gr             minced pork

3                      3                      scallions

1                      1                      minced garlic clove

2 tsp              3 ml                 minced ginger root

1 tbsp              15 ml               sherry

1 tbsp              15 ml               soy sauce

2 tsp              3 ml                 Worcestershire sauce

36                   36                    wonton wrappers

8 cups             2 L                   chicken broth

Mince the shrimp and blend with the pork.

Mince the scallions and blend into the meats with the garlic, ginger, sherry, soya and Worcestershire.

Divide the mixture evenly among the wonton wrappers. Moisten the edges of the wrappers and fold in two to seal. Then pinch together the three edges.

Heat the chicken broth to a boil in a large kettle. Drop the wontons into the soup and cook for 10 minutes. Serve 6 wontons per person along with the broth.

SERVES 6

CILANTRO CARROT SOUP

6                      6                     large carrots

4 cups             1 L                  vegetable broth

3 cup             60 ml              grated onion

4 tbsp              60 ml              butter

3 tbsp              45 ml              flour

3 cups             750 ml            chicken stock or vegetable broth

2 cups             500 ml            light cream

1 tsp                5 ml                salt

3 tsp              1 ml                white pepper

c tsp              pinch              cayenne

2 tbsp              30 ml              cilantro (coriander)

Pare and chop the carrots. Boil the carrots in the water until tender. Drain and puree the carrots in a food processor.

Sauté the onion in the butter, sprinkle with flour, cook for 2 minutes over low heat. Add the chicken stock, cream and carrot puree. Simmer for 3 minutes. Stir in the seasonings. Simmer for 5 minutes longer. Sprinkle with cilantro and serve.

SERVES 6

CREAM OF CHICKEN WITH TWO OLIVES

3 tbsp              45 ml          butter

3 tbsp              45 ml          flour

2 2 cups        625 ml        chicken stock

2 cups             500 ml         half & half cream

2 cups             500 ml         diced cooked chicken meat

3 cup             60 ml          sliced stuffed olives

3 cup             60 ml          sliced pitted black olives

Heat the butter in a 3 quart sauce pan. Sprinkle with flour and cook for 2 minutes over low heat. Add the chicken stock and simmer for 10 minutes. Add the cream, chicken meat, continue to simmer for an additional 10 minutes. Stir in the olives and simmer 1 additional minute.

Serve very hot or very cold. When serving cold stir in 2 tbsp (30 ml) of extra cream per serving just before serving.

SERVES 6

DAWN SOUP (MORGENROT)

6 cups             1 2 L              chicken stock

1 cup              250 ml            tapioca

2 cup             125 ml            tomato paste

2 cups             500 ml            julienne cut cooked chicken

Heat the chicken stock in a 2 quart sauce pan. Add the tapioca and simmer for 30 ‑ 40 minutes.

Whip in the tomato paste and add the chicken, simmer for 5 minutes longer and serve.

SERVES 6

DUBLIN CRAYFISH OR PRAWN SOUP

30                   30                   crayfish or large prawns

4 cups             1 L                  court bouillon

3 tbsp              45 ml              butter

4 cups             1 L                  strong fish or chicken stock

2 tsp                10 ml              cornstarch

1 tbsp              15 ml              water cold

2                      2                     egg yolks

1 2 cups        375 ml            sour cream

Cook the crayfish in the court bouillon until they just turn pink. Remove the crayfish and cool. Peel the crayfish and reserve the meat.

Strain the court bouillon.

Pound the crayfish shells into a paste in a mortar with the butter and press through a fine sieve.

Mix 2 cups (500 ml) of court bouillon with the stock and bring to a boil. Blend the cornstarch with the water and whip into the soup, simmer until soup begins to thicken.

Over very low heat add the shrimp meat. Whip in the crayfish butter and the egg yolks. Do not boil. Simmer for 10 minutes. Fold in the sour cream. Serve.

SERVES 6

FRENCH CANADIAN PEA SOUP

This soup has a large yield, so freeze what you don’t require.

1 lb                  450 gr            chic peas

1                      1                     ham bone

3 2 quarts      4 L                  ham stock (follow chicken stock substituting ham bones)

3                      3                     finely diced leeks

3                      3                     finely diced stalks celery

2                      2                     finely diced carrots

2 lb                 225 gr            diced ham

salt only if required

2 tsp              3 ml                white pepper

Soak the chic peas in water overnight or for 8 hours. Place into a large kettle with the ham bone and cover with the water. Bring to a boil, reduce to a simmer and add the vegetables. Simmer for 3 2 ‑ 4 hours.

Discard bone. Add the ham and simmer for 15 minutes more. Taste, adjust seasonings. Serve very hot.

SERVES 10

GULYASLEVES

(GOULASH SOUP)

2 lb                225 gr            cooked beef roast

3 lb                115 gr            cooked pork roast

3 lb                115 gr            smoked ham

3 tbsp              45 ml              butter

3 tbsp              45 ml              oil

1                      1                     diced Spanish onion

1                      1                     diced celery stalk

1                      1                     diced red bell pepper

3 tbsp              45 ml              flour

2 cups             500 ml            peeled, seeded and diced tomatoes

6 cups          1 2 L                 rich beef stock

1 tsp                5 ml                caraway seeds

Slice the meats then shred.

Heat the butter and oil together in a large sauce pan. Add the vegetables and sauté until tender. Sprinkle with flour and cook 5 minutes or until the flour caramelizes.

Stir in the tomatoes and stock. Add the meats and simmer gently for 90 minutes. Divide the soup in half. Puree one half and return to the other half, continue to simmer for 10 minutes Sprinkle with caraway and simmer 5 minutes longer. Serve very hot.

SERVES 8

KUMMEL SUPPE

2 tbsp              30 ml              butter

1                      1                     finely diced Spanish onion

1                      1                     finely diced medium carrot

2                      2                     finely diced celery stalks

2 tbsp              30 ml              flour

1 tsp                5 ml                caraway seeds

5 cups             1 3 L              beef broth

2 cups             500 ml            cooked elbow macaroni

Heat the butter in a large sauce pan. Add the vegetables and sauté until tender. Sprinkle with flour and caraway cook until the vegetables and flour turn brown.

Add the broth and simmer until soup thickens slightly. Stir in the macaroni and simmer for 5 minutes. Serve hot.

SERVES 4

LA CREME DUBARRY AU CAVAIR

2 2 cups        625 ml            cauliflower flowerettes

4 cups             1 L                  chicken stock

3 tbsp              45 ml              butter

3 tbsp              45 ml              flour

2 cups             500 ml            cream

4 tbsp              60 ml              flying fish red or yellow caviar ‑Tobiko

Place the cauliflower in a large sauce pan cover with the chicken stock. Simmer for 30 minutes. Strain reserving the liquid and cauliflower.

Puree the cauliflower in a food processor or pass through a food mill. Return the cauliflower to the broth.

In a small sauce pan heat the butter and add the flour, cook for 2 minutes over low heat. Add the cream and cook into a thick sauce.

Whip the sauce into the soup. Reheat to very hot.

Serve the soup with 1 tbsp (15 ml) of caviar sprinkled over the top.

SERVES 4

LA GRATINNEE LYONNAISE SOUPE

They say the original onion soup was created by Neapolitan’s chef on the Waterloo battlefield, perhaps, but this one could begin battles too!

3 tbsp              45 ml              butter

2                      2                     large sliced Spanish onions

3 tbsp              45 ml              flour

5 cups             1 3 L              veal broth

1 tbsp              15 ml              Worcestershire sauce

2 tbsp              30 ml              soy sauce

1 tsp                5 ml                basil

2 tsp              3 ml                paprika

2 tsp              3 ml                salt

3 tsp              1 ml                white pepper

4                      4                     croutons 3″ (8 mm) round

3 cup             60 ml              grated havarti cheese

3 cup             60 ml              grated white cheddar cheese

3 cup             60 ml              grated brick cheese

In a sauce pan heat the butter. Add the onions and sauté over medium heat until the onions caramelize (turn golden brown) sprinkle with flour, cook for 2 minutes.

Add the veal stock, Worcestershire sauce, soya and seasonings. Simmer until soup thickens slightly. Pour soup into oven proof bowls.

Place 1 crouton on top of the soup and sprinkle with each of the cheeses. Place soup bowls in a preheated oven under the broiler. Broil until cheese has melted and begun to turn brown. Serve very hot.

SERVES 4

LE POT AU FEU

The traditional French stock pot. It is a meal, or is it a soup. Why not make it both.

1 lb                  450 gr            beef soup bones

4 tbsp              60 ml              oil

2 2 lbs            1 kg                roast beef ‑ any cut

4                      4                     carrots

2                      2                     turnips

2                      2                     leeks

2                      2                     Spanish onions

3                      3                     celery stalk

1                      1                     parsnip

1 tsp                5 ml                salt

1                      1                     bouquet garni ‑ follows

Place the bones in a roaster and roast in a preheated 400NF (200NC) oven until the bones brown.

Heat the oil in a large kettle, sear the roast on all sides in the oil. Transfer the bones to the kettle with the roast. Cover the roast with 12‑16 cups (3 ‑ 4 L) of water.

Pare and coarse dice the vegetables, add to the pot. Add the salt and bouquet garni.

Reduce the heat and simmer gently for 3 2 ‑4 hours. Skim any scum which will rise to the top to keep the broth clear.

Remove the meat and vegetables, reserve hot.

Strain the broth. Carve the roast and serve with the vegetables, pour the broth over.

SERVES 8

Bouquet Garni:

A bouquet garni is a bundle of herbs tied in a cheese cloth. It will consist of your choice of all or several of the following:  Parsley, bay leaf, thyme, marjoram, sage, basil and cloves.

LE WATERZOIE

(Belguim chicken soup)

This is yet another version of a whole meal in a single pot.

1 ‑ 5 lbs          1 ‑ 2 kg          whole chicken

1                      1                     lemon

10 cups           2 2 L              cold chicken stock

1                      1                     onion, stuck with a clove

2                      2                     diced celery stalks

2                      2                     diced carrots

1                      1                     bouquet garni, see pot au feu

2 cups             500 ml            white wine

3 cups             750 ml            pared and diced potatoes

Rub the chicken with the lemon, place in a large kettle and cover with chicken stock.

Add the onion, celery, carrot and bouquet garni, cover and bring to a simmer. Skim the stock to remove any impurities that raise to the top during the 2 2‑4 hours of simmering. Discard bouquet garni.

Remove the chicken and reserve hot. Add the wine and potatoes, simmer for an additional 30 minutes (or until potatoes are cooked).

Carve the chicken, place into large serving bowls, cover with stock and vegetables and serve.

SERVES 6

 

MINESTRA DI DUE COLORI

Italian soup of two colors

1 cup              250 ml            milk

1 2 tbsp         20 ml              butter

3 tsp              1 ml                salt

c tsp              pinch              nutmeg

1 2 cups        375 ml            flour

1                      1                     egg

1                      1                     egg yolk

3 cup             60 ml              freshly grated parmesan cheese

4 oz                 120 gr            washed and trimmed spinach

8 cups             2 L                  chicken stock

Heat the milk in a sauce pan. Add the butter, salt and nutmeg. Gradually add the flour working it into a smooth paste. Remove from the heat, beat in the egg then the egg yolk. Stir in the parmesan cheese. Divide the paste into two.

Steam the spinach. Puree the spinach in a food processor, drain well. Blend the spinach into 1 part of the paste.

Heat the chicken stock to a boil. Drop spoonfuls of green and yellow paste into the soup. Cook until the dumplings float and then serve very hot.

SERVES 6

MINESTRONE MILANESE

 

Traditionally this soup does not contain meat. The addition of the chicken here is completely up to the cook.

3 tbsp              45 ml              butter

2                      2                     minced garlic cloves

2 cup             125 ml            sliced onion

2 cup             125 ml            diced celery

2 cup             125 ml            diced green bell pepper

2 cup             125 ml            mushrooms

2 cup             125 ml            diced zucchini

3                      3                     pared, diced, medium potatoes

2 cups             500 ml            peeled, seeded, diced tomatoes

5 cups             1 3 L              chicken broth

2 cups             500 ml            cooked, diced chicken

2 tsp                10 ml              Worcestershire sauce

1 tsp                5 ml                basil

2 tsp              3 ml                thyme

2 tsp              3 ml                oregano

1 tsp                5 ml                salt

2 cups             500 ml            cooked penne noodles

1 cup              250 ml            freshly grated parmesan cheese

Heat the butter in a large kettle or pan. Add the garlic, onion, celery, bell peppers, mushrooms and zucchini, sauté until tender.

Add the potatoes and tomatoes and sauté 5 minutes.

Pour in the chicken broth along with the diced chicken, Worcestershire sauce, basil, thyme, oregano and salt. Simmer gently 15‑20 minutes (or until potatoes are cooked), yet firm.

Stir in the noodles and cheese. Cook for 2 minutes longer. Serve.

SERVES 8

MISOSHIRU

Japanese tuna, vegetable soup.

6 cups             1 2 L              fish or chicken

18                   18                   pearl onions

1                      1                     julienne sliced leek

1                      1                     turnip – diced

2 cups             500 ml            bamboo shoots

1 cup              250 ml            diced firm tofu

6 oz                 170 gr            grated dried tuna *

Place the stock in a large kettle. Add the onion leeks and turnip bring to a boil. Boil until the turnip is tender. Add the bamboo, tofu and tuna. Simmer for 5 minutes. Serve very hot.

SERVES 6

*Dried tuna is available in oriental food markets.

OYSTER FLORENTINE SOUP

24                   24                   oysters

10 oz               280 gr            spinach

4 tbsp              60 ml              butter

4 tbsp              60 ml              flour

4 cups             1 L                  chicken or seafood broth

2 cups             500 ml            cream

1 tsp                5 ml                anise seeds*

3 cup             60 ml              Pernod liqueur*

Shuck the oysters, remove from the shell. Drain their liquid into the broth.

Trim and wash the spinach. Chop the spinach.

In a large sauce pan heat the butter. Sauté the oysters in the butter then remove and reserve.

Add the spinach and sauté, sprinkle with the flour and cook for 2 minutes over low heat. Add the broth and cream. Return the oysters to the soup and simmer for 30 minutes.

Puree soup in a food processor, return to pot.

Sprinkle with anise seeds, add the liqueur and simmer for an additional 10 minutes. Serve very hot.

SERVES 4

*Omit if you do not care for licorice flavored soup.

POTAGE ALLIGATOR AU SHERRY

2 tbsp              30 ml              butter

2 tbsp              30 ml              safflower oil

1 lb                  450 gr            diced alligator meat *

1                      1                     finely diced onion

2                      2                     finely diced carrots

2                      2                     finely diced celery stalks

2 quarts          2 2 L              chicken stock

2 cups             500 ml            cooked rice

2 cup             125 ml            cream sherry

In a large kettle heat the butter and the oil, brown the alligator meat, remove and reserve.

Add the vegetables and sauté until tender. Return the meat to the kettle. Cover with the chicken stock, reduce heat and simmer for 1 2 hours uncovered. Skim soup for any impurities that rise to the top.

Add the cooked rice and sherry, and simmer for 15 minutes longer. Serve.

SERVES 8

* Alligator meat may be a little hard to find, try special ordering it through your butcher or seafood supplies.

SHRIMP BISQUE BRETONNE

3 tbsp              45 ml              grated onion

3 tbsp              45 ml              grated celery

3 tbsp              45 ml              grated carrot

4 tbsp              60 ml              finely diced red bell pepper

3 cup             60 ml              thinly sliced mushrooms

2 cup             125 ml            butter

1 lb                  450 gr            peeled & deviened shrimp

2 2 cups        625 ml            fish stock

2 cup             125 ml            sherry

4 tbsp              60 ml              flour

1 cup              250 ml            heavy cream

1 cup              250 ml            cooked very small shrimp

In a large kettle sauté the onion, celery, carrot, pepper, mushroom and in 4 tbsp (60 ml) butter until tender. Add the peeled shrimp, sauté for 5 minutes.

Add the stock and boil 15 minutes.

Puree in a food processor, and return to the kettle. Add the wine, simmer 5 minutes.

Heat the remaining butter in a small sauce, add the flour and cook for 2 minutes over low heat. Whisk in the cream and simmer until very thick. Whip into the soup and simmer for an additional 5 minutes.

Ladle soup into bowls and garnish with the small shrimp, serve at once.

SERVES 6

SOPA DE QUIMGOMBA

(South American Vegetable Soup)

3 tbsp              45 ml              butter

1                      1                     finely diced onion

2                      2                     finely diced celery stalks

2                      2                     finely diced carrots

3 tbsp              45 ml              flour

2 cups             500 ml            sliced okra

4 cups             1 L                  vegetable stock

2 cups             500 ml            peeled, seeded and diced tomatoes

3 tsp              1 ml                each of oregano, thyme, basil, garlic powder,

onion powder

1 tsp                5 ml                salt

2 tsp              3 ml                black pepper

In a large sauce pan heat the butter, add the vegetables and sauté until tender. Sprinkle with flour and cook for 2 minutes.

Add okra and vegetable stock, simmer for 30 minutes. Add the tomato and seasonings, continue to simmer for 15 minutes. Serve very hot.         SERVES 6

SORREL, LETTUCE, CHERVIL SOUP

3 lb                115 gr            sorrel

1                      1                     very small head bibb lettuce

1 tbsp              15 ml              chervil

2 tbsp              30 ml              butter

5 cups             1 3 L              cold chicken stock

2                      2                     egg yolk

1 cup              250 ml            croutons

Wash and pick through the sorrel, lettuce and chervil. Chop fine.

Heat the butter in a large sauce pan, add the vegetables and sauté until tender. Add all the chicken stock except 2 cup (125 ml). Simmer the soup for a half hour.

In a small mixing bowl blend the egg yolks with the cold stock, gradually whip in a little hot stock until a thick sauce is formed.

Remove soup from heat. Whip the sauce into the soup a little at a time. Serve at once.

SERVES 6

SOUPA AVGHOLEMONO

(Greek lemon soup)

4 cups             1 L                  chicken stock

1 cup              250 ml            long grain rice

2                      2                     egg yolks

1 tsp                5 ml                grated lemon rind

3 tbsp              45 ml              lemon juice

Place the stock in a sauce pan, stir in the rice and cook until the rice is tender.

Stir the egg yolks together with the lemon rind, juice and a little warm stock. Remove soup from heat. Whip in the egg and serve at once.

SERVES 6

TOM KAR GAI

1 tsp                5 ml                minced ginger root

3 tbsp              45 ml              butter

3 tbsp              45 ml              flour

4 cups             1 L                  chicken broth

2 cups             500 ml            half & half cream

2 cups             500 ml            diced cooked chicken meat

2 cup             125 ml            coconut milk

2 tbsp              30 ml              chopped cilantro (coriander)

lime slices for garnish

In a sauce pan sauté the ginger root in the butter, stir in the flour and cook for 2 minutes.

Pour in the chicken broth and simmer until soup begins to thicken. Add the cream, chicken, coconut and continue to simmer for 20 minutes.

Stir in the cilantro and serve, garnish by floating lime slices on top.

SERVES 6

TURTLE SOUP

Still a classic around the world.

1 lb                  450 gr            turtle meat*

3 tbsp              45 ml              butter

1                      1                     finely diced Spanish onion

2                      2                     finely diced celery stalks

3                      3                     finely diced green onion

1                      1                     minced garlic clove

3 tbsp              45 ml              flour

1 cup              250 ml            crushed tomato

2 cup             125 ml            sherry

2 tbsp              30 ml              chopped parsley

2                      2                     hard boiled chopped eggs

Cut and dice the turtle meat. Place into a large kettle and cover with 8 cups (2 L) water, boil for 45 minutes. Skim the broth to clear. Remove the meat and reserve. Reduce the broth to 4 cups (1 L).

In a large sauce pan heat the butter, add the onion, celery, green onion and garlic sauté until tender. Sprinkle with flour cook for 5 minutes until the flour and vegetables begin to caramelize.

Add the broth, turtle meat, tomatoes and sherry, simmer for 15 minutes.

Ladle soup into bowls and serve very hot with a sprinkling of parsley and egg on top of each serving.

SERVES 4

  • Sea turtle was once the standard for the meat in this soup sadly they now an endangered species, however the very abundant Snapping turtle meat is now used and is quite delicious.

WATER CRESS SOUP

A nice peppery winter soup

10 oz               280 ml            washed and chopped water cress

4 tbsp              60 ml              butter

3 cup             60 ml              onion grated

3 tbsp              45 ml              flour

3 cups             750 ml            chicken stock

2 cups             500 ml            whipping cream

2 tsp              3 ml                salt

3 tsp              1 ml                pepper

c tsp              pinch              cayenne

Sauté the cress, butter and onions together. Sprinkle with flour and cook for 2 minutes over low heat.

Add stock, cream and seasonings. Simmer for 30 minutes. Serve very hot.

SERVES 4

Posted by: chefkscookingschool | February 1, 2011

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